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L I B R A R Y 


6 , /QO"/ 




This volume is issued to the Subscribers to the Ray Society for 

the Year 1899. 



THE laevj: 





(THE late) 




Vol. IX. 










The present volume concludes the work commenced 
by the late Mr. H. T. Stainton in 1885. Fifteen years 
no doubt appear a long time to have been required 
for the production of the nine volumes, and possibly 
had it been foreseen that the publication of the late 
Mr. Buckler's exquisite figures would have needed 
constant supervision until quite the end of the last 
year of the century, it might never have been com- 
menced. But now that it is done, probably no one 
will say it is not worth the labour which has been 
bestowed upon it ; for we believe it will be conceded 
that no work has previously been published at all 
comparable with it as a guide to the study of the 
larvae of the British Macro-Lepidoptera. 

The delays in the appearance of the various volumes 
have been caused chiefly — we might almost say en- 
tirely — by the dilatoriness of the artists employed on 
the reproduction of the figures ; and to myself as 
Editor these delays have often been most exasperat- 
ing, and probably to my colleagues of the Ray Society 
almost equally so, as it was impossible to estimate 


the date about which any particular volume would be 
ready for distribution to the subscribers. 

The present volume is almost twice the size of any 
of its predecessors, but it was thought inadvisable to 
divide it, because in that case a considerably smaller 
proportion of plates would have been available for 
each volume. 

As for previous volumes, Mr. G, C. Bignell has 
compiled the lists of parasites ; and I have also to 
again thank Mr. W. Denison Roebuck for the as- 
sistance he has rendered me in the editing of the five 
volumes with which I have been connected. 


Crosland Hall, 

huddersfield ; 

December, 1900. 



Hypena rostralis . . . . . .1 

Hypenodes albistrigalis 

• • 


— costasstrigalis . 


Schrankia turfosalis 


Rivula sericealis . 


Herminia derivalis 

. 12 

— barbalis 

. U 

— tarsipennalis 

. 16 

— nernoralis 


— cribralis 

. 19 

Odontia dentalis . 


Pyralis f'arinalis . 

. 21 

— glaucinalis 

. 23 

Aglossa pinguinalis 

. 26 

— cuprealis 

. 35 

Cledeobia angustalis 


Pyrausta punicealis 

. 43 

Herbula cespitalis 

. 45 

Ennychia anguinalis 


— octomaculata . 


Agvotera nernoralis 

. 54 

Endotricba flammealis 

. 57 

Nascia cilialis 


Stenia punctalis . 

. 70 

Cataclysta lemnata 

. 74 

Paraponyx stratiotata 


Hydrocampa nymphasatu 

. 85 

— stagnata 

. 101 

Acentropus niveus 

. 110 



Botys pandalis ...... 112 

— hyalinalis 


— verticalis 


— lancealis 


— fascalis 


— terrealis 


— asinalis 


— urticata 


Ebulea crocealis . 


— verbascalis 


— stachydalis 


— sambucalis 


Lemiodes pulveralis 


Pionea forficalis . 


— stramentalis 


Spilodes sticticalis 


— palealis 


Scopula alpinalis . 

. 162 

— lutealis 

. 162 

— olivalis 


— prunalis 


— ferrugalis 


— decrepitalis 


Stenopteryx hybridalis 


Eudorea cembrse . 


— basistrigalis 


— ambigualis 

. 188 

— conspicualis 

. 188 

— truncicolella 

. 189 

— frequentella 


— resinea 


— murana 

. 193 

— lineola 


— angustea 

. 196 

— alpina 

. 199 

Galleria mellonella 

. 199 

Aphomia colonella 


Melissoblaptes cephalunica 


Achroia grisella 


Anerastia lotella . 


Ephestia elutella . 


— semirufa 


— passulella 





Ephestia ficulella . ... 211 

— ficella 

. 212 

— interpunctella . 

. 214 

— artemisiella 

. 216 

Homceosoma nebulella 

. 219 

— nimbella 

. 220 

— binsevella 

. 222 

— senecionis 

. 224 

— sinuella 

. 225 

Acrobasis consociella 

. 229 

— angustella 

. 230 

Cryptoblabes bistriga 

. 233 

Nyctegretes achatinella 

. 234 

Myelois cribruui . 

. 234 

— suavella 

. 236 

— advenella 

. 238 

— marmorea 

. 238 

— pinguis 

. 240 

Hypochalcia ahenella 

. 243 

Gymnancyla canella 

. 244 

Nephopteryx abietella 

. 249 

— roborella 

. 255 

Pempelia carnella 

. 258 

— dilutella 

. 265 

— fusca . 

. 270 

— formosa 

. 273 

— hostilis 

. 275 

— betulse 

. 278 

— davisella 

. 280 

— palumbella 

. 282 

Crambus cerussellus 

. 284 

— chrysonuchellus 

. 285 

— falsellns 

. 285 

— pratellus 

. 287 

— dumetellus 

. 289 

— sylvellus 

. 290 

— hamellus 

. 291 

— pascuellus 

. 291 

— hortuellus 

. 291 

— culmellus 

. 292 

— pedriolellus 

. 295 

— inquinatellus 

. 298 

— geniculeus 

. 299 




Crambus salinellus (contaminellus) .... 302 

— selasellus 

. 305 

— tristellus 

. 307 

— farcatellus 

. 309 

— margaritellus . 

. 310 

— pinetellus 

. 310 

— perlellus 

. 313 

— warringtonellus 

. 316 

Chilo mucronellus 

. 319 

— forficellus 

. 320 

— phragmitellus . 

. 321 

Earias clorana 

. 323 

Sarrothripa revayana 

. 326 

Tortrix forsterana 

. 326 

Anchylopera mitterbacheria 


. 328 

Cnephasia virgaureana 

. 329 

Depressaria badiella 

. 329 

Gelechia domestica 

. 333 

Endrosis fenestrella 

. 334 

Adactyla bennetii 

. 335 

Pterophorus rhododactylus 

. 337 

— ochrodactylus . 

. 338 

— bertrami 

. 341 

— isodactylus 

. 343 

— trigonodactylus 

. 347 

— acanthodactylus 

. 350 

— punctidactylus . 

. 352 

— hieracii 

. 354 

— phaeodactylus . 

. 357 

— loewii 

. 358 

— plagiodactylus . 

. 359 

— fuscus 

. 362 

— lithodactylus . 

. 364 

— pterodactylus . 

. 365 

— lienigianus 

. 366 

— *■ tephradactylus 

. 368 

— osteodactylus . 

. 369 

— microdactylus . 

. 370 

— brachydactylus 

. 373 

— galactodactylus 

. 373 

— spilodactylus . 

. 375 

— baliodactylus . 

. 378 

— tetradactylus . 

. 379 



Pterophorus pentadactylus .... 380 

Alucita polydactyla ..... 382 

List of parasites bred from the species of the groups which are 

included in this volume .... 384 

Additional list of parasites bred from the species of the various 

groups included in the eight previous volumes . . 385 

Index to the present volume .... 389 

General index to the whole series of nine volumes . . 393 







Sub-group DELTOIDES. 

Family Hypenidje. 

Hypena proboscidalis 

.. CXLVIII, fig. 1 

„ rostralis 


,, cvassalis 


... CXLVIII, fig. 2 

Hypcnodes albistrigalis . 


„ costrestrigalis 


.. CXLVIII, fig. 3 

Schraukia turfosalis 


Family Heeminid^. 

Rivula sericealis 


... CXLVIII, fig. 4 

Hevminia derivalis . 

. 12 

.. CXLVIII, fig. 5 

,, barbalis . 

. 14 

... CXLVIII, fig. 6 

tarsipennalis . 


... CXLVIII, fig. 7 

„ nemoralis . 

. 17 

... CXLVIII, fig. 8 

„ cribralis . 


... CXLVIII, fig. 9 

Sub-group PYRALITES. 

Family Odontid^. 
Odontia dentalis 

Family Pyralid^e. 
Pyralis favinalis 

,, glaucinalis . 
Aglossa pinguinalis . 

„ cuprealis 

Family Cledeobid^e. 
Cledeobia angustalis 


CXLIX, fig. 1 


CXLIX, fig. 2 


CXLIX, fig. 3 


CXLIX, fig. 4 


CXLIX, fig. 5 


CXLIX, fig. 6 





Family Ennychip.^. 

Pyrausta punicealis .... 43 . 

CL, fig. 1 

Herbula cespi talis .... 45 . 

CL, fig. 2 

Ennychia anguinalis ... 47 

CL, fig. 3 

„ octomaculata ... 51 

CL, fig. 4 

Family Asopid^. 

Agvotera nemoralis .... 54 . 

CL, fig. 5 

Endotricha flammealis . . .57 

CL, fig. 6 

Family Steniad^. 

Nascia cilialis 65 

Stenia punctalis .... 70 

CL, fig. 7 

Family Hydrocampid^:. 

Cataclysta lemnata .... 74 . 

CLI, fig. 1 

Paraponyx stratio.tata ... 79 

CLT, fig 2 

Hydrocampa nymphseata ... 85 

CLI, fig. 3 

„ stagnata . ... 101 

CLII, fig. 1 

Acentropus niveus . . ..> .110 

CLII, fig. 2 

Family Botyd^e. 

Botys pandalis . . . . .112 

CLIII, fig. 1 

.. hyalinalis 


CLIII, fig. 2 

„ verticalis 


CLIII, fig. 3 

j, lancealis 


CLIII, fig. 4 

,, fuscalis . 


CLIII, fig. 5 

„ terrealis 


CLIII, fig. 6 

,, asinalis . 

. 133 

CLIII, fig. 7 

„ urticata . 

. 136 

CLIII, fig. 8 

Ebulea crocealis 


CLIV, fig. 1 

„ verbascalis 


CLIV, fig. 2 

„ stacbydalis 


CLIV, fig. 3 

„ sambucalis 


CLIV, fig. 4 

Lemiodes pulveralis 


, . 

Pionea forficalis 

. 151 

CLIV, fig. 5 

„ mavgaritalis 

CLIV, fig. 6 

„ stramentalis 

. 152 

CLIV, fig. 7 

Spilodes sticticalis 


CLIV, fig. 8 

„ palealis 

. 159 

CLIV, fig. 9 

Scopula alpinalis 



„ lutealis 


CLV, fig. 1 

„ olivalis 


CLV, fig. 2 

„ prunalis 


CLV, fig. 3 

„ fermgalis 


CLV, fig. 4 

„ decrepitalis 




Family Botydjc (continued) — 
Stenopteryx hybridalis 

Sub-group CRAMBITES. 

Family Eudoreid^:. 
Eudorea cembrse 
„ basistrigalis 
„ ambigualis . 
,, conspicualis 

,, cratsegella . 

frequentclla (mercnrella) 

„ murana 
„ lineola 

,, alpiua (paralis) . 

Family GALLERlDiE. 

Galleria mellonella . 
Aphomia colonella (Melia sociella) . 
Melissoblaptes cepbalonica 
Acbroia grisella . 

(Melliphora alveariella) 

Family Phycid^. 

Anerastia lotella . 

Ephestia elutella . 

„ semirufa . 

,, passulella . 

„ ficulella . 

,, ficella 

„ interpunctella . 
„ artemisiella (cinerosella) . 
Homoeosorua nebulella 
,, nimbella 

„ binsevella (eluviella) . 

„ senecionis . 

„ sinuella 

Acrobasis consociella 
„ angustella 

Cryptoblabes bistriga 
Nyctegretes achatinella . . • . 
Myelois cribrum . 










CLY, fig. 5 
CLY, fig. 6 

CLY, fig. 7 
CLY, fig. 8 

CLYI, fig. 1 
CLYI, fig. 2 

CLYI, fig. 3 

CLYI, fig. 4 
CLYI, fig. 5 

CLYI, fig. 6 












fig. 7 
fig. 8 
fig. 1 
fig. 2 
fig. 3 
fig. 4 
fig. 5 
fig. 6 
fig. 4 
fig. 1 
fig. 2 

CLVIII, fig. 3 





Family PhyciDjE (continued) — 

Myelois suavella .... 


CLVIII, fig. 5 

„ advenella .... 


,, mavmorea . 


CLVIII, fig. 6 

pinguis .... 


CLVI, fig. 9 

Hypochalcia ahenella 


Gymnancyla canella 


CLVIII, fig. 7 

Nephopteryx abietella 


CLVIII, fig. 8 

,, roborella 


CLVIII, fig. 9 

Pempelia carnella .... 


CLIX, fig. 1 

,, dilutella (subornatella) 


CL1X, fig. 3 

,, fusca (carbonariella) 


„ formosa .... 


CLIX, fig. 4 

,, hostilis .... 


CLIX, fig. 5 

,, betula3 .... 


CLVIII, fig. 10 

,. davisella .... 


CLIX, fig. 2 

,, palumbella 


Family Crambid^:. 

Crambus cerussellns 


CLX. fig. 1 

,, chrysonuchellus 


,, falsellus .... 


CLX, fig 2 

„ pratellus .... 


,, dumetellus 


CLX, fig. 3 

„ sylvellus .... 


„ hamellus . 


,, pascuellus .... 


,, hortuellus .... 


„ culmellus .... 


CLX, fig. 4 

„ pedriolellus (fascelinellus) 


CLX, fig. 6 

,, inquinatellus 


CLX, fig 5 

,, geniculeus 


CLX, fig. 7 

,, salinellus (contaminellus) 


CLX, fig. 8 

,, selasellus . 


CLX, fig. 9 

,, tristellus . . . . 


CLX, fig. 10 

,, furcatellus 


,, margaritellus . 


„ pinetellus . 


CLX, fig. 11 

„ latistrius . 

CLX, fig. 12 

,, perlellus . . . . 


CLX, fig. 13 

„ warringtonellus 


CLX, fig. 14 

Chilo mucronellus . . . . 


CLIX, fig. 6 

„ forficellus . . . . 


( ( 

,, phragmitellus . 


CLIX, fig. 7 



Family Chloephorid^e. 
Cbloepliora prasinana 
,, quercana 

Earias clorana . 




CLXI, fig. 1 

CLXI, fig. 2 
CLXI, fig. 3 


Family Tortricid^e. 

Sarrothripa revayana 
Tortrix forsterana . . 

Family Plicat^e. 

Lozotaenia fulvana . 

Family Anchyloperid^e. 

Anchylopera mitterbacheriana 

Family Carpocapsid^e. 
Carpocapsa pomonella 

Family Cnephasid.e. 

Cnepbasia subjectana 
,, virgaureana 
Family Tortricodid^e. 

Tortricodes byemana 


CLXI, fig. 4 


CLXI, fig. 5 


CLXI, fig. 6 


CLXI, fig. 7 


CLXI, fig. 8 

CLXI, fig. 9 


CLXI, fig. 10 

Group TINE IN A. 

Family Tineid^e. 

Nemopbora scbwarziella . 

CLXII, fig. 1 

Family Hyponomeutidje. 

Hyponomeuta vigintipunctatus 

CLXII, fig. 2 

„ padellus 

CLXII, fig. 3 

,, evony melius 

CLXII, fig. 4 

Family Plutellid^e. 

Plutella porrectella . 

CLXII, fig. 5 

Family Gelechid^e. 

Ortbotaslia sparganella 

CLXII, fig. 6 

Depressaria costosa 

CLXII, fig. 7 

„ nervosa 

CLXII, fig. 8 

,, badiella 


CLXII, fig. 9 

,, heracliana 

CLXII, fig. 10 

Gelechia domestica . 


CLXII, fig. 11 

Family (Ecophoridje. 

(Ecopbora pseudospretella 

CLXII, fig. 13 

Endrosis fenestrella 


CLXII, fig. 12 







Family LithocolletiDjE. 

Lithocolletis quinqueguttella . 


CLXII, fig. 14 


Adactyla bennetii 

. 335 

CLXIII, fig. 1 

Pteropkorus rhododactylus 

. 337 

CLXIII, fig. 2 



. 338 

CLXIII, fig. 3 



. 341 


isodactylus . 

. 343 

CLXIII, fig. 4 



. 347 


acanthodactylus . 

. 350 

CLXIII, fig. 5 



. 352 

CLXIII, fig. 6 


hieracii (teucrii) . 

. 354 

CLXIII, fig. 7 



. 357 

CLXIII, fig. 8 


loewii . 

. 358 




CLXIII, fig. 9 


fuscus . 

. 362 



. 364 

CLX1V, fig. 1 



. 365 


lienigianus . 

. 366 

CLXIV, fig. 2 



. 368 

CLXIV, fig. 3 



. 369 

CLXIV, fig. 4 



. 370 

CLXIV, fig. 5 



. 373 


gal actod ac ty lus 

. 373 

CLXIV, fig. 6 



. 375 

CLXIV, fig. 7 



. 378 

CLXIV, fig. 8 



. 379 



. 380 

CLXIV, fig. 9 


Alucita po 

lydactyla . 

. 382 

CLXIV, fig. 10 





My first acquaintance with the larva of Hypena 
rostralis was made at Deal at the end of August, 1888, 
when I found a full-fed specimen wandering about 
near some hop plants in a garden, and evidently 
searching for a suitable place in which to spin up. I 
placed it in a cage in which were other species, and 
saw no more of it until the imago appeared in the 
month following. On the 24th of June last I next 
saw larvae through the kindness of Mr. W. R. Jeffrey, 
of Ashford, who sent me two from a few he had 
reared from eggs deposited by a captured female. 
The ? moth, as is well known, hibernates, and 
deposits her eggs in spring or early summer; but 
whether the S also hibernates, and pairing is effected 
in the spring, or this takes place in the autumn, I 
cannot say. Mr. Jeffrey tells me the eggs from his 
moth were deposited about the 15th of May, and 
hatched on the 26th of the same month ; the larger 
of the larvae received was nearly full-grown, so next 
day I described it as follows : 

About an inch in length, and slender proportionately; 

VOL. ix. 1 


the head has the lobes rounded, is the same width as 
the second, but narrower than the third segment. 
Body cylindrical, widest in the middle, attenuated 
very gradually to the anal extremity. There are only 
four pairs of posterior legs, on the 8th, 9th, 10th, and 
13th segments respectively, so that the larva, when 
walking, arches the 5th, 6th, and 7th segments ; skin 
soft and smooth ; tubercles slightly raised, and from 
each of them springs a single short and inconspicuous 

Ground colour bright grass-green, exactly of the 
same colour, indeed, as the underside of the hop 
leaves on which it feeds ; the head tinged with 
yellow. A darker green pulsating vessel showing 
clearly through the skin forms the dorsal line ; sub- 
dorsal lines clear white ; spiracular lines also white, 
but much interrupted and less distinct ; tubercles and 
spiracles black, and the head is also numerously dotted 
with black; segmental divisions yellow, but scarcely 
noticeable, the hairs grey. 

Ventral surface, legs, and prolegs uniformly of the 
same bright green of the ground of the dorsal area. 

Feeds on hop, and when young (Mr. Jeffrey says) 
is very inconspicuous if at rest in its usual position 
along the midrib of the hop leaf, the colour of the 
leaf and larva so closely resembling each other. 

Next day, on the 26th, the larva described became 
paler in colour and began to spin its cocoon, which 
on the following day was evidently nearly completed ; 
during the spinning a pretty pink colour spread over 
the dorsal area of the larva. 

The cocoon is of white silk, but so slender that the 
pupa can be distinctly seen through it. 

The pupa is about five-eighths of an inch long, and 
very much of the ordinary Noctua shape ; it is smooth 
and polished, the ribbed antenna-cases prominent and 
reaching to quite the bottom of the wing-sheaths ; 
colour rich mahogany-brown. 

When full-fed both larvae seemed exactly alike, and 


the first moth emerged on the 21st, the second on 
the 26th of July, 1890. (George T. Porritt, 14th 
February, 1891 ; E.M.M., March, 1891, XXVII, 73.) 

Hypenodes albistrigalis. 

On the 3rd of August, 1875, the Rev. B. Smith of 
Marlow kindly sent me eighteen eggs laid by a female 
of this species, partly on a blade of rough grass and 
partly on a chip box. 

The egg is small, and round above, a little depressed 
beneath, and whitish in colour. 

On the 11th August they began to change to a 
light drab tint, and by the 12th they were brownish- 
grey, and a little darker on the 13th, when they began 
to hatch, just previous to which the larva could be 
plainly seen coiled round in the transparent shell. 

The young larva is of a drab colour, with dark 
brown head, and rather hairy. Only one hatched, and 
it was dead before I noticed it. None of the other 
eggs hatched, being probably prevented by a coating 
of sugar on them which had not been thoroughly 
washed off, as I hoped I had done on their arrival. 

On the 21st August I received another batch of 
eggs from the Rev. B. Smith. They were of a light 
amber colour, laid in clusters and singly on Calama- 
grostis alba. They were circular, flattened with a 
slight eminence above in the middle, and very strongly 
and numerously ribbed and reticulated. (William 
Buckler, August, 1875 ; Note Book III, p. 23.) 

Hypenodes cost^strigalis. 

Plate CXLVIII, fig. 3. 

For eggs of this species I am indebted to Mr. T. J. 
Carrington, who sent me some on the 8th of July, 
1868. Unfortunately I have mislaid the notes I took 


of their appearance, but I know I was the more struck 
with it because it did not correspond with my recol- 
lection of the eggs sent me by Dr. Knaggs in 1865. 

However, I know that these sent by Mr. Carrington 
were deposited singly, and were of the usual Noctua 
shape, and dark red in colour. 

The larvae were hatched on the 12th and 13th of 
July, and, after a little hesitation, seemed to take 
kindly enough to the flowers of Thymus serpyllum : I 
cannot help thinking that they also took kindly to 
one another — in the style of Hamlet's uncle, <c a little 
more than kin, and less than kind ; " for, although 
I never caught one in the act of cannibalism, somehow 
they became fewer and fewer in number, until by the 
12th of August there remained but one full-grown 
larva to be described. 

The newly-hatched larva is quite translucent and 
glossy, in colour rose-pink, rather paler towards the 
tail ; the head is blackish ; the skin is furnished with 
some bristles. At the end of a week it had lost 
much of its translucent look, the colour had become 
more of a claret, the bristles had disappeared. At 
the end of another week or ten days much of the 
purplish-red had vanished, and the colour had become 
a dark brown. On the 12th of August the full- 
grown larva was thus described : 

Length, when stretched out in walking, about half 
an inch ; but its general attitude is to " hunch up " its 
middle segments into a close loop, keeping the front 
and hind segments close to the surface on which it is 
resting ; and for this position the figure seems specially 
adapted, the head and three following segments being 
much smaller than the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th segments, 
all four of which are tumid, and the hinder segments 
being also somewhat smaller ; there are but two pairs 
of ventral legs, or twelve legs in all. 

The colour of the back is dark purplish or crimson- 
brown, very glossy, making it hard to distinguish the 
obscure markings on it ; through the back runs a 


slightly paler central stripe; the subdorsal line is 
faintly seen as a paler brown line, edged with blackish 
below ; the sides and belly are paler, and more 
ochreous in tint; taken altogether, the larva has a 
general appearance of a dingy, dark chocolate colour. 
On the 15th of August my larva became a pupa, 
naked, because I had unfortunately disturbed it whilst 
setting about a slight cocoon ; its length was about a 
quarter of an inch, its shape blunt at the head, tapering 
gradually towards the tail, which was rounded, not 
acute, cylindrical, with polished surface; in colour it 
was all over alike, of a pale green, faintly tinged with 
brown. (John Hellins, 2nd December, 1869 ; E.M.M., 
February, 1870, VI, 216.) 


On the 19th July, 1880, 1 received from Mr. W. H. 
B. Fletcher, then at Lyndhurst, upwards of forty 
eggs of this species, all laid loose on the 17th. 

The egg is globular, but with a flattened depression 
on a part of the shell, which is most minutely pitted 
or reticulated and glistening. The colour is faint 

On the 24th I left home, and on my return on the 
30th I found the eggs had all hatched, and the young 
larvae had died for want of attention. 

Mr. Fletcher, who sent the eggs above mentioned, 
has suggested Juncus conglomerate or some allied 
species as the larval food, as he saw the moths flying 
among the stems of that plant, and settling on them, 
as they did also on the leaves of grasses, though not 
so freely. 

On the 14th August about seven eggs of a pale 
pinkish colour, but all hatched out but one, arrived 
from Mr. Fletcher. The two larvse which were still 
alive died while I was gone for food, the others being 
already dead. 


The egg before hatching is of a very pale pinkish 
colour, with a brownish spot. 

The young larva is pale pinkish-white, with light 
brownish head, plate, and legs, and the body slightly 
hairy. (William Buckler, August, 1880 ; Note Book 
IY, p. 26.) 


Plate CXLVIII, fig. 4. 

Herein I have to give the history of this species 
from the egg 9 and to show how, after the first failure 
to solve the problem of its food-plant, a second 
trial ultimately proved successful ; and for this I have 
to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. W. R. Jeffrey 
for his kindness in enabling me to work it out most 
thoroughly, of which, indeed, the full-grown larva 
and pupa were evidently known to Guenee, but the 
food-plant had not been observed ; probably the larva 
had been captured after ceasing to feed, and so gave 
no clue to its food, but we now know for certain the 
food of its own choice. 

The first attempt was made in 1878, from eggs 
which Mr. Jeffrey induced a captured female moth to 
lay upon leaves of various low plants from the 12th to 
the 14th of July, and in the share he kindly sent to me 
I found two eggs on a bramble leaf, four on Stachys 
sylvatica, one on Solidago virgaurea, and one on 
Frag aria vesca. They all hatched on the night of the 
20th [at 11 p.m. — Buckler, MS.], and the young larvae 
were provided at once with leaves of all the above- 
named plants, besides others ; and next day, on seeing 
none were eaten, other kinds of leaves were given in 
turn, but the tiny creatures refused every kind of 
nourishment offered them, and died of starvation, 
and those with Mr. Jeffrey shared the same fate. 

In 1881 Mr. Jeffrey was able to obtain another 
batch of eggs from R. sericealis, and he again 
gratified me with part of them on the 24th of July, 


laid on Lotus major, a plant he had observed to be 
plentiful where the parent moth was captured, though 
she laid one cluster of eggs without attachment to 
any plant. In the evening of the 29th I found a 
single larva hatched, and twenty-four more next day, 
when all were put on the Lotus, and some other 
different leaves were tried both by Mr. Jeffrey and 
myself, with increasing anxiety at finding nothing 
eaten, and the larvsD, one at a time, were beginning 
to die off in the evening of the 31st, when the last 
thing I happened to put with them was a piece of the 
leaf of Phalaris arundinacea. Next morning I was 
greatly rejoiced to see this bit of coarse grass, when 
held against the light, showing a number of trans- 
parent lines of varying lengths, and the fact was 
immediately communicated to Mr. Jeffrey, and afforded 
him a clue to the proper food-plant, as he confidently 
assured me no Phalaris grew where the parent moth 
was taken, and therefore it could only be a substitute 
food. In this belief, he accordingly took pains to 
clear up the point by again visiting the locality, while 
my eleven surviving larvse were growing, and pre- 
sently moulting from the 8th to the 12th of August. 

Meanwhile Mr. Jeffrey had captured one or two 
more female moths, and confined them with three or 
four species of grass from their locality, and he found 
Brachypodium sylvaticum to be the one most favoured, 
of which he kindly gave me abundant evidence on 
the 9th of August with a blade of this grass, on which 
were laid, in the most natural manner, about seventy 
eggs, singly and side by side in scattered groups. 
To this grass the larvse of the first brood took readily, 
and left the Phalaris, their second moult occurring on 
the 16th to the 17th, and third moult 25th to 27th, 
when apparently they fed no more before they were 
laid up to hibernate : the later brood were, of course, 
fed throughout on the Brachypodium, and throve 
well, moulting also three times, the second moult 
happening from the 16th to the 19th September, the 


third moult from the 26th September to the 4th of 
October, and on the 5th all were hibernating. 

On the 21st of February, 1882, the air became 
suddenly warm, and many of the larvae awoke from 
their long sleep, and for several days hung suspended 
by short threads ; they seemed very weak and unable 
to feed, though their grass was beginning to put 
forth tender shoots, yet they soon relapsed into a 
torpid state when the weather became colder during 
the month of March, and many then died. 

On the 1st of April, with milder weather, I 
observed one individual larva had, by its bright 
colours, apparently moulted, though I had no other 
evidence to judge from, as it was feeding openly on 
the potted grass quite unprotected ; its next moult 
took place in captivity at midnight of the 19th ; it 
recommenced feeding in course of next day, and 
continued till the 29th ; when it was laid up for what 
proved to be its last moult, which occurred late at 
night on the 6th of May, and from that date it fed on 
till the 15th, when it was again laid up, but this time 
for the pupal change, which occurred on the night of 
the 20th ; in like manner I watched the changes of 
three others, the last one becoming a pupa on the 
8th of June. 

The perfect insects were bred on the mornings of 
the 6th, 16th, 18th, and 27th of June ; those on the 
second and last date being females. On comparing 
notes with Mr. Jeffrey for this account, I found his 
first moth was bred on the same day, at about the 
same hour as mine, and that a large proportion of his 
larvae had been reared on Br achy jp odium pinnatum. 

The egg of Bivula sericealis is circular in outline, 
not quite flat, but just a little rounded at the cir- 
cumferential margin, very numerously ribbed and re- 
ticulated, of a light greenish-drab tint, semi-trans- 
parent, and rather glistening; a few hours before 
hatching the top of the egg becomes slightly convex, 


like a bun, and shows through the shell three or four 
dusky brown specks. 

The newly hatched larva is quite hairy, and, on 
examination, its head is seen to be whity-brown, 
with dark mouth and ocelli, and a dark grey internal 
dorsal vessel can be but indistinctly discerned through 
the skin of the body, as it is clothed with long white 
hairs, and amongst them are subdorsal hairs of a 
dusky greyish colour ; when a week old the back 
becomes tinged with very bright green, and the belly 
appears limpid and colourless. Up to this time it 
feeds on the cuticle of the grass. 

After the first moult it eats out a little notch from 
the edge quite through one side of a leaf ; the head 
now is greenish, speckled with dark red ; the body is 
of a watery green, showing the internal vessel deeply 
tinged with dark purplish-red, so that the back 
appears of this colour, but with an interruption on 
the twelfth segment ; the wart-like tubercles are glossy, 
and furnished with long single blackish hairs. 

After the second moult it feeds in the same manner 
as before ; the dark purplish-red back shows an 
extremely fine double dorsal line and whitish sub- 
dorsal lines ; the pale greenish head has minute dusky 
specks, and each speck emits a black hair, and each 
tubercle of the body also is similarly furnished. 

After the third moult the larva is of just the same 
colours, and with all details of the previous stage ; it 
now ceases to feed, and, after spinning a little silk 
as a foothold, becomes torpid until spring of the 
following year. 

Having hibernated, and got safely over its subse- 
quent fourth moult, its light green colour is very 
much brighter, the dorsal line is now darker green, 
and the subdorsal is creamy-white. It still attacks 
the edge of a leaf by first eating out a notch as far as 
the midrib, and thence eats away either upward or 
downward, taking out long portions, and always 
from the upper surface, until in course of a week its 


growth becomes more perceptible, as it attains a 
length of from 5 to 6 mm. 

After the fifth moult its appearance is unchanged 
beyond the increase of growth, as it soon extends to 
7 or 8 mm. in length. Its ravages on the grass are 
rather conspicuous, as it goes from one leaf to another, 
yet it is careful not to attack the extreme point or 
the midrib, but after the sixth or last moult it feeds 
differently, beginning at the top, head upward, and 
eating downward through the midrib, from one edge 
to the other, in rather an oblique direction across 
the full breadth of the leaf ; sometimes two or three 
leaves are thus eaten, more or less, but when its 
appetite is nearly satisfied it eats only about three 
parts across the truncated top edge, so as to leave a 
portion uncut on one side, generally about half an 
inch long. But previous to this the larva has reached 
its full growth, the length ranging from 15 to 17 mm., 
according to sex, as the largest proved to be female. 
The form is cylindrical, and of moderate stoutness, 
the head rounded, and the three hinder segments 
slightly tapered, the anal legs extended backward ; 
the greenish-drab coloured head with dusky dots and 
hairs as before ; the bright green of the body is 
deepest on the back as far down as the trachea, which 
shows faintly through the skin as a paler thread ; the 
belly is of a rather lighter tint of the same green ; 
the subdorsal stripes are white, and commence on 
the second segment, continuing of the same width 
throughout, though drawing nearer each other as 
they approach the thirteenth. The outer edge of 
these is straight, but the inner edge is concave on 
every segment, so that the green ground of the back 
appears in a series of broad ovals, with a darker 
green dorsal line running through them ; the seg- 
mental folds are greenish yellow ; the round spiracles 
are flesh-colour finely edged with blackish ; the warty 
green glossy tubercles have each on the summit a fine 
dusky dot bearing a longish rough hair, which when 


highly magnified proves to be barbed; all the legs 
are green, the ventral and anal ones fringed with fine 
blackish hooks; the skin of the body is soft and 
rather velvety. 

As soon as it has done eating at the partly truncated 
top edge of the leaf, as before mentioned, it remains 
quiet at that place for some hours, for it is there it 
ultimately pupates after arresting the growth of the 
leaf, and there, a little below the cut edge, it spins a 
few silk threads which draw the sides of the leaf a 
little towards each other, and cause an oval- shaped 
hollow in part lined with silk, wherein the larva lies 
with either its head near the top edge or else the tail 
is there, as examples of both postures occur, and 
one or two threads are passed loosely from side to 
side over the back of the larva, forming a stay or 
cincture to secure all in position, and a few more over 
the hinder segments as further security, the uncut 
portion of the top edge of the leaf is drawn down 
obliquely over the top of the hollow which shelters 
the occupant and hides a part of it from view, 
although it is all on the upper surface of the leaf ; but 
the colour of the larva assimilating with that of the 
grass is no doubt a source of protection, and the 
same with that of the pupa. 

The pupa is about 10J mm. long, with nothing 
remarkable in its form ; the wing-covers are well 
developed, with their nervures in strong relief ; the 
abdominal segments are smooth, and very lightly 
defined ; the anal tip is furnished with several minute 
curly- topped spiny bristles, which are thrust into the 
silk and held fast ; its colour is green, having beyond 
the thorax the two white subdorsal stripes which 
marked the larva; these gradually fade away as it 
matures, and the wing-covers turn very pale, then 
afterwards quite dingy, and at about 9 o'clock the 
next morning the perfect insect is disclosed. (William 
Buckler, July 12th, 1882 ; E.M.M., August, 1882, 
XIX, 49—53.) 



Plate 0XLV1II, fig. 5. 

On the 5th of August, 1872, some eggs of this 
species were most kindly sent to me by Mr. W. H. 
Harwood, who has devoted much time and attention 
to elucidating its life-history. 

Some of the young larvae hatched on the 6th and 
devoured their egg-shells, and at first I gave them 
fallen leaves of sallow and bramble, which probably 
became too dry, for on the 26th most of them were 
dead, but the survivors looked healthy. 

The newly hatched larva is about one-sixteenth of 
an inch long, with a large pale brown head, the body 
whitish and pellucid, its internal broad vessel of dark 
brown showing through the skin to the full width of 
the thoracic segments, and from thence tapering to a 
blunt point within the tenth segment ; the usual dots 
are blackish and shining, and bear each a long pale 

By the 26th of August their colour had become 
rather browner, and a narrow brown plate was visible 
on the second segment. On the 15th of October Mr. 
Harwood kindly added to my stock several more of 
the brood, which had been fed on withered oak leaves. 
By the time the larva was a quarter of an inch in 
length the skin was no longer transparent, but opaque 
rusty brown, assimilating in appearance to the fallen 
leaves which formed its food ; this dress was retained 
till after hibernation ; but in May, after a moult, the 
skin became more velvety, and the colour darker 

Cold weather coming on, I noticed on the 14th of 
November that they were inhabiting little nooks and 
corners of the leaves, which they had formed by 
turning down the edges, and securing by three or 
four stout silk threads, or else by joining a part of 


one leaf against another by similar means. Following 
the directions I had received with them, I had them 
all together with a plentiful supply of fallen oak leaves 
sewn up in a bag of calico and tied to a branch of a 
tree three feet from the ground, in which situation 
they remained nearly two months until threatened 
with severe frost, and then I brought them indoors 
and placed them in the window of a cool room, where 
they remained undisturbed up to the 9th of April, 
1873, on which day I cut open the bag and found all 
the larvae alive and well, one or two having just begun 
to stir from their hibernacula. By the beginning of 
May most of them had moulted, and from hence- 
forward fresh supplies of decaying oak leaves from 
time to time were fully appreciated, great quantities 
being devoured, and the larvae at the beginning of 
June were half an inch long. On the 20th of the 
month Mr. Harwood kindly gave me a further share 
of his stock, which were in advance of mine, and from 
the 4th of July they began to pupate ; this change was 
effected either in corners or between two leaves held 
together with a few short, stout, silken threads, a 
slight lining of silk round the interior holding the 
pupa steady by its tail. The moths appeared between 
the 15th of July and the 31st of August. 

The egg is globular, with the shell smooth, but 
slightly reticulated all over in elongated hexagons, its 
colour whitish but mottled with pale purplish-brown 
in nearly equal proportions. Just before hatching 
the colour becomes altogether purplish. 

The full-grown larva is nearly three quarters of an 
inch in length, thick and fat in proportion, cylindrical, 
tolerably uniform in bulk, though the two or three 
hinder segments appear the stoutest, particularly 
when it is crawling ; the thirteenth segment is tapered 
behind, and beneath its extremity the small anal pair 
of legs come very close together ; the ventral legs are 
short and much beneath the body ; the anterior legs 
are also small ; the head is globular like others of the 


genus; the segments are well defined; the skin is 
soft, smooth, and velvety ; its colour is dark brown, 
covered with an exceedingly short and fine pubescence 
resembling the pile of fine silk velvet ; this, where the 
light catches — generally on the retiring parts — appears 
of a pearly whiteness. Very few details are to be 
seen ; just a faint indication of a darker dorsal line, 
and a still fainter suggestion of a subdorsal line ; the 
usual tubercular dots are black and only just dis- 
cernible ; the spiracles are of the ground colour ringed 
with black, and beneath them the ground colour is a 
paler brown than the back; the head is velvety like 
the body, and the narrow plate of rather darker 
brown across the middle of the second segment is 
divided dorsally by a thin line of the ground colour. 

The pupa is nearly six lines long, smooth and 
cylindrical, moderately stout, the abdomen tapering 
off evenly, and ending in a spike furnished with two 
larger and six smaller spines with curled tops ; its 
colour is purplish-brown without gloss, excepting 
just in the segmental divisions of the abdomen; the 
terminal spines are reddish-brown. (William Buckler, 
September, 1873; E.M.M., October, 1873, X, 102.) 

Herminja barbalis. 
Plate CXLVIII, fig. 6. 

I am indebted to Mr. W. H. Harwood, of Colchester, 
for two larvae of this species, kindly sent to me on 
the 12th of April, 1871, after their hibernation; by 
the end of the month they spun up, and the moths 
appeared on the 22nd and 24th of June. 

The larvae were fed on female birch catkins, and 
were very sluggish in their movements. I made from 
them the following description : 

The full-grown larva is five-eighths of an inch in 
length, thick and stumpy in proportion, but thickest 
in the middle, the head globular and smaller than the 


second segment, the segments and transverse folds 
well defined, all the legs tolerably developed ; when 
the larva is stretched out in walking the thoracic 
segments appear rapidly tapering to the head, and 
the last three segments taper off, but not nearly so 
much ; the ventral surface is slightly flattened. 

The ground colour is a deep rusty reddish-ochreous, 
and there is a pattern of diamond figures on the back 
and sides as follows : — down the back runs a row, 
one diamond on each segment, the widest part behind 
the middle of the segment, and the blunt ends meeting 
at the segmental divisions ; this row is filled up with 
dusky or faint blackish freckles, and is traversed by 
the dorsal line, which is darker blackish ; next to this 
comes a row of diamonds in outline, with the widest 
part of each coming at the segmental fold, the ends 
meeting just behind the middle of each segment, 
where the dark dorsal diamond is at its widest ; and 
outside this is another row, in which each diamond 
outline is contained within a segment, the ends meet- 
ing at the folds, and the widest part extending from 
the dark dorsal diamond to the spiracle; these two 
lateral rows by comparison are only outlines, though 
the ground within them is in truth covered with 
freckles, but so faintly as to be scarcely noticeable ; 
the usual dots are blackish, set in rings of the ground 
colour ; the spiracles are black, the segmental divisions 
pale ochreous ; the head is rather dusky ; the skin is 
soft and velvety. 

The debris of the food was spun together loosely 
for a sort of cocoon. 

The pupa is barely half an inch long, of moderate 
bulk, the tip of the abdomen rather rounded and 
furnished with several curled-topped spines ; the pupa- 
case is finely punctated, and with scarcely any gloss 
excepting at the abdominal incisions, which are rather 
shining; the colour is blackish-brown, with the rings 
rusty red. (William Buckler, September, 1873 ; 
E.M.M., October, 1873, X, 100.) 



Plate CXLVIII, fig. 7. 

My first acquaintance with the larva of this species 
I owe to the kindness of Mr.. H. Doubleday, who sent 
me one found at night on sallow in Epping Forest on 
the 28th of April, 1868. It had sallow and other 
kinds of food given to it, but did not appear to eat 
anything, and on the 1st of May it spun a leaf down 
to the bottom of its cage, beneath which it pupated, 
after lining the cavity with a coating of silk. The 
moth, a fine specimen, appeared on the 15th of June. 

My next opportunity of studying the larva was 
most obligingly afforded me by Mr. J. R. Wellman, 
who presented me on the 20th of August, 1871, with 
three examples of the summer brood, about three 
parts grown, which had been reared from eggs, and 
were feeding well on Polygonum aviculare ; by the 
25th of the month they had all spun up amongst the 
Polygonum, and the moths appeared from the 10th to 
the 14th of September. 

The full-grown larva is from six-eighths to seven- 
eighths of an inch in length, moderately stout and 
cylindrical, tapering just a little at the two last 
segments, and also in front from the third segment to 
the head, which is smaller than the second segment, 
and globular. 

The ground colour is a dull brownish-grey, finely 
freckled with a darker tint, both of which below the 
spiracles become rather paler ; on the second segment 
is a darker dull plate, and the head is darker still; 
the blackish-grey dorsal line is somewhat interrupted 
on the middle of each segment ; the greyish paler 
brown subdorsal line, which is continuous on the 
thoracic segments, is indicated only by a short dash 
at the beginning of each of the others, and below this 
dash there comes lower down the side a thick, short, 


blackish streak, bifurcated a little at its hinder 
end ; the spiracles are black ; the tubercular dots are 
blackish, each in a ring a little paler than the ground 
colour; the skin is without any gloss, but covered 
with an exceedingly fine pearly pubescence, best seen 
on the parts retiring from view. 

The pupa is a little more than half an inch in 
length, of moderate stoutness, the abdomen very 
slightly tapered off towards the tip, which terminates 
in a spike of two diverging recurved spines, the base 
encircled with six others of shorter lengths. Its 
colour is dark brown with but little gloss, the surface 
being very minutely pitted, excepting the abdominal 
divisions, which are rather shining. (William Buckler, 
September, 1873; E.M.M., October, 1873, X, 101.) 

Herminia nemoralis. 

Plate CXLVIII, fig. 8. 

It is with great satisfaction that I record my thanks 
to the Rev. Bernard Smith for his kindness in sending 
me the long-desired larva of Herminia grisealis, and 
enabling me to complete my figures of the genus ; and 
as no account of the larva has appeared since 1867, 
when H. barbalis was, by mistake, described for this 
species in No. 37 of the Entomologist, at pp. 223-4, 
I venture to think the following description may 
perhaps be acceptable. 

The larva, found feeding on oak, I received on the 
15th September, 1875, and for two days it continued 
to feed, and then spun a thin web of whitish-grey 
silk, which held the upper surface of the leaf folded 
together at the ends, and the sides also drawn together 
a little, so as to form a hollow in the middle of the leaf, 
wherein, on the 19th of September, it changed to a 
pupa, from which the moth, a male, came forth on the 
5th of June, 1876. 

The full-grown larva is from one-half to five-eighths 
VOL. ix. 2 


of an inch in length, the globular head smaller than 
the second segment, and this a little less than the 
other segments, which are in proportion moderately 
stout and cylindrical, the last segment tapering a very 
little. As to colour, the head is darkish brown, 
reticulated with darker, and without any gloss ; on 
the second segment is a small, semilunar, dark brown, 
velvety plate, dorsally divided by a line of the general 
ground colour of the rest of the body, which is a 
dingy pinkish-grey, faintly freckled with darker; the 
dorsal stripe is not very visible till the fifth segment, 
where it commences, and continues to be conspicuously 
broad and blackish, being rather widened in the middle 
of each segment, and becoming narrower on the last 
two segments ; the subdorsal line is darker than the 
ground colour, and a little broken in character ; the 
tubercular dots are small and blackish, each in a ring 
of unfreckled ground colour, and bearing a fine hair ; 
a broken line of darkish freckles runs along the 
spiracular region ; the spiracles themselves are black 
and roundish ; the unfreckled belly is a little paler 
than the back ; the anterior legs are tipped with 
black, the others with brown ; just before spinning, 
the general colouring is more pink. 

The pupa is about three-eighths of an inch in 
length, moderately stout, offering no conspicuous 
points of form or outline, very glossy and of a very 
deep chestnut-brown colour, paler at the abdominal 
divisions and attached to the web by the tip of the 
tail, which is furnished with two central bristle-like 
spikes recurved at their extremities, and near their 
base surrounded with three or four others very much 
shorter and extremely fine. (William Buckler, 31st 
July, 1876 ; B.M.M., October, 1876, XIII, 110.) 


Herminia CRIBRALIS. 
Plate CXLVIII, fig. 9. 

On the 25th of July, 1872, eggs of this species were 
kindly sent me by Mr. C. Gr. Barrett; unfortunately 
I have missed the record of the date of hatching, but 
it must have been some time in August ; early in 
September I noted that the larvse would eat sallow 
leaves, and they also ate Gar ex sylvatica and Luzida 
pilosa, on growing plants of which I put them out to 
hibernate. They were about half-grown (about half 
an inch in length) when they ceased feeding for the 
winter, but only one survived to commence feeding 
again. On the 14th of April it came up from among 
the close blades of the Lnzula pilosa, where it had 
been hidden, and began to eat and grow ; about the 
middle of May it moulted, and was full-fed about the 
end of the first week in June. When I saw that it 
had begun to shorten I put it in a large chip box 
with some moss, and there it spun, and on the 13th of 
June it turned to a pupa. The moth appeared on the 
1st of July. 

All I can now say about the egg is that it was 

The larva is one of those plain dull-coloured things 
that do not change much, except in size, throughout 
their growth. When full-fed it is rather over three- 
quarters of an inch in length, somewhat fusiform, 
being stoutest at the eighth segment, and thence 
tapering towards the head, and more rapidly towards 
the tail ; perhaps its most noticeable feature is the 
extreme shortness of the second segment, which looks 
quite shrunk, and is about as wide as the head, but 
the head, being globular, has its rounded lobes a little 

The ground colour is a pale grey-brown, freckled 
all over with tiny freckles of ochreous-yellow ; the 
dorsal line is of a darker tint than the ground, and is 


edged with paler lines ; the subdorsal line is paler 
than the ground ; the spiracular region is also paler, 
and slightly inclining to ochreous ; the spiracles are 
small, and black in colour; the usual dots are dis- 
tinct, being rather darker than the dorsal line ; the 
belly paler than the back. 

The cocoon was spun against the side of the chip 
box, and was of a longish oval shape, being more 
than five-eighths of an inch long, and less than three- 
eighths of an inch wide, extremely slight, being a 
very open network of silk, with bits of moss drawn 
in, but still with interstices left, through which the 
pupa could be seen. 

The smooth pupa is not quite half an inch long, 
slender, rather widening at the shoulders, but other- 
wise cylindrical, and tolerably uniform throughout, 
the last segment of the abdomen tapering to a blunt 
spike, which is grooved or fluted in two steps, as it 
were, and its tip set with several small spines with 
curved ends ; its colour dark rich brown, the edges of 
the wing-cases and the segmental divisions in the 
abdomen of a lighter reddish-brown. (John Hellins, 
September, 1873 ; E.M.M., October, 1873, X, 103.) 

Odontia dentalis. 
Plate CXLIX, fig. 1. 

On the 29th of May, 1868, 1 received a good supply 
of larvae of Odontia dentalis from Mr. R. Kent, of 
St. Leonards-on-Sea, a dozen of which 1 at once for- 
warded to Mr. William Buckler. 

They were mostly full-grown, three-eighths of an 
inch long, in colour dirty white, with two rows of 
black spots running the whole length of the dorsal 
area, and another row of black spots on each side 
above the spiracles ; the head was black and shining, 
and a plate also blackish, but divided in the centre, 
on the second segment. 


The cocoons were formed by drawing together the 
withered leaves of the food-plant, Echium vulgare. 
From them I reared a beautiful series of the moth. 
(George T. Porritt, Note Book, 1868.) 


Plate CXLIX, fig. 2. 

In his prefatory remarks on Pyralis, Guenee wrote 
that nothing showed the negligence of entomologists 
more plainly than their ignorance of the meta- 
morphoses of the species placed by him in that genus ; 
and, to say nothing of the appearance of Pyralis 
farinalis in one's house, certainly to see the moth, as 
I have done, sitting by hundreds on the walls of a 
mill, one would think it was easy enough to find the 
larva; yet the late William Buckler, living in a 
house with a flour mill attached to it, met with con- 
siderable difficulty in obtaining the larva of this 
" Muhlgangler," as Dr. E. Hofmann calls it; it was 
not to be found on the floors, but had to be hunted 
out very carefully under projecting ledges of portions 
of the machinery, where it could form its galleries in 
safety. He obtained a few examples also from a 
stable, where they were feeding in company with 
Aglossa piiiguinalis on mixed rubbish, well hidden 
under an oat-bin. 

Pyralis farinalis may fairly be called a domestic 
insect, and, contrary to the more common lot of 
Lepidoptera, it has rather profited than otherwise from 
human progress, as one can scarcely conceive of any 
natural collection of seeds or stalks which would 
nourish it in such numbers as may now be seen. 

The moth, I know, begins to appear towards the 
end of June, and continues its flight through July 
and August. The larva apparently is hatched in less 
than a month after the egg has been laid, and, as Mr. 
Buckler told me he had satisfactorily ascertained, 


lives through two winters, becoming a pupa in May 
or June of the second year ; and the pupa state lasts 
about a month. 

The egg is rather long-oval in outline, somewhat 
flattened, about *65 mm. long, and # 35 mm. wide ; the 
shell is very thin and soft, finely granulated or 
wrinkled all over, glistening, in colour dirty white. 

The newly hatched larva is about 1*45 mm. long, 
with pale brown head, the body dead white, the usual 
bristles colourless and long. 

The full-grown larva is about 25 mm. long when 
walking, between 22 and 23 mm. when at rest, stout in 
proportion, and cylindrical in figure ; the head is 
small and horny, the second segment, which is rather 
long, tapering rapidly to it ; the thirteenth segment 
also tapers away rapidly ; the segmental divisions are 
well marked ; the folds between the thoracic segments 
are complicated, as in Aglossa cuprealis, each of the 
remaining segments with an intermediate fold at 
about two-thirds of its length from its front edge ; 
the head is in colour chestnut-brown, very shining, 
with the mouth blackish ; the second segment is paler 
brown, rather inclining to yellowish ; the anal plate 
is also yellowish-brown. The rest of the skin is most 
delicately shagreened, and in colour bone- white, the 
belly whiter ; there is, however, a blackish tinge over 
the anterior and posterior segments, which, throughout 
the life of the larva, serves (together with its stouter 
figure) to distinguish it from (Ecojphora pseudospretella 
and Endrosis fenestreila, which swarm where it is 
found ; the dorsal vessel is also distinguishable by its 
darker tint; the usual dots are small and indistinct, 
surrounded by small pits, and furnished each with a 
short brown hair ; the trapezoidals arranged (as in 
Aglossa) almost in squares. Near the front edge of 
each of the middle segments is a transverse row, 
interrupted in the middle, of tiny shining fovege, and 
behind it come short rows set longitudinally near the 
front pair of trapezoidals, and again near the hinder 


pair; there are also others below the spiracles; the 
spiracles are small, round, and margined with black ; 
the thoracic legs are of the ground colour, but tipped 
with chestnut-brown ; the ventral legs are whitish, 
with the circlet of hooks dark brown. 

The larvae I had were living in long tubes of dusty 
flour spun together rather toughly, and through 
which they could travel easily; from one of them I 
bred an ichneumon, named for me by Mr. Bridgman, 
Exochus mansuetor. 

The pupa which I measured was about 10 mm. 
long, and not quite 3 mm. at its widest ; in figure 
very cylindrical and plump, the wing-cases reaching 
just half its length, the tail ending in a blunt knob, 
without a spike, but set with a group of six curled- 
topped spines, arranged in three pairs of different 
lengths, the longest pair being straight, and the other 
two curved ; the whole pupa-skin glossy, as if 
varnished ; the wing-cases yellowish-brown, the abdo- 
men redder, and the segmental divisions still darker. 

The cocoon inside fitted the pupa closely, and was 
made of tough white silk, well covered outside with 
rubbish, and not very regular in outline, about ten 
lines in length and four in width. (John Hellins, 
February 7th, 1885 ; E.M.M., April, 1885, XXI, 248.) 


Plate CXLIX, fig. 3. 

To the Hon. T. de Grey (now Lord Walsingham) I 
am indebted for the opportunity of figuring and 
describing the larva of this species, he having found 
it in the manner he has detailed in the following 
note : 

" Thinking that the nest-like bunches of twigs 
which may often be observed growing at the ends of 


branches on birch trees might perhaps be tenanted 
by some larvae or pupae, I obtained one of these knots 
in April, 1867, and placed it in a large breeding cage, 
where I soon observed a few black active-looking 
larvae, and some old cocoons containing empty pupa- 

" Having no conjecture as to what species these 
belonged to, I was much interested by observing on 
the 10th of June a specimen of Pyralis glancinalis at 
the side of the breeding cage; others continued to 
appear, and on the 13th of June I find a note in my 
diary, ' Larvse, pupae, and imago of glaucinalis all alive 
at same time.' 

" On the 24th of June I took out the knot, and 
by shaking and beating it obtained from it twelve 
specimens, which were by no means easily dislodged. 

" The species continued to appear throughout June 
and part of July, till about forty specimens in all were 
bred from this one large birch knot. 

" This year (1869) I again obtained knots from the 
same locality as before, and found them to contain 
old cocoons, and larvae of the same species in various 
stages of growth ; from these I bred a few specimens 
of the perfect insect about the middle of July. 

" The clean white silken cocoon is semi-transparent, 
and of a texture which strongly reminds one of the 
skin immediately beneath the shell of an egg, only 
that the silk is less opaque; it is placed among the 
twigs towards the centre of the branch, but not 
attached to them, although the webs of the larvae 
among the frass, and also of the numerous spiders 
which it contains, prevent the possibility of shaking it 
out ; in spite of this, however, it is always quite clean." 

On the 18th of April, 1869, Mr. de Grey kindly 
sent me several larvae with their food — that is to say, 
a mixed mass of birch twigs, decomposed leaves, and 
earthy matter containing many old cocoons and pupa- 
cases, some small tufts of sheep's wool, and an old 


I separated this mass to look for the larvae, but 
found that they immediately began again to construct 
loose silken galleries, and thus reunited the various 
materials of which it was composed. 

At this date the youngest larva was about half 
an inch long, of a dull pale brownish olive-green ; 
others were larger and darker, the colour darkening 
with the growth, until the full-grown larva was almost 

When full-grown the length is from l-^- to 1^ 
of an inch ; the form is moderately slender, cylindrical, 
nearly uniform in bulk throughout, the hinder segments 
tapering a little at the sides ; the region of the spiracles 
is puffed and wrinkled ; the segmental divisions are 
deeply cut. 

The colour of the back is a blackish bronzy-green, 
becoming paler, of an olive or ochreous-green tint 
along the spiracles, and on the belly and legs, the 
head, and the second and thirteenth segments ; the 
plate on the second segment is margined in front with 
blackish -olive ; a fine blackish undulating line, appa- 
rently caused by a deep wrinkle, runs along below 
the spiracles, which are inconspicuous, being of the 
surrounding colour, and merely outlined with blackish ; 
the tubercular dots are a little raised, each bearing a 
fine hair; the whole surface is shining and bronzy- 

The first mature larva spun its cocoon on the 23rd 
of April, 1869 ; the cocoon at first was soft and very 
flexible, of a brilliant silvery whiteness, its yielding 
surface readily betraying the movements of the larva 
within, but after a day or two enough skin had been 
spun to make it firm and unyielding; its length is 
about five-eighths of an inch, its breadth two-eighths ; 
in shape it is rounded at either end, very convex on 
both the upper and under surfaces, these curves not 
being continued round the sides, but meeting there 
in an acute ridge. 

The imago makes its exit at one end, but the edges 


of the orifice close together again, and the pupa-skin 
remains in the cocoon, which shows no change what- 
ever in appearance. 

The pupa is brown in colour, nearly half an inch 
long, stoutest at the thorax, and diminishing in the 
ordinary way to the anal point, which ends in 
a short spike. The old larva-skin, though much 
shrivelled, showed it had been separated on the crown 
of the head and down the back, and was left in 
contact with the spike of the pupa. 

The moths appeared on the 6th and 11th of July, 
1869. (William Buckler, September, 1869; E.M.M., 
October, 1869, VI, 111.) 

Aglossa pinguinalis. 
Plate OXLIX, fig. 4. 

I figured the larva of this species in April, 1860, 
from an example found in the Corn Exchange at 
Chichester, but did not then study its habits ; nor, 
indeed, did I doubt the usually accepted account of 
them for twenty-two years after, until, in 1882, Mr. 
W. H, B. Fletcher kindly sent me from Thetford a 
few eggs laid by a female he had taken in a barn, and 
with them a supply of rubbish swept from the barn 
floor, amongst which he supposed the larvae would find 
their proper food ; this struck me at once, and I was 
still more interested when the eggs hatched, and the 
young larvae seemed to be thriving, which induced 
me to study their habits as closely as possible, and 
also to investigate the origin of their being credited 
with feeding on fat and greasy substances. 

That the latter part of my task has been accom- 
plished is due to Mr. H. T. Stainton, who, with extreme 
kindness, expended much time and labour in research, 
and in furnishing me with a complete transcript from 


De Greer's Memoires, tome 2, Ire partie, p. 371, in 
which both Reaumur and Rolander are cited ; such 
effectual help claims my grateful thanks. 

Reaumur, I have no doubt, knew the larva and 
its habits, for I consider that the figures (PI. 20, 
Memoire 8) as well as the description of his " fausses 
teignes des cuirs " apply to A.pinguinalis, and not to 
A. cuprealis ; but it was Linnseus who bestowed 
the specific name pinguinalis — relying, doubtless, on 
what Rolander had said of it, and thus gave the 
stamp of his great authority to a mistake, which has 
passed current for truth ever since. 

Next we have De Greer, who, in relating what he 
knew himself of the larva, says, " It is in the rooms 
and entrances that I have often found them, crawling 
on the lloor or climbing against the walls, and only in 
such places that I have met with them. They were 
almost always come to their last stage of growth, so 
that when one rested it was only to become a pupa." 

Again, after stating what Reaumur had said of the 
larva making itself a tube, and gnawing leather 
coverings of books, and feeding on dry bodies of dead 
insects, he continues, " 1 have had no opportunity to 
see their lodging, nor how they feed themselves ; it is 
always in spring or commencement of summer that I 
have found them, crawling in the rooms and against 
the walls of the entrances. They are not willing to 
eat at that time, but are all one after another pre- 
paring to become pupse." 

Having thus said what he knew himself, he goes 
on, "M. Rolander, who has also followed the history 
of these larvae in the place I have cited in the Memoires 
de l'Academie des Sciences de Suede, Ann. 1775, 
p. 51, Tab. 2, said that they fed on many sorts of 
eatables, as lard, butter, and dried meat, and for that 
reason they willingly dwell in the larder and in the 
offices. He has seen them eat butter and lard with 
avidity. He has also rubbed all the body with lard 
and with butter, without their having appeared to 


suffer injury. One knows that the ordinary larvae are 
suffocated as soon as one stops their spiracles with 
oil or some other greasy matter ; but M. Rolander 
has remarked that the larvae are able to hide their 
spiracles in folds of the skin to avoid their being 
wetted and stopped by the greasy materials which 
surround them." 

" He does not say that he has seen them reside in 
coverings in form of fixed tubes ; he appears not to 
have known that M. de Reaumur had before spoken 
of these larvae under the name of ' fausses teignes 
des cuirs,' because they inhabit a fixed sheath, for he 
said they had not been described by any author.' ' 

Now, after my recent experience, the foregoing 
extracts afford me most convincing evidence that 
Rolander was not really acquainted with the larva 
until it had ceased feeding, and 1 think I shall 
presently prove this ; and I can only suppose that he 
must have somehow deceived himself in imagining 
that which he asserted of its food, and of its spiracles, 
ingeniously suiting the one to the other; but it seems 
something more strange that for more than a hundred 
years all authors who have written on the Pyralides 
have gone on copying the above, and commenting on 
it as one of the stock facts in this branch of natural 

To return to the record of my experience with the 
eggs sent me by Mr. Fletcher, when I received them 
on the 11th of August they were only just in time, as 
two of them hatched in the evening of that day, and 
five more the next day. I put the larvae at first on a 
little of the barn sweepings in a glass-topped box, in 
order to observe, if they fed at all, what they would 
choose, for these sweepings consisted of a variety of 
things, such as husks of wheat and of oats, small 
fragments of straw, and of Cladium thatch, also of 
the pods of beans, small seeds of various plants, short 
bits of grass and other dried stems, some woolly dust, 
and a few empty pupa-skins in cases of some small 


species of Lepidoptera, all mixed up together with 
much chaffy and earthy matter. 

Into this mixture the active little creatures at once 
went down out of sight, and did not show themselves 
at all while they remained in the box for twelve days ; 
I then began to look for them, and found some small 
earthy particles of the rubbish adhering slightly to 
the bottom of the box, and under these I saw three 
larvoe, and a fourth lying under a morsel of old straw ; 
after this I removed all into a pot provided with more 
of the sweepings. Later still I began to realise the 
hazard of satisfying my curiosity while inspecting 
their progress from time to time, as I was obliged to 
turn them out of their tubular dwellings, which were 
of rather tender construction ; and for some time 
this work of danger resulted in casualties, until 
after fatally injuring several larvae I was impelled to 
invoke help from Mr. Fletcher, between whom and 
myself many communications had passed at intervals 
concerning these larvse, and on the 24th of September 
he most kindly sent me six of part of the same brood 
he had been rearing for himself. And of these again, 
after they had wintered safely in a more or less 
torpid condition, I was unfortunate enough to injure 
several in the following spring, and in April found I 
had only two survivors ; one of these fully grown, 
after abandoning its tube, crawled about and remained 
exposed on the side of the pot for a day or two, but 
finally retired to the bottom, on which it spun up in a 
firmly fixed cocoon on the last day of April, and I 
bred the moth from it on the 14th of June ; the 
second was kept in another pot, wherein it eventually 
during May spun its cocoon and changed to a pupa, 
of which I secured a figure and description before the 
imago came forth on the 8th of July. 

Meanwhile I resolved to make acquaintance with 
the larvae in their native haunts, and early in May 
sought for them in a farm stable, and there, by help 
from a small boy, on several occasions during that 


month a number of them were discovered, enabling 
me thoroughly to learn their natural mode of life. 
The place in the stable where they were found was a 
dark corner between the oat-bin and north wall, in a 
very narrow interval of space between the two, into 
which some of the hulls and chaff would often be 
falling amongst the particles of straw accumulated 
there whenever the bin was opened for feeding the 
horses ; the larvae were almost all on the floor, in a 
cool and slightly damp temperature, inhabiting tubular 
residences of various lengths, quite flexible and adapt- 
able to any surface ; and as all these tubes were more 
or less covered with small fragments of straw and 
wheat husks, they, while being removed, appeared 
like strings of rubbish, accidentally held together 
without any visible means of cohesion until the frag- 
ments were plucked away, when the dirty-coloured 
silk would betray the residence of a larva which never 
showed itself in any instance until turned out. Some 
of these larvae I sent to the Rev. John Hellins, who 
examined them for me under his microscope, and 
confirmed my view of their structure. 

Towards the end of June Mr. Hellins made further 
acquaintance with fchis species ; he had gone with his 
nephew to fish in the Exeter Canal, but, to use John 
Leech's explanation of one of his pictures of Mr. 
Briggs, " the wind that day was not in a favourable 
quarter," and so to avoid a drenching from the S.E. 
rain beating in from the sea they had to take shelter 
in a stable, where presently they observed a specimen 
of the moth sitting on the brick wall, and before long 
ever so many more, and, while trying to count them, 
they noticed several of the cocoons spun in the mortar 
grooves between the bricks, at a height above the 
ground of from three to five feet, some perhaps more, 
clear away from the ledges of the rack and manger, 
where the larvae must have fed on the matted and 
dusty hay seed husks ; they noticed no straw in the 
stable, but only a coarse kind of hay, made from 


grasses and herbage grown on the canal banks, 
amongst which could be distinguished the seed heads 
of Holcus lanatus ; quantities of this chaffy rubbish 
filled the chinks, and lay about on all the ledges with 
a thick matting of dust, and from a farrago of this 
nature they stirred out two or three of the larvae. 
They carried home five or six cocoons, and in a day 
or two bred two of the moths, and sent the remaining 
cocoons to me, and I also bred from them two A, 
pinguinalis on the 14th and 19th of July, whilst from 
the larvae I had myself found, the moths continued to 
appear from the 25th of July to the 7th of August. 

From these observations I think it will be seen 
that the larvae live in comparative darkness — in 
stables, barns, and outhouses, amid accumulations of 
the rubbish above mentioned, hidden within a protect- 
ing sheath or gallery nearly or quite close to the 
ground, composed of materials in which they find 
both their food and their covering; unless disturbed 
they are never to be seen whilst growing, as they do 
not voluntarily leave their abodes until full-fed, but 
then only do they desert their quarters, and may oc- 
casionally be observed ascending walls to find a suit- 
able place for pupation. 

The egg of A. pinguinalis is of a good size for the 
moth, of a roundish-oval form, almost globular, though 
there is a bigger and a smaller end ; the shell, dull 
and granulated all over, is whitish or creamy- white ; 
a few hours before hatching a light brownish patch 
shows through one end of the shell, and a very faint 
pinkish-grey tint on other paints. 

The newly hatched larva is of a very pale whitish 
flesh-colour, with yellowish-brown head, and plate 
separated from it by a margin of pale skin, and a 
similar brown plate is on the anal flap. When twelve 
days old the internal vessels appear full of food, and 
as the size increases the alimentary canal acquires 
more and more of a dark grey colour, showing very 
plainly through the clear almost colourless skin. 


When six weeks old they become of a dingy grey- 
brown colour, almost approaching to blackness. On 
the 25th of September I chanced to notice one larva, 
which appeared nearly ready to moult ; it was then 
dark grey-brown at each end, and whitish -grey along 
the middle segments of the body, where the dark 
dorsal vessel showed through, but interrupted at the 
segmental folds of pale skin ; this larva I kept apart, 
and in a few days it moulted, and became as dark as 
any of the others. 

On the 27th of September the smallest was from 9 
to 10 mm., and the largest 13 mm. long; the head was 
jet-black, the plate nearly as black, and also three or 
four following segments, this hue from thence melting 
gradually into slaty-grey, whereon the minute tuber- 
cular black dots appeared ; the anal plate was brownish- 
black, and dull. The individual kept apart from the 
others had increased to a length of 17 mm. by the 11th 
of October, when it was of a slaty blackness. By the 
13th of November most of the others had grown to be 
20 mm. long, inhabiting, as I said before, long soft 
tubes of dark grey-brown silk, smooth inside, but 
covered externally with quantities of the sweepings; the 
larvae I turned out to inspect were now entirely black, 
excepting the pale upper lip, papillae, and the legs, 
which were all semi- pellucid and light drab coloured ; 
a great number of pellets of black frass appeared in 
the pots ; these I was careful to remove on all occasions 
of replenishing the supply of sweepings. 

I did not disturb them again until the 4th of March, 
1883, after keeping them through the winter in a cool 
dark place, and then I found they had not grown at 
all in the interval, but during the next twenty days 
their tubes increased to a length of two and a half 
inches, and the agglomerations adhering made up 
roughly a transverse diameter of about three-quarters 
of an inch. 

As stated above, all this investigation of the growing 
larvae was made at the cost of the lives of most of 


them ; however, at the end of April there still re- 
mained two alive, and from them, and also from other 
examples captured when mature, I made the following 

The full-grown larva is from 25 to 29 mm. in 
length, almost uniformly cylindrical throughout, 
though rather stoutest at the third and fourth seg- 
ments, which have deeply subdividing wrinkles, and 
on each of the following segments to the twelfth is 
one deep transverse wrinkle a little beyond the middle ; 
sometimes faint indications of one or two more occur 
near the end without detracting from the general 
plumpness of outline; the segmental divisions are 
well cut, the anal flap plumply rounded off behind ; 
the tumid ridge below the spiracles is very prominent, 
the belly flattened and deeply wrinkled; the dorsal 
tubercular dots, each with a fine hair, are arranged 
rather in a square than a trapezoidal figure ; the spi- 
racles are very flat, situated just below each lateral 
wart, where the skin is very plump, and in no way 
hidden or protected by any wrinkle or fold ; the colour 
is generally black or blackish-brown, sometimes a little 
bronzy, the head having a pale bar of greyish-drab 
across the upper lip, the papillae of the same pale 
colour, all the legs drab ; the belly appears like rather 
worn bronze; the spiracles are black like the skin 
around them, and therefore are rather difficult to 

The pupa is about 13 mm. in length, and nothing 
unusual in form ; the moveable segments of the abdo- 
men are deeply cut, and furnished at the tip with four 
fine curly-topped spines ; its colour is of a dark brick- 
red, and with a dull surface, though in the divisions 
of the moveable rings it glistens a little. 

The cocoon, firmly attached to some solid surface, 
is of broad- oval form, composed of greyish silk, on 
which the spines of the pupal tail obtain a firm hold ; 
it is covered externally with particles gnawed from 
the surface of its surroundings, whether of rubbish, or 

VOL. ix. 3 


of mortar, like those from the Exeter canal stable, or, 
indeed, of paper, as I found many years since, when a 
cocoon was spun in a box of that material. 

There only now remains for me to state that on two 
or three occasions, when I had a larva out before me 
to examine, I did not neglect to test the grease theory, 
by leaving butter and lard with it under a large glass ; 
but in every case it seemed carefully to shun both, and 
though I contrived once that it should at least walk 
over some lard, it did so nimbly enough, but could not 
be induced to walk over it a second time, invariably 
swerving aside. As a final experiment, I turned a 
large but still feeding larva out from its dwelling into 
a pot containing three pieces of cloth, one piece 
lightly saturated with salad oil, the second bearing a 
lump of fresh butter, and the third a lump of lard, 
and tied over the pot a cover of calico. On being 
placed therein, the larva soon came in contact with a 
piece of cloth, and stopped, as though afraid to ad- 
vance any further ; but on my looking the next day I 
could only see the tail of the larva protruding from 
beneath the lard-bearing cloth, and on my touching it 
with a soft brush very gently it instantly sprang for- 
ward, concealing itself entirely under the cloth ; on 
the third day it was close by the same piece of cloth, 
but not under it, and on touching it I found it dead, 
hard to the touch and rather swollen ; neither butter, 
lard, nor cloth had, on examination, been nibbled at 
all, though there were traces of the larva having 
crawled all over most of the bottom of the pot; 
neither fat, therefore, nor greasy cloth offered any 
attraction in the way of food, nor did the larva seem 
proof against the usual harm which contact with oil 
or grease causes to insect life; but, on the other 
hand, I confess I never saw a larva actually eating 
any of the rubbish, on which I believe it must have 
fed; I found, whenever I turned a larva out of its 
abode and supplied it with fresh materials to feed on, 
it immediately began to unite some of the particles 


together, to cover itself with a new residence, so that 
it would not feed until out of my sight and in dark- 
ness, and thus all my attempts to see it actually eat 
were frustrated by this habit. Perhaps, indeed, dried 
meat, which was one of the substances mentiooed by 
Rolander, might be eaten, especially if it had become 
quite hard and tasteless ; in this state it would not be 
very much unlike the leather of the book covers on 
which Reaumur found the larvae feeding; and, as a 
concluding observation, it occurs to me to remark 
that he must have kept his library in a state of dust 
and never let the maids " put it to rights," or he 
would not have found his game so close at hand ! 
(William Buckler, 2nd January, 1884; E.M.M., 
February, 1884, XX, 193—199.) 

Aglossa cuprealis. 
Plate CXLIX, fig. 5. 

This is one of the species the larvae of which my 
late friend, Mr. Buckler, had in hand at the time of 
his death, and the following account of it is compiled 
from the very full and precise notes left by him, with 
some little additions which were necessary to complete 
the life history. 

The eggs were obtained by Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, 
who has also very kindly given his assistance in 
working out some points in the economy of the larva. 

The eggs were laid by a captured moth during the 
last week of July, 1882, being deposited, for the most 
part singly, on the sides of a chip box ; on the 7th of 
August they changed colour, and on the 14th the 
dark heads of the larvae were visible through the 
shell; most of the larvae hatched on the 15th, several 
more on the 17th, and one or two again on the 20th 
and 21st. 

The larvae on hatching immediately hid themselves 
under a little loose bit of the chip box, as if instinc- 


tively seeking their natural habitat, which is among 
and under rubbish accumulated on the barn floor. 
They were at once placed on a little of such rubbish, 
made up (as described in the history of Aglossa 
pinguinalis, E.M.M., vol. XX, p. 193) of husks of 
wheat and oats, bits of straw and dried grass, and 
various dried stems and seeds — and on this they were 
reared. Mr. Fletcher considers that very probably 
they would prefer the wheat-straw and husks, and 
would not bv choice eat Gladium thatch : one larva, 
sent when nearly full-grown to Dr. Chapman, made 
itself happy on a diet of bread ; it seems, too, that it 
is needful the food should not be too dry ; anything 
like mildew caused by damp would be injurious, but 
unless there is a certain amount of moisture in the 
food, such as would generally exist in shady corners 
of stables and barns, the larvse seem to be starved, 
and certainly decrease in size ; and though they will 
bear starving to some extent, yet if the drought be 
continued they die. From the first they spin the 
rubbish together, making tubes much in the same 
way as A. pingni?ialis, and often making use of a 
straw, bean-husk, or folded leaf of Gladium mariscus, 
as a private retreat; they seem, when supplied with 
plenty of materials, to make the sides of their galleries 
of some considerable thickness, and sometimes two or 
three larvse were found inhabiting the same gallery, 
which, however, in such a case would be noticeably 
longer than one occupied by a single tenant. 

The young larvse fed away at once, and their 
growth could be noticed after a few days; in less 
than three weeks they were 4 mm. in length, and in 
four weeks more 7 mm. ; when disturbed they were 
very active, jumping backwards, hiding again as soon 
as possible, and showing great aversion to the light ; 
and this, indeed, is the habit all through with the 
larva. The number of moults was not observed, but 
one took place at about the age of two months, when 
the length was still about 7 mm. ; and in another 


month — 17th of November — they had not grown 
much, but a fortnight later again the largest was 
9 mm., and this still was the length of one examined 
after hibernation on the 4th of March, 1883 ; on the 
26th of March one was turned out which measured 
13 mm., but by the 1st of May most of them had not 
yet attained that length ; by the 21st the largest was 
19 mm., while some were only 10 mm. long ; on the 
17th of July the largest had become 21 mm., others 
remaining still very small ; and the last examination 
made by Mr. Buckler — 18th of September — found 
them in the same condition. Meanwhile, Mr. Fletcher 
had noticed that from the first some of the larvse 
which he was rearing were bent on outstripping the 
rest, though they were all kept together and received 
precisely the same treatment ; and during the summer 
of 1883 he bred two moths, and probably would have 
bred more had he not killed several of his largest 
larvse by keeping their food too dry through the 
winter, when he supposed they were hibernating ; but 
by far the largest number of his larvse lived over 
1883, and hibernated a second time, as was the case 
with all those in Mr. Buckler's care. These last came 
into my possession, and on the 17th of March, 1884, 
I measured one fully 26 mm. long when extended in 
walking, and about 22 mm. when at rest, and this, I 
think, would be the full-grown length; on the 13th of 
June I found I had three or four cocoons formed, and on 
the same day I received four other cocoons from Mr. 
Fletcher, two containing pupse, and two larvse yet 
unchanged. Mr. Fletcher bred the rest of his moths 
in June and July ; mine all emerged between the 12th 
of July and the 3rd of August, and on the 26th of 
July Mr. Fletcher sent me eggs from a captured 

The lifetime, therefore, of an individual of this 
species may be either one or two years in duration, 
out of which period its egg-stage occupies three 
weeks or less, its pupa-stage about a month, and the 


intervening ten or twenty-two months are spent as a 

The egg is of a good size in proportion to the 
parent moth, and is of broad-oval outline and plump, 
being about y^ mm. in long diameter, by -^ mm. in 
the shorter, and -^ mm. in thickness, and seems to be 
deposited generally on its side; the shell is thin, dull, 
and covered all over with large, shallow, irregularly 
pentagonal reticulation; at first the colour is much 
the tint of new chip, but in about ten days this 
becomes a very pale warm drab, and in another week 
the head of the larva shows as a brown spot on one 
side of the egg. 

The newly-hatched larva is 2J mm. in length, is 
just the colour of new chip, the head light brown, the 
neck-plate very much paler brown with a margin of 
pale skin between it and the head ; the skin is opaque, 
but allowing the internal vessel to be seen faintly, 
and at the twelfth segment more plainly ; in ten days 
this internal vessel has become dark, and shows 
plainly through the pale skin ; in another ten days, 
when the larva is 4 mm. long, the body is wholly of 
an olive-brown colour, the segmental folds showing 
somewhat paler ; three weeks later the larva, with an 
average length of 6 mm., is slender, the head light 
brown, rather shining ; the skin is transparent, but 
showing its whitish-grey tint at the segmental folds, 
and also along the sides when one looks down on it 
from above ; but the internal organs are so dark, of a 
slaty-drab tint, and show through so plainly, that the 
general aspect is very dingy ; the glossy plate on the 
second segment is black behind, and paler in front ; 
the eleventh segment shows paler than the rest, and in 
some examples the thirteenth also ; the anal plate is 
pale, almost whity-brown ; the usual dots are very 
minute, but show dusky on the pale skin. In another 
fortnight the internal parts appear quite blackish, 
with paler intervals on the hinder segments, which 
show the greyish-white of the skin; the head is 


brown, the plates as before, the belly and all the legs 
colourless. At this date, during a moult, the blackish 
colouring is lost from the interior, so that only the 
head retains its colour, and the neck-plate and two or 
three following segments become greyish; the general 
appearance now remains much the same for some 
time, till the length of 9 mm. has been attained, the 
skin being so clear that the pulsating dorsal vessel 
can be seen between it and the dark internal organs. 

During hibernation the length remains the same, 

but the body becomes somewhat stouter; at the 

beginning of March, the head is reddish-brown, the 

body dark slaty-grey brown with blackish dorsal line, 

but the back of the eleventh and thirteenth segments, 

the front margin of the second, and all the legs, are 

greyish- white; the skin is still so clear that the 

tracheal threads can be seen through it. From this 

time, as the larva increases in size, it seems to 

become darker in tint, and the skin becomes less 

transparent, and is in itself of a dirty whitish tint, 

and the dusky dots become less distinguishable ; when 

the length is about 12 mm., the general colour is 

brownish-black or black, the head darker than before, 

but retaining its reddish-brown tinge, the middle part 

of the upper lip paler reddish-brown, the jaws black; 

the anal flap pale-brownish and semi-transparent, as 

are all the legs, and the papillae. At this stage, 

however, it seems the colour may vary according to 

the state of the food, or the proximity of a moult ; it 

was noticed that a larva, which was looking pale 

greyish-drab, and was therefore considered a variety, 

on having its food damped turned black in twenty-four 

hours ; and a figure was taken of a larva, more than 

16 mm. long, preparing for a moult, drab in colour, 

with the dots showing black : probably every moult is 

preceded by an obscuring of the dark internal organs, 

so that the colour at such times would always be 


A habitation of the larva depicted by Mr. Buckler 


represents an agglomeration of pieces of straw, etc., 
about three inches long, and more than half an inch 

The full-grown larva is 22 mm. in length, or 26 mm. 
when extended, and just 3 mm. across the back at 
about its middle ; the figure is cylindrical, and the 
bulk very even throughout, except that the rounded 
head is rather narrower than the second segment, 
which is itself not so wide as the rest, being not so 
much puffed at the sides; it is noticeable, however, 
that the subspiracular ridge is less prominent than in 
A. pinguinalis ; the skin is brilliantly glossy all over, 
but under the microscope it is seen to be very finely 
and beautifully shagreened ; the divisions between the 
second and third, and the third and fourth segments 
(as in A. pingimialis and Pyralis farinalis also) are 
curiously plicated, the folds broadening in a curve 
from the spiracular level to the centre of the back. The 
general colour is from the sheen of the surface puzzling 
to describe, bronzy-invisible-green-black being the 
combination of words which suggested itself to three 
or four careful observers, the hinder segments having 
rather a paler tint; the head is deep chestnut-red, the 
collar deeper red and edged narrowly in front with 
black, the anal plate reddish but paler than the head, 
sometimes with a yellowish tint; there is a double 
dorsal thread to be seen with a lens under the skin, 
being probably the borders of the dorsal vessel ; the 
spiracles, which, except the first and last, are small, 
are oval in outline, flat, and quite unprotected by any 
fold, and are of the same colour as the ground; the 
usual dots, which are hard to detect, are slightly 
darker than the skin, and each has a fine hair which 
shines golden in the sunlight ; the trapezoidals are 
arranged very slightly out of the square position, and 
the microscope detects several obsolete tubercles near 
them, as well as little rows of glittering foveolae, which 
are very curious, and perhaps indicate the attachments 
of the muscles at a series of points. 


The larva spins a tough web of white silk for the 
lining of its cocoon, the outside of which is stuck all 
over with bits of the straw and husks among which 
it has lived. Externally it measures about 15 mm. 
by 10 mm., the chamber within being about 12 mm. 
by 4 mm. 

The pupa is 11 mm. long, cylindrical, with all 
the outlines rounded, the wing-cases short and 
rounded, the abdomen rounded at the end, having 
there a very short blunt spike furnished with four 
curl-topped spines. The skin is rather glossy, the 
colour pale mahogany-brown on the back, paler on 
the under surface, the anal tip and spike dark brown. 

In the newly-bred moth the paler markings of the 
fore-wings have quite a pretty pinkish tinge on them, 
but in speaking of this point, as well as of the coloration 
of the various parts of the larva, I cannot help 
feeling the want of that certainty with which I used 
to rely on Mr. Buckler's unerring judgment in such 
matters, as well as that picturesqueness of detail 
generally, which used to invest the larvae he described 
with quite a personality of their own. (John Hellins, 
from Notes by the late William Buckler, 4th August, 
1884; E.M.M., September, 1884, XXI, 75—79.) 

Oledeobia angustalis. 
Plate OXLIX, fig. 6. 

On the 2nd of August, 1883, Mr. Jeffrey sent me 
two dozen eggs laid by a female which he captured on 
the sea-shore on the 25th of July. They were laid 
several in a cluster, others singly and loose ; the 
shape of the egg is elliptical or broad-oval, the surface 
finely ribbed and reticulated, and of a creamy whitish 
colour. On the 4th they were turning yellow. 
(William Buckler, 4th August, 1883 ; Note Book IY, 

For the opportunity of making acquaintance with 


this interesting larva I am indebted to the kindness 
of Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, of Worthing. A few 
specimens reached me on the 13th of June, 1884, and 
I described them as follows : 

Length about an inch, slender, and of almost 
uniform width throughout ; the head and frontal plate 
are glossy ; the former has the lobes rounded, and is 
slightly narrower than the second segment ; the body 
is cylindrical, with the segments clearly defined; the 
third, fourth, and fifth have several transverse de- 
pressions, which give them a wrinkled appearance, 
and the remaining segments have each one transverse 
depression ; the skin altogether has a tough appear- 
ance. There are two forms. 

In var. 1 the ground colour is dirty smoky-black ; 
the head is perfectly black ; the frontal plate is dark 
chocolate-brown ; the anal segment pale brown. The 
only other perceptible marking is the perfectly black, 
but indistinct, medio-dorsal line ; the ventral surface 
and prolegs are uniformly of a rather paler shade of 
the colour of the dorsal area, and having a tinge of 
dark green ; the anterior legs are perfectly black. 

In var. 2 the ground colour is pale chocolate-brown, 
strongly suffused, however, especially on the anterior 
segments, with dirty smoke-colour ; head perfectly 
black ; frontal plate chocolate -brown, edged in front 
with black ; side tubercles and spiracles smoke-colour ; 
ventral surface and prolegs pale chocolate-brown, 
with a greenish tinge ; the second, third, and fourth 
segments, and the anterior legs black. 

Mr. Fletcher found the larvae feeding on damp 
ground in a species of moss, which, after examination 
of the old withered remnants left by my larvae, Mr. 
C. P. Hobkirk believes to be Hypnum cupressiforme. 
I kept the moss saturated with water, and probably 
the larvae would not have kept healthy had it been 
allowed to become dry. They live completely hidden 
in the moss, but their whereabouts is easily seen from 
the patches of frass which are thrown above, and 


kept together by silken threads, which the larvae 
seem to spin over where they feed. 

The cocoon is shaped somewhat like that of a 
ZygaBiia, and is formed of finely-spun white silk among 
the moss. 

The pupa is from half to five-eighths of an inch 
long, of ordinary shape, and with all the parts clearly 
defined ; it is highly polished, the colour rich brown, 
the wing-cases bright yellow, but all the parts 
margined with brown ; eye-cases and abdominal point 
dark chocolate-brown. 

The imagos emerged from the 2nd to the 8th of 
August. (George T. Porritt, October 6th, 1884 ; 
E.M.M., November, 1884, XXI, 124.) 

Pyrausta punicealis. 
Plate CL, fig. 1. 

For larvae of this species I am indebted to Mr. 
W. H. Harwood, who found them somewhat plenti- 
fully last year (1873) on Nepeta cataria; he had 
previously noticed that the perfect insects were never 
found far away from that plant, and hence, suspecting 
that the larvae fed on it, he searched for them with 

The larvae (of the second brood) reached me on 
the 25th of September, 1873, feeding on the mint 
flower-heads under a confused covering of silken 
threads, for their work could not be called regular 
galleries ; and they continued to feed for about three 
weeks ; then they spun up in very tough cocoons of 
pale brownish silk, but how long they remained before 
turning to pupae I cannot say. I bred some moths 
between the 16th and 23rd May, 1874, yet some little 
time after this date, viz. on the 11th of June, Mr. 
Buckler, on examining some of his cocoons in order 
to obtain a pupa-case, found several larvae still un- 
changed, though quite alive. Whether these will remain 
on till the appearance of the August moths of the 


present year or until the May brood of next year we 
have not, of course, yet the power of deciding. 

The full-grown larva is a little more than five- 
eighths of an inch in length (perhaps it grows longer 
when at large, for all the moths we bred were small, 
showing that our larvae had not attained full develop- 
ment), stoutest at the eighth, ninth, and tenth seg- 
ments, thence tapering rapidly to the tail, and more 
gradually to the head, which is the smallest segment ; 
the colour is a dull green on the back, the dorsal line 
being of the same, only marked off with edgings of 
yellow ; the spiracular stripe broad and yellowish, 
with a faint greenish line through it ; the head and 
second segment pale brownish freckled with black ; 
below the spiracles is a double greenish line ; the 
belly is pale yellowish ; all the usual dots are distinct, 
being shining black and narrowly ringed with yellow ; 
when full-fed the larva becomes pinkish. 

There seems to be a variety which is all over pale 
greenish, with no darker stripes or lines, and another 
which has a pale blotch of yellowish ground colour on 
the back of the twelfth and thirteenth segments. 

The pupa is cylindrical, slender, with the abdomen 
ending in a flattened blunt projection, beset at right 
angles with some curled-topped spines. (John Hellins, 
14th July, 1874; E.M.M., August, 1874, XI, 66.) 

On the 30th of August, 1881, I received from Mr. 
Wm. Jeffrey a few eggs of Pyrausta punicealis laid on 
leaves of Origanum vulgare. 

The egg is elliptical, finely ribbed, and glistening, 
of whitish colour, turning to a light flesh-colour with 
brownish spot before hatching. 

Two or three eggs hatched while coming to me, 
others on the next day and the day after that. 

The newly-hatched larva is of a slight greenish- 
white colour; the head darkish reddish-brown and 
glossy ; no plate visible of any colour but that of the 
body, which shows a rather darker internal vessel 
through the skin, which, with the head, is glossy. 


On the 1st of September I found about twenty-five 
had hatched and were feeding on the under cuticle of 
Origanum leaves ; on the 10th two or three, in their 
white pellucid coats, were laid up to moult ; and 
others had moulted a first time, and now first showed 
on their clear white skins small but distinct black 
dots, and their intestinal canal showed yellowish-green 
through the skin. With the most forward the second 
moult occurred between the 17th and 20th, and they 
were on the 20th in bright green coats having large 
black spots, the heads and plates finely freckled with 
black, and a dorsal green line edged with whitish 
finer lines is distinctly visible now on the back. On 
the 23rd the most forward were laid up for moulting, 
and with them, this occurred for the third time on the 
28th and 29th, some others being very much behind 
these. They were in their mature dress, just like Mr. 
Hellins described them in the E.M.M., vol. XI, p. 66. 

When the larva is full-fed and about to spin, it 
changes its green colour to red. All the larvae spun 
up in pieces of umbelliferous stems, the last one on the 
22nd of October. (William Buckler, October, 1881 ; 
Note Book IV, 95.) 

Plate OL, fig. 2. 

A batch of eggs of Herbula cespitalis, received from 
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, of Worthing, on the 23rd of 
July, 1883, deposited by a moth from the second 
brood, were globular and shining, the colour bright 

Four days later, on the 27th, they hatched, the 
newly-emerged larvae being brownish-grey, and the 
large head black. They were placed on a growing 
plant of Plantago lanceolata, on which they spun a 
web quite at the base of the leaf, beneath which they 


rested in companies, and appeared to feed chiefly at 

By the 4th of September they had attained a length 
of about three-eighths of an inch, when I took down 
notes on them as follows : 

Moderately stout ; the polished head has the lobes 
rounded and is narrower than the second segment, 
into which it can be partially withdrawn. Body 
cylindrical, and of almost uniform width throughout, 
tapering only slightly towards the extremities ; seg- 
mental divisions deeply cut, and the prominent 
tubercles give the skin a rather rough appearance. 

Ground colour dull brownish-black, with a slight 
olive tinge ; the head and the horny second segment 
wainscot-brown, freckled with darker brown spots. 
Two dull, lead-coloured stripes, enclosing between 
them the very dark pulsating canal, form the dorsal 
band ; there are no perceptible subdorsal lines, but a 
dingy ochreous stripe, of greater or lesser intensity 
in different specimens, extends along the spiracular 
region ; tubercles and spiracles black. Ventral sur- 
face, legs, and prolegs uniformly of the dull brownish- 
black of the dorsal area. 

Eight days later, on the 12th, they were full-grown, 
when I again described them as follows : 

About five-eighths of an inch in length, and fairly 
stout in proportion ; head and second segment horny 
and glossy ; the former is narrower than the latter, and 
has the lobes rounded ; body cylindrical, and of uni- 
form width, tapering a little towards the extremities ; 
segmental divisions well defined, but the skin has a 
smoother appearance than when last described, al- 
though the tubercles are still very conspicuous. 

Ground colour dull, smoky, brownish-black, the 
faint olive tint now being apparently quite lost ; head 
and second segment wainscot-brown, freckled with 
darker brown spots. Two grey lines, enclosing be- 
tween them the dark, smoky alimentary canal, form 
the dorsal stripe ; there are no perceptible subdorsal 


lines, but a dingy ochreous stripe, of greater or less 
intensity in different specimens, extends along the 
spiracular region ; the polished tubercles black, finely 
but clearly encircled with grey ; spiracles black, with 
very minute, almost imperceptible, white centres. 
Ventral surface and prolegs rather paler and browner 
than the dorsal area, the anterior legs tipped with 
darker brown, and encircled with black at the bases. 

They were still living in galleries of web, just above 
the roots of the food-plants, Plantago lanceolata and 
P. major, but by the 21st of September had nearly 
all spun up. 

The cocoons were fixed in corners, etc., of their 
cage ; they were one-third to half an inch long, very 
toughly and compactly formed of closely woven snow- 
white silk. 

The pupa is about one third of an inch long, plump 
and glossy ; the thorax, head, and wing-cases dark 
sienna-brown, the abdominal divisions dark orange. 

The imagos appeared during the second week of 
May, 1884 (George T. Porritt, June 8th, 1884; 
E.M.M., July, 1884, XXI, 30—32.) 

Ennychia anguinalis. 
Plate CL, fig. 3. 

In the belief that no description has been hereto- 
fore published of the larva of Ennychia anguinalis, I 
am induced to think the following account of it from 
the egg may be acceptable ; and here I must thank- 
fully acknowledge that it is entirely due to the kind 
and friendly co-operation of Mr. W. E. Jeffrey, in 
sending me the largest share of a small batch of eggs 
he was lucky to obtain from the parent moth he had 
captured, that I am enabled to give this history. 

I received the eggs on the 9th of August, 1881 ; 
eleven of them were laid on leaves and on a bract of 
the blossom of Origanum vulgare, and four on a leaf 


of Mentha arvensis, singly, and one overlapping 
another; though they were very flat when first laid, 
as Mr. Jeffrey informed me, yet I found they had 
begun to swell, and by the next day had filled out 
considerably, and on the 17th four of them hatched, 
and another on the 20th, but no more. 

The larvae moulted three times, the first moult oc- 
curring when they were eleven days old, the second 
moult when twenty-five days old, and the third moult 
at the age of thirty-eight days ; from this last moult 
the period of maturing varied from thirteen to seven- 
teen days ; the latest hatched individual was full-fed 
on the 17th of October, just six days behind the 

At Mr. Jeffrey's suggestion I tried Thymus ser- 
pyllum at first with two larvae, and they took to this 
food very well as long as the supply lasted, the others 
equally well to Origanum, feeding on the cuticle of 
the leaves during the first three days, and thus causing 
small transparent blotches, and on the fourth day 
began to eat small holes quite through the substance 
of either leaf. 

About the end of the month I found only four alive, 
as one of those two that had previously fed on thyme 
— a food I was unable to provide any longer — had 
died, having refused the marjoram, although its com- 
panion soon took to it, and the others had thriven 
well on it from the very beginning of their career to 
the end, eating more and larger pieces from the 
leaves as they grew bigger ; and latterly whole leaves 
would be consumed, but only those of a medium size, 
for they seemed not to care for the larger leaves nor 
the smallest, nor the blossoms. 

They very cleverly kept themselves concealed, by 
spinning their light hammocks in such an artful 
manner as to draw a leaf or two partly round the 
stem of their location so as to appear like a natural 
disposition of plant growth ; and so fine and thin was 
the silk spun under the leaves, that though of whitish 


colour it never showed at all conspicuous, while it 
served to veil the full depth of the larval colouring ; 
indeed, the whereabouts of a larva could only be 
guessed by noticing pieces absent from the neigh- 
bouring leaves, as it was very seldom I could detect 
one while it was stretched out a little beyond its resi- 
dence in the act of feeding. 

When full-fed they wandered restlessly for two or 
three days, and then one spun itself up in a cocoon 
attached to the top of its cage and to the leno cover, 
another spun its cocoon in a piece of hollow stem pro- 
vided for it, one in the leaves of marjoram, and the 
fourth I accidentally squeezed, so that it was unable 
to spin, and eventually perished; audi learned from 
Mr. Jeffrey that a similar untoward mishap had be- 
fallen one of his only two larva3 just when he had 
brought them to maturity. 

From the larvge reared between us, three examples 
of the moth were bred, the earliest by Mr. Jeffrey on 
the 8th of June, 1882, and two by myself, probably 
somewhat later, as they had both died before I had 
observed them. 

The egg of Ennychia anguinalis is round and flat- 
tened, becoming more and more convex and plump 
above as the embryo develops ; the surface is very 
finely pitted or reticulated, of a whity-greenish tint 
and slightly glistening ; the day before hatching the 
darkish head of the embryo shows through the shell. 

The newly-hatched larva is of a transparent flesh- 
colour, slightly tinged with pinkish-grey, with a grey- 
brown head and neck-plate, and on the rest of the 
body most minute dusky dots and hairs ; it becomes 
pinkish when a week old, and very active. 

After the first moult it is semi-transparent, tinged 
with dark purplish-pink, which increases towards the 
end of this stage, and its hammock is very transparent. 

After the second moult the larva is of a deep pur- 
plish brown-pink colour, the skin less transparent 
than before, except the plate on the second segment, 

VOL. ix. 4 


which is translucent, glossy and greenish, finely 
freckled with black, the head similar but with browner 
freckles on the face ; the spots on the body are very 
distinct, large, black, and glistening, while the pur- 
plish-brown skin is dull and opaque ; ten days later, 
when seen in repose it seems short and almost black, 
though when disturbed and eager to escape it stretches 
itself out to 8^ mm., and is then seen to be much more 
slender, and tapered at either end ; the colouring of 
the head and second segment is as before, a rather 
olive-green, but the skin on other parts appears to be 
a very dark smoky-green, and slightly glistening at 
the segmental divisions. 

In about ten or eleven days after the third moult 
its full growth is attained, and the length is 18 mm., 
its stoutness in proportion, tapering from the third 
segment to the head, also at the two hinder segments ; 
beyond the thoracic each segment is subdivided by a 
deep wrinkle across the middle of the back, and again 
by one nearer the front, and another nearer the end ; 
the two central portions, bearing the trapezoidal large 
roundish spots, are very plump ; a similar spot is on 
the side, another beneath the spiracle, and another is 
lower and farther behind, near the belly ; the colour 
of the head and second segment is bright olive-green 
and very shining ; the lobes of the head are marked on 
the crown with black, and with fine black freckles on 
the face ; the plate is also finely freckled with black ; all 
the rest of the body has a very dull purple skin, re- 
lieved by large black and minutely wrinkled spots, 
especially while the larva lies at rest, but when roused 
up into activity the purple hue still becomes a little 
neutralised by the green interior ; this change of colour 
seems to be caused by extreme tenuity of the skin at 
such times, when it allows the green to show partly 
through, and to glisten slightly at the divisions and 
increase the soft lustre of the black spots ; when, 
however, the larva shortens itself and the skin shrinks, 
it obscures the green beneath, much as the skin of a 


purple grape obscures the green pulp within ; each 
spot bears a fiue hair; the spiracles are small, round, 
and black ; the anterior legs are green, the ventral and 
anal leo-s translucent and almost colourless. 

The cocoon is of whitish silk, which, after a few 
weeks, turns of a light flesh-colour; its shape is oval, 
about 11 mm. long, and composed of a coarser outer 
structure and a more compact and finer texture within. 

The empty pupa-skin was found to have nothing 
remarkable in its form but a rounded knob at the 
abdominal tip, furnished with widely diverging, fine, 
curly-topped bristles attached to the lining, its length 
beinc: 7 mm. ; in colour it is darkish brown and rather 
shining. (William Buckler, 10th August, 1882 ; 
E.M.M., September, 1882, XIX, 77—79.) 

Ennychia ootomaculata. 
Plate CL, fig. 4. 

The larva of this species is, barring ichneumons, 
easy enough to bring to full growth and to spinning 
its cocoon for hibernation, but most difficult to 
prevent from dying afterwards at the critical time 
when the larva should become a pupa; this at least 
has been the experience of my friend Mr. W. H. 
Jeffrey and myself for four years in succession. 

Mr. Jeffrey found five or six of the larvae first on 
the 19th of September, 1877, and kindly sent some of 
his captures to me ; at that time the species was of 
course unknown to us, and our hopes that one or 
other might rear a moth were entirely foiled by all 
the larvae dying within their cocoons before pupation. 

In 1878 Mr. Jeffrey found but two larvae, and these 
ag^ain both died in the same wav ; in 1879 he found 
four, and shared them with me ; before hibernation 
we each lost one larva by parasites, and again the 
unstung examples died in their cocoons. 

Nothing daunted by all this failure, Mr. Jeffrey 


persevered in his search again last year, and on the 
18th of August found four of our still unknown larvae, 
and again, on the 3rd of September, three more in a 
younger stage than any previously detected ; my 
friend kept for himself but two larvae, part of the 
four first found ; yet, most fortunately, with one of 
these he has been successful in solving our puzzle, 
and on the second of the present month he had the 
pleasure of breeding a fine female Ennychia octo- 
maculata, and great indeed is the satisfaction this 
success has given to both of us. 

Hitherto as a larva unknown in England, this 
species is mentioned by Dr. E. Hofmann, in his 
' Kleinschmetterlingsraupen,' as living on and skele- 
tonizing the under side of the leaf of Bellidiastrum 
michelii ; but he gives no description of the larva 
itself, nor does he say whether Hartmann, whom he 
quotes, has described it. 

In this country the larva is found in a slight 
whitish web on the under side of the lowermost 
leaves of Solidago virgaurea, eating away large 
portions from them ; when only the length of a 
quarter of an inch it is of a whitish-green tint with 
greener dorsal line, but after the next moult assumes 
very much the appearance in all but size of the adult, 
and again moults before attaining its full dimensions. 
When full-grown the larva is from five-eighths to 
nearly three-quarters of an inch in length, tapering at 
both ends, the head somewhat broader near the mouth 
than at the crown, the segments of the body well cut 
at the divisions, particularly on the belly, where they 
are very plump ; on the back there is a deep sub- 
dividing wrinkle across the middle of each, segment, 
and an ordinary wrinkle on each subdivision ; the 
ventral legs are slender, the anal pair stretched out 
behind in a line with the body, and the head similarly 
extended in front. 

In colour the head is whity-brown, having a few 
light brown freckles and black ocelli ; the back is 


broadly of a delicate light opaque cream-colour, 
divided by a narrow dorsal stripe of rich and very 
deep translucent green, narrowest at each end, and 
sometimes there shows faintly within a still darker 
pulsating vessel ; the pale cream-colour extends lower 
down the side of the hinder half than on the front 
half of each segment, and near the lower margin of 
this colour is a fine line of translucent yellowish-green, 
a little interrupted towards the end of some of the 
middle segments ; the space between the light cream- 
colour and the faintly showing tracheal thread is of 
translucent green, broadest on the front half of a 
segment ; below on the anterior segments is a stripe of 
lighter semi-transparent green, which melts away into 
the still lighter watery opalescent or greenish tint of 
the belly and legs ; the tubercular slight warty 
prominences have each a small central dot of trans- 
parent green, bearing a fine whity-brown hair; the 
third and fourth segments have sometimes a minute 
black lateral dot ; the spiracles appear as most minute 
brownish-black rings ; the whole surface of the skin is 

When full-fed the larva turns almost of a uniform 
yellow, though the back still retains its opacity be- 
neath the glossy skin, and soon it spins for itself, 
either between the leaves or in an angle of some 
convenient surface, a whitish semi-opaque silken 
outer cocoon of strong texture, from three-quarters 
to an inch in length, and within it an inner series of 
open- wrought threads, forming a kind of loose ham- 
mock, in which it passes the winter unchanged. 

The cocoon which Mr. Jeffrey sent me to examine 
is three-quarters of an inch long and of oval form, 
ruptured to the extent of not quite an eighth of an 
inch by the exit of the moth at the top of one end, 
close to the leno to which it was spun above, and 
spun below to a leaf ; the silk was whitish inside, but 
externally had become of a dirty flesh-tint. The 
pupa-skin, of ordinary figure, lying back uppermost, 


bad the tail held fast by threads of the hammock, 
which supported it free from contact with the outer 
cocoon, the tail being very near the end opposite to 
that from which the moth emerged; the skin itself 
was exactly three-eighths of an inch long, moderately 
stout, with well-developed thorax and long wing- 
covers, the tail of the abdomen tapering to rather a 
prolonged blunt point ; in colour it is of a darkish 
warm brown, darkest on the thorax and anal point, 
the surface of the wing-covers and lower rings of the 
abdomen shining. (William Buckler, 12th July, 
1881 ; E.M.M., August, 1881, XVIII, 57—59.) 

The ichneumon which Mr. Jeffrey bred from these 
larvae proved to be a common species of Braconid, 
Macrocentrus linearis, var. pallipes. (William Buckler, 
July, 1881 ; Note Book III, 222.) 

Agroteka kemobalis. 

Plate CL, fig. 5. 

I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. W. H. Tusr- 
well for eggs of this species, which readied me on the 
4th of June, 1875. Unfortunately I was not able to 
place the larvae immediately on their being hatched 
(8th of June) upon their food, and from this cause 
most of them afterwards came to grief; they are so 
small and delicate that they cannot bear moving. As 
soon as I could, however, I procured hornbeam leaves 
and shoots, having been informed that the moths were 
all captured off a hornbeam hedge, and not knowing 
in what condition they would be most acceptable, 
placed leaves in all stages — young, matured, and 
withered — in the bottle with the larva?. Had I been 
able to let the larva? at once have access to leaves 
just unfolded from the bud, I have little doubt all 
would have gone well. As it was, their strength 
seemed gone, and thev died off without feeding, till I 


thought I bad not one left; luckily this was not the 
case, for after waiting a few days I examined the food 
again carefully, and found I had one larva alive and 
doing well; this fed on and throve till about the 20th 
of July, when it spun up for pupation. 

How the moth would deposit its eggs in a state of 
freedom I cannot say ; those sent to me were laid 
singly on the sides of the pill-box; they were very 
soft in appearance, and though somewhat oval in out- 
line not regularly so, very flattened, the shell finely 
but unevenly pitted all over, almost translucent, — in 
fact, looking like tiny spots of grease. 

The newly-hatched larva has the head remarkably 
large for its size, and has longish bristles on the 
usual warts ; it is semi-translucent, pale greenish in 
the body, the head pale brown. When it has fixed 
itself with a few silken threads between two ribs on 
the under surface of a young leaf of hornbeam, it is 
at this sta^e almost invisible ; and for some time it 
lives in this way under a protection of silken threads, 
the head still keeping its relative size, growing bigger 
as the body grows, until the larva is about half- 
grown ; then it begins to feed between united leaves, 
and the figure assumes other proportions. 

When full-fed the larva is about three-quarters of 
an inch long, slender in figure, the head flattish and 
as wide as the second segment, the body stoutest 
about the seventh, eighth, and ninth segments, thence 
tapering both to the head and the tail; the anal pair 
of feet stretched out behind ; the skin very glassy 
and glistening, though somewhat wrinkled ; the colour 
of the head pale orange-brown, the antennal papilla) 
paler still and tipped with black, the mouth brown, 
the ocelli black, and a black spot at some distance 
behind them on the side of the head; the back as far 
down as the spiracular region is of a rather brownish- 
olive green, the dorsal line darker olive-green ; an 
undulating: row of internal darker blotches runs alone* 
in an interrupted manner a little above the spiracles, 


showing plainly through the translucent skin ; the 
spiracles are very small and inconspicuous, being of 
the ground colour ringed with brown ; below them 
the rest of the side, and the belly and legs, are of a 
uniform tint of very pale watery olive-greenish ; there 
is a fine hair from each tubercular situation. 

By the end of the third week in July, that is after 
feeding about six weeks, the larva spun up, forming 
for itself a cocoon in a very clever manner from a 
leaf of hornbeam ; taking as its standpoint a spot 
nearly in the centre of the midrib, equidistant that 
is from the tip of the leaf and the footstalk, and 
cutting through the midrib itself at that point, but 
leaving about one-eighth of an inch of the leaf uncut 
to serve as a footstalk to its cocoon, it proceeded to 
make two semicircular cuts towards the tip of the 
leaf, but at a slight inclination towards the left, so 
that further on the midrib was again severed by the 
right cut, and the place where the two cuts met was 
on the left edge of the leaf (looking at it, that is, from 
above) not very far from the tip ; using then the 
midrib of this semi-detached circular piece as the back- 
bone of its structure, the larva bent down the two sides 
of the piece, and fastened them together all along their 
edges ; the cocoon thus formed is rounded along the 
upper outline, and with its sides rather flattened till 
they meet in the sharp lower edge. (John Hellins, 
17th November, 1875; E.M.M., March, 1876, XII, 

The eggs of this beautiful species are deposited on 
the twigs of its food-plant, Carpinus betulus (horn- 
beam), singly or in small batches, about the first 
week in June, and are extremely flat and incon- 
spicuous ; on first seeing them one could hardly 
imagine them capable of containing life. Even when 
deposited on a smooth surface, like a pill-box, they 
are difficult to see, and when on the stem of the food- 
plant would almost defy the best pair of eyes to 


The young larvae batch in about ten days, and at 
first feed on the under-side of the leaves, beneath a 
loosely-spun web. After the second moult they 
gnaw little round holes in the leaf, just large enough 
for them to crawl through on their feeding excursions, 
and through which they re-enter their little silken 
abodes for rest and shelter. If touched or irritated, 
they crawl very quietly either backwards or forwards, 

When full-grown they are about nine-tenths of an 
inch long, of a pale yellowish-green colour, the head 
being of a slightly warmer tint of ochreous, and shiny ; 
a few colourless hairs are sparsely dispersed over the 
body, mostly along the spiracles. 

The larva spins up on a leaf by neatly and com- 
pactly folding up a portion of it, in shape something 
like a " turnover tart ; " this it lines with silk, making 
it doubtless a secure and water-tight abode to pass 
the winter, when of course it is detached from the tree 
— a sport to the winds. 

The imago appears about the 20th of May follow- 
ing. (W. H. Tugwell, July, 1876; Entom., August, 
1876, IX, 179.) 

Endotrtcha flam me alts. 
Plate CL, fig. 6. 

While engaged in studying Endotricha flammealis 
from the egg to the perfect insect, it has been my 
good fortune again to be associated in the deeply 
interesting task with Mr. William K. Jeffrey, who not 
only at the beginning supplied me with ova, but 
subsequently with the most favoured and promising 
of his larvaa, on occasions, and at a very critical period 
when failure seemed almost inevitable, and for his 
kind and invaluable assistance my grateful thanks are 
here recorded. 

I received the eggs on the 28th of July, 1881, about 


a dozen of them being laid deep among the long hairs 
in the axils of the flower and stalk of Lotus major, 
fourteen on leaves of Gorylus avellana, five on a spray 
of Mel ampy rum prat ens e, and one on a leaf of sallow. 

The esfo^s hatched in the morning of the 7th of 
August, and the young larvaa were supplied with 
leaves of all the above mentioned and a tender young 
leaf of oak in addition ; at the end of three days the 
softest of the hazel leaves showed a decided preference 
had been given to them by the tiny larvae, though the 
Lotus had also been eaten ; but of the other leaves only 
the oak showed any trace of attack, and in so slight 
a manner that it was not tried aeain for some time. 

At the end of a week many were laid up for their 
first moult, and this operation was not completed 
until the 17th, when the needful changing of food 
became a hazardous piece of work, and proved fatal 
to a few of the larvae. 

Two individuals more forward than the others got 
over their second moult on the 26th, while their 
companions lay waiting for their turn, and by the time 
they had completed their change of skin I became 
unpleasantly aware of having no more than eight 
larvae in all remaining. 

The third moult happened with one larva on the 
8th of September, and to the remainder on the 11th 
to the 13th, and while changing their food next day 
my long growing suspicion of cannibalism was verified, 
— for, just as on previous occasions, another larva 
was missing, and on my scrutinising what seemed a 
cast skin, it proved too surely to be the remains of a 
larva, in great part devoured, and I had no doubt of 
the culprit being that one which had moulted soonest, 
it having slain its victim while helplessly laid up. 

Hitherto, while changing food, I had occasionally 
noticed a dead larva in a suspicious condition, but 
thev were too few to account for the number of 
mysterious disappearances which began after the 
first moulting and continued at intervals; their pro- 


pensity was now noticed by Mr. Jeffrey, who reported 
finding one of his larvae badly bitten, and mine 
presently being reduced in number to six, I took the 
precaution henceforth to keep each one separate. 

After this they continued to feed a little, as evi- 
denced by ravages in the food and by small heaps of 
frass at intervals ; although they always seemed to me 
to be sleeping away their time as though it was of no 
importance whatever, and their growth was most 
remarkably slow, though, singularly enough, Mr. 
Jeffrey succeeded in bringing one of bis brood — but 
only one — to full growth by the 5th of November, 
when he very kindly sent it to me to watch, to figure, 
and note, and on the 10th it spun up ; but as no other 
of his nor any of mine could be induced to follow this 
example, and as the proper time for any further moult 
had long expired without the occurrence, and cold 
weather coming, I unwillingly saw they intended to 
hibernate, and feed up in the spring; and this really 
proved to be the case, for, with the above-mentioned 
single exception, none became full-fed much before the 
end of May, 1882. 

The perfect insects, male and female, eight in 
number, were bred by Mr. Jeffrey, and three also by 
myself, from the 29th of June to the 11th of July. 

The egg of E.flammealis is a longish oval in shape, 
rather large for the size of the insect ; the shell, 
minutely pitted on the surface, is whitish and glisten- 
ing: it adheres to the substance whereon it is laid, 
either on its side or standing on end, as well also to 
each other when laid in little clusters, and I found 
after six days it was very faintly tinged with greenish, 
and in four more days it hatched. 

The newly-hatched larva is very slender, translucent, 
and so slightly tinged with flesh-colour as to be almost 
white, with grey-brown head and narrow plate on the 
second segment ; on the third day after feeding on 
hazel the body is tinged internally with crimson, or if 
fed with the flow T er and leaves of Lotus major only, the 


internal vessel is tinted with bright green, and in 
either case the head and narrow plate are of a deep 
bright red ; it nibbles away little holes quite through 
the leaf at some time or other during the first twenty- 
four hours, from either the upper or under-surface, 
but is soon after to be found on the under-side, where 
it has spun for itself a little web of such delicate 
gossamer as to be hardly visible on the hazel leaf, or 
in the flower and leaflet of the Lotas. 

After the first moult it is still slender, the head and 
plate are dark reddish-brown, the skin of the body is 
less translucent, though still tinged with red from the 
interior, and now, by help of a strong lens, two rows 
of most minute brown dots can just be discerned on 
the back; the narrow silken somewhat tubular ham- 
mock is extremely thin and of pale brownish colour, 
wherein the occupant lies curled up motionless, and 
might be very easily overlooked without arresting 
notice as a larva. 

After the second moult it is grown but little, and 
seems very much as before, except that the skin of 
the body generally is more opaque and bears a faint 
tinge of bluish-green above and a paler tint of 
greenish-drab below ; the dark red head is followed 
by the darker brownish-red plate, and a very small 
dark plate appears on the anal flap ; the brown tuber- 
cular dots are more noticeable ; it seems always at 
rest in a close coil, either at one end or in the middle 
of its long transparent brownish web, and if turned 
out of its abode to examine is very timid, seldom 
uncoils, and for a long time is afraid to move ; though 
not detected either by Mr. Jeffrey or myself in the act 
of feeding, yet that it feeds well, probably at night, 
is shown by portions eaten out from leaves of hazel 
and Lotus major, and also, as Mr. Jeffrey advised me, 
from tender leaves of Agrimonia eapatoria, sallow, and 

After the third moult the skin is quite opaque and 
of a dark chocolate-brown colour above, a very dingy 


pinkish beneath; the head, rather widest in front near 
the mouth and a trifle flattened, is of brownish-red 
colour; the plate on the second segment is broad, 
blackish-brown, and for a time appears dorsally 
divided ; the small anal plate is of the same dark 
colour; the tubercular dots are rough, blackish, and 
ranged on either side of the back longitudinally in a 
straight line with each other, each dot bearing a fine 
hair. A most remarkable addition occurs a little below 
these on either side nearly close to the beginning of 
each segment beyond the thoracic, in that of a small 
ocellated crater-shaped spot with dark brown centre 
bearing a hair; other rough dark dull dots, similar to 
those on the back, occupy the usual tubercular 
situations along the sides and ventral region; the 
fifth and sixth segments on the belly have a transverse 
series of these close together. The grey-brown web it 
spins for its dwelling amongst the leaves now arrests 
attention from its curious construction, as when seen 
while the twigs are in an upright position the web is 
partitioned off into several cells or chambers, one 
above the other, by delicate diaphragms or floors, so 
to speak, varying in number, but often as many as 
from three to five, openly wrought and with fine 
connecting threads, the larva occupying sometimes 
one chamber, sometimes another, almost always in its 
characteristic posture with the tail curled round 
either across the second segment or over the head ; if 
turned out it feigns death for a long time, but when 
once it recovers from its fright it nimbly advances or 
retreats backwards in efforts to escape. 

By the 19th of September it is 12 mm. long, and 
is in a state of transition from its previous habit of 
eating growing leaves, which, as autumn advances, 
gradually die, and it accustoms itself by degrees to 
feed on those leaves of sallow and hazel, or of horn- 
beam, that are getting more discoloured and softened 
with blotches of incipient decay before falling ; thus 
it acquires the changed habit of feeding on decaying 


leaves, although ifc will yet, for a short time, occa- 
sionally vary its diet by eating a small portion from a 
green privet leaf, or even a small oak leaf if very 
tender, though at no time does it seem to really like 
either, and very soon it entirely rejects those leaves 
that may still linger in a comparatively green state. 

The changed quality of its food seems to affect the 
colouring of the larva, for by the end of September 
it is of a dark purplish-brown, more dingy than before ; 
the previous dorsal division on the neck-plate has 
disappeared, and the plate is now wholly black and 
shining, and it is altogether quite in harmony with its 
surroundings on the earth, where in a state of nature 
it would be, during winter, in the midst of fallen 
leaves of various kinds, and sure to find some with the 
requisite qualities of moisture and tenderness agree- 
able to its taste, and with these most probably it 
would not be very particular in its choice. 

After hibernation and when full-grown the larva is 
from 16 to 18 mm. in length ; its proportions are 
rather slender as far as the sixth segment, thence 
gradually thickening towards the ninth, then as 
gradually decreasing to the end of the eleventh, and 
more tapering to the end of the thirteenth ; the head 
is a trifle narrower than the second segment ; the third 
and fourth have deepish and subdivided wrinkles ; the 
remainder are well divided, and each is on the back 
subdivided in the middle by two deep wrinkles very 
close together, a distinguishing character from a very 
early stage ; the front subdivision of the thirteenth is 
long and the anal flap short ; the ventral legs are 
small, the stouter anal pair extended backwards; the 
tubercular dots are as before, but not a trace can be 
seen of the crater-shaped spots before mentioned; 
they are obsolete ; the fine rugosity which had 
previously made the skin so dull is now much 
smoothed away ; the general colouring, too, is rather 
less dark on the back and sides ; the spiracles are 
round and black, but so minute as only to be seen with 


help from a powerful lens ; the head is rather darker 
than before, the papillae are pale and translucent, the 
collar-plate is blackish-brown, all the legs are pale 
greyish-drab and rather transparent; the anal plate is 
blackish on the front and side margins, brownish-grey 
behind; the belly has a brownish-ochreous tinge, and 
somewhat of this modifies the darker chocolate-brown 
of the back, assimilating well with the few old decaying 
leaves in spring that can yet be found lingering on in 
the haunts of the insect. 

The cocoon, formed by the larva that was prema- 
turely full-fed, on withering leaves of sallow on the 
10th of November, was of a roundish oval figure, 
composed of greyish-drab coloured silk, spun on the 
under-side of one of the leaves and joined in part to 
another; the silken surface exposed to view became 
in course of the night following finished off with a 
number of small particles of greenish leaf sprinkled 
irregularly, over it, which adhering, gave just the 
speckled aspect the under-side of the sallow leaf pre- 
sented so often at that time ; both leaf-stalks were 
fastened to the twigs with thick moorings of silk, and 
one end of the cocoon being attached to the vessel 
wherein it was kept for observation, seemed suggestive 
of an innate habit under favouring circumstances of 
securing the cocoon to some fixed object; a day later 
it became needful for its removal to sever this attach- 
ment, causing a hole exposing much of the larva to 
view, and allowing me to note its already changing 
colour; but it was quite equal to the mishap, for 
within a few hours it spun a quantity of silk over the 
hole and prevented any further observation. 

The above exceptional instance induces me to add 
that all the other larvae of E. flammealis remaining 
alive in spring spun themselves up during the last few 
days in May, both with Mr. Jeffrey and myself, and 
that one of mine was in an oval cocoon of 13 by 
6 mm. diameters, covered with particles of earth and of 
dead leaf, half sunk in the soil and attached to a dead 


leaf lying on the surface above with other leaves 
matted together ; another cocoon had but little earth 
in its covering, and was chiefly composed of decayed 
leaf of hornbeam and hazel, situated partly within a 
curled-up leaf of the former kind, to which and to a 
little moss it was fastened; another was a most clever 
adaptation of the lower part of a dead sallow leaf with 
foot-stalk remaining, the edges of the leaf having been 
drawn round to meet, and fastened with silk formed 
a hollow cone, which at the open end had been stopped 
with grey-brown silk and the interior smoothly lined 
with similar material ; in this the old larval skin lay 
next the foot-stalk at the pointed end, and the tail of 
the pupa next, altogether 15 mm. in length. 

The pupa itself is eight and a quarter mm. long, its 
general figure very much of ordinary form, the head 
and eye-pieces moderately well developed ; the thorax, 
well produced, with distinct sub-divisions, is slightly 
keeled, the hind margin on either side strongly 
prominent, and convexly sloping downward to the 
central point or end of the keel; the wing-covers 
slant off towards the ends of the antennas and leg- 
cases, which are long ; the moveable rings of the 
abdomen have a punctate surface, but are smoothly 
cut at the divisions ; the spiracles are rather prominent, 
especially the largest on the twelfth segment; the 
abdominal tip is a little prolonged, rounded, and 
furnished with two longish curled-topped bristles 
surrounded with four others of shorter lengths ; its 
colour is very dark mahogany-brown approaching to 
blackish at the anal tip, with a glossy surface. 
(William Buckler, November 10th, 1882; E.M.M., 
December, 1882, XIX, 149—154) 

The editors of the E.M.M. add a note to the abo\ r e 
description that the mystery surrounding the trans- 
formations of Endotricha flammealis has been simul- 
taneously dispelled by the independent observations 
of investigators of different nationality. At the 
meeting of the Societe Entomologique de Belgique, 


held on the 7th October, 1882, Dr. Heylaerts read a 
description of the larva and its habits, as observed by 
him in Holland ; it is not so detailed as Mr. Buckler's, 
and there are certain small discrepancies between the 
two, but the results are practically the same. (Editors 
of E.M.M., December, 1882, XIX, 154.) 

Nascia cilialis. 

A supposed larva of Nascia cilialis was found on 
the 14th of August, 1868, at Wicken Fen, feeding on 
Cladium mariscus, by Mr. W. R. Jeffrey, then of 
Saffron Walden. 

The larva was about one inch long, thickest in the 
middle, and tapering in front and rather more tapering 
behind, loug and slender in character, with sixteen 
legs. The ground colour of the back is yellow, of a 
pale primrose tint anteriorly, deepening behind to a 
fuller yellow ; the dorsal stripe is dark green at the 
beginning on the second segment, changing gradually 
after the fifth to reddish ; the subdorsal stripe of 
purple is very broad along the middle of the body and 
attenuated at either end, extended over the head ; 
below this is a rather broad primrose-yellow stripe of 
about equal width throughout, succeeded by a green 
line, and then the bright deep yellow spiracular stripe, 
much puffed and wrinkled, the spiracles being of the 
same colour, and the belly and legs of a very pale 
greenish tint. 

This larva unfortunately died, but another, which, 
just like the above described, Mr. Jeffrey kept himself 
on some kind of Garex, became full-fed and spun itself 
up, in a silken cocoon or web of the colour of new 
tracing-paper, on its food-plant ; the cocoon being 
somewhat shuttle-shaped, nearly perpendicular, and 
about seven-eighths of an inch in length ; but the 
pupa died by or before the following spring. (William 
Buckler, 1869; Note Book II, 138/) 

VOL, IX. 5 


One larva, supposed to be Nascia cilialis, was found 
and forwarded to me by the Hon. Thomas de Grey, 
M.P. [now Lord Walsingham], on the 23rd of 
September, 1869, and figured on the 27th, 

It fed on a species of Gar ex with its head down- 

This larva measured from seven-eighths to an inch 
in length, and was slender, tapering a little in front 
and still more behind. It was striped longitudinally 
on the head and body. The dorsal line was red, 
which commencing on the head outlined the front of 
each lobe, and then passed over the crown and down 
the middle of the back as an orange-red thin stripe of 
uniform width, having a stripe of yellow ground colour 
on either side. This is followed along the subdor- 
sal region by a deep crimson or purple-red stripe, 
attenuated on the head and the anal segment, and 
increasing in width on the other segments towards 
the seventh, eighth, and ninth, where it is broadest. 
Immediately beneath is a stripe of sulphur-yellow of 
uniform width throughout, and this is followed by the 
deeper full bright yellow of the sides and legs ; the 
belly is a very pale yellowish-green. The spiracles 
are pale reddish, scarcely to be detected as they are 
situated in a deep lateral wrinkle ; the tubercles on the 
back are slightly raised, each bearing a fine hair. 

While feeding, and for a little time after, the head 
and front segments have the stripes of purple intensi- 
fied and the red dorsal stripe tinged with green, and 
the yellow of the back is palest on the thoracic 

By the 1st of October it had increased in length 
three-sixteenths of an inch, and measured full one and 
one-sixteenth inches, and this in little more than a 
week, in the course of which the ravages made on the 
leaves of the Gar ex were remarkable ; always feeding 
with its head downwards, in this inverted position it 
invariably commenced by eating out a notch from the 
blade, of an obtuse angle, and from thence continued 


to eat upwards in a retrograde direction, and always 
leaving the outer edo^e untouched until it became like 
a thin stem, when the weight of the upper part with 
that of the larva would cause it to fall down and come 
in contact with another blade, of which the larva took 
possession. Although it ate more or less of every 
blade of the plant, it never attacked any of them 
nearer the ground than from where they began to 
diverge in position from each other, nor did I see that 
it at all explored below that part of the Car ex. 

On the 2nd of October it ceased to feed, and 
wandered on to the cylinder that enclosed the plant, 
and from thence to the edge of the leno cover, where 
it remained till noon of the 3rd, as though investi- 
gating the suitability of the place for pupation ; but on 
my touching the leno it immediately dropped by a 
thread nearly to the earth, where it hung suspended 
for about half a minute; it then began to oscillate a 
little, which brought it in contact with a part of the 
Carex, which it ascended, and by 2 p.m. it had chosen 
a situation for its cocoon, and began spinning between 
three blades of the Garex at about the distance of five 
inches from the earth, this being the point from 
whence the blades were naturally tending to diverge. 
At 10 p.m. only the head of the larva was visible as it 
angrily thrust it forth for a moment to deter a too 
curious small slug from intrusion. This invader I 
ejected, and on the morning of the 4th I had the 
satisfaction of seeing the structure was completed,- 
and in a very artful manner, the only visible trace of 
its work being a slight triangular elongated perpendi- 
cular streak of drab-coloured silk web scarcely notice- 
able between the edg^es of two of the blades. 

Most unfortunately in the following summer an 
examination proved the larva to have died in its 
cocoon without having pupated. (William Buckler, 
October, 1869 ; Note Book II, 139.) 

Seeing that it has excited the interest of so many 
entomologists resident near, or occasionally visiting, 


Wickeri Fen, it is rather wonderful that this larva 
has not been described before in the £ Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine.' It has long been known on the 
Continent (Heinemann, * Die Schmetterlinge Deutsch- 
lands,' etc., Zweite Abtheilung, Band I, Heft 2, p. 68, 
1865), and in this country to Lord Walsingham, the 
late Mr. Buckler (both of whom kindly gave me infor- 
mation about it), and to others ; but I am not aware of 
its having been bred on this side of the water before 
the present year. The explanation of this is probably 
that during the day the larvae crawl down deep into 
the herbage, so that they cannot be beaten into the 
tray, and that but a small proportion of the moths 
taken at light (the usual mode of capturing the 
imago) are females, while those that are taken do not 
lay readily, — at any rate, I have several times failed to 
obtain eggs. 

My own experience with the larva is limited to that 
of three specimens, two of which I beat on successive 
days about the middle of September, 1882, at about 
5.30 p.m., from a plant locally called Lisp, which I 
believe is otherwise known as Gar ex riparia. Believ- 
ing in the "bird in the hand," I preserved these 
larvse, greatly to the disgust of a brother entomo- 
logist. The third larva I received on the 1st of 
October, 1886, from Mr. Albert Houghton ; it is the 
subject of this account. 

In captivity it rested at full length on the under side 
of a leaf of Garex, dropping rather readily by a silken 
thread when disturbed. It was sluggish, and crawled 
but slowly. When feeding it ate large pieces from 
the edges of the leaves. The head of the larva is 
prone, larger than the second segment, pale yellow ; 
down the middle of it is continued the dorsal line ; 
against this latter the lobes are edged with a faint 
red stripe ; they have also a broad red-purple one 
down the middle, corresponding with the subdorsal 
line. The body is fusiform, thickest at the seventh 
and eighth segments. The dorsal line is olive-green, 


with a reddish tinge on the hind part of some of the 
central segments ; it runs from the head to the tip of 
the flap, and is narrowly margined with sulphur- 
yellow. The subdorsal line is of a bright red-purple, 
and is continued from the sides of the head round the 
flap. The sides of the larva are bright yellow, most 
intense next the subdorsal line, gradually fading into 
the pale green of the ventral area. The warts are 
indistinct, of the same colour as the part on which 
they are situated ; each bears a short black hair, four 
of which on the thirteenth segment are longer and 
more conspicuous than the rest. The spiracles are 

The larva spent the winter in an opaque papery 
cocoon in an old reed stem, and pupated early in the 
second week in June. The moth (?) emerged on the 
22nd June, 1887. 

The pupa measured 10 mm. by 2*5 mm. at the 
widest part. The head, thorax, limb-cases, and upper 
abdominal segments were nearly black, the posterior 
segments yellowish on the ventral aspect, shaded off 
into dark brown on the dorsal. The win^-cases were 
well marked, those of the posterior wings projecting 
beyond those of the anterior. The antenna! cases 
curve outwards at their tips round those of the wings. 
The thirteenth segment ends with a long, red, flat- 
tened, horny process, which bears eight hooked spines 
arranged in four pairs. (W. H. B. Fletcher, 3rd 
September, 1887; E.M.M., October, 1887, XXIV, 

Figures 80 and 91 of this species are referred to as 
having been made by Mr. Buckler, but are not to be 
found among his drawings. — G. T. P. 


Plate CL, fig. 7. 

After several fruitless attempts by others in former 
years at unveiling the life-history of this species, 
complete success has been achieved during the past 
season by Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, who has reared the 
imago from the egg, and again from larvae taken at 
large in their habitat [at Freshwater, Isle of Wight, 
W. Buckler, Note Book IV, 217]. For instructions as 
to when and where the moth could be found he was 
indebted to the Hev. C. H. Digby, who, like myself, 
had captured it in more than one locality, sometimes 
almost ou the beach, sometimes at the top of the cliff, 
but always close to the sea ; the larva, when at large, 
must, in stormy weather, be quite within reach of the 
salt spray, but it has thriven very well without any 
such seasoning to its food in captivity. 

Towards the end of the second week in August, 
1883, Mr. Fletcher captured several moths, and some 
more again a little later, and in both cases he ob- 
tained eggs from them ; the larvae were hatched in 
about a fortnight or rather more, and fed away 
readily on flowers and leaves of Lotus comiculatus, 
making awnings (not tubes) of very sticky silk; Mr. 
Fletcher carried his stock through on the same food, 
supplemented at times with clover. About Michael- 
mas, Mr. Buckler, who had received eggs from him, 
sent me a larva, which I placed in a bottle, and, after 
a little time, rather neglected ; however, to my sur- 
prise I found that my neglect had done no harm, for 
this larva seemed to enjoy its food when damp and 
rotten rather more than when freshly gathered. Be- 
fore long Mr. Buckler made the same discovery ; he 
had been giving his larvae knapweed and plantain, 
and on one occasion when changing the food was 
obliged to put back a decaying leaf, because a moult- 


ing larva was fixed on it, and the next time tie looked 
there were three of them eating it in preference to 
the fresher leaves ; and so through the winter his 
batch of larvae remained shut up in tin boxes, and 
contentedly living among a mass of dead knapweed 
and plantain leaves, and heaps of their own frass, all 
spun together with fine but tenacious silk. They 
moulted four times in the autumn, and I think twice 
again in the spring, and in May several appeared to 
be full-fed. At this date Mr. Fletcher made an expe- 
dition with Mr. Digby to the locality in which the 
moths had previously been taken, and by carefully 
removing pebbles and stones was most fortunately 
enabled to find the larvse at home, feeding under their 
silken coverings on vegetable rubbish composed of 
grass stems and roots, dead leaves of plants, and 
withered Zoster a marina; the larvse thus discovered 
were not quite so far advanced as those in my posses- 
sion, but were larger than Mr. Fletcher's own stock, 
whicli had been feeding all along on fresh food ; in 
May and June they all became pupa3, and during the 
last ten days of June and the first week of July I bred 
several moths, Mr. Fletcher's moths appearing rather 
later; and on the 12th of July I received some eggs 
obtained by Mr. Sydney Webb from captured moths ; 
probably the imago has rather an extended period of 
flight. I may add here that the newly hatched larvae 
of this season, from the first, ate withered leaves as 
readily as those freshly gathered. 

Where or how the moths deposit their eggs we do 
not know ; my own recollection is that of seeing them 
flying rather freely at my approach, but over a very 
limited area, during daylight, whilst on one occasion 
Mr. Fletcher found them hiding under the leaves of 
Centaurea and Pyrethrum during a ga,le ; perhaps the 
egg is deposited on the nnder side of the lowest 

The egg is roundish-oval in outline, flat, and soft- 
looking ; the shell is thin, glistening, and thimble- 


pitted all over the slightly convex upper surface ; in 
colour it is yellowish; its long diameter is about 


mm., the shorter diameter -f± mm. 

The newly hatched larva is yellowish in colour, 
with dark head and collar, slender, with the segments 
well defined ; it at once spins a silken covering, under 
which it feeds ; it grows away through August and 
September. I have just now (8th of October) mea- 
sured one, which is quite 12 mm. long, slender in 
figure, viewed from above pretty well uniform in 
bulk, except that the first segments taper slightly, 
but sideways the front segments and head are seen to 
taper considerably ; the skin is very glistening and 
translucent, the colour a pale but warm amber, the 
food showing through blackish in whatever region of 
the internal vessels it happens bo be ; the head is very 
shining, of light red tint; the collar on the second 
segment is large, brown, its pale median line edged 
with almost blackish-brown ; the usual dots are small, 
black, placed on large glittering warts darker than 
the skin, those on the third and fourth darker than 
the rest ; spiracles indistinct ; legs pale ; like the larvse 
of Pyr alidad generally, it lives quietly enough on or 
among its food, but is very active when disturbed, 
wriggling and jumpiug backwards or forwards with 

The full-fed larva is about 19 mm. in length, with 
proportions much as before, slender, being stoutest at 
the eighth segment, with the back tapering each way 
slightly in a curve, the head narrower than the second 
segment; the skin at last less translucent, but still 
very glittering ; general colour of a pale yellowish 
stone tint, but all the middle space of the back shows 
ashy grey from the internal vessels, and through this 
space runs the darker interrupted pulsating dorsal 
vessel; the segmental folds also show darker; the 
head is very glittering, in colour clear reddish-chest- 
nut ; the collar is of a much darker brown, reaching 
across the whole length of the second segment on the 


back, but curving forwards at the sides, and being 
cut in two by a pale line, and each half is bordered 
with darker brown again along this line, and also for 
a short way along the front and back edges; the 
spiracles are prominent, but not easy to see, and are 
ringed with brown ; the usual dots are very tiny and 
jet-black, placed on large shining warts ; on each of 
the third and fourth segments there is a pair of large 
roughly triangular warts near the front edge, and 
four rounder ones on each side, and all these are 
noticeably darker than the warts on the other seg- 
ments, and apparently form a distinguishing feature ; 
on the other segments the trapezoidals are placed on 
large warts of an oblong shape, the front pair being 
squarer than those behind, but with each pair the 
greater length runs transversely ; these warts, with 
the lateral ones, which are rounder, are all pale 
blackish ; there is no distinct anal plate ; all the dots 
bear fine longish bristles. 

Mr. Fletcher describes his larvae, fed on fresh 
leaves, as being watery yellowish-green in colour, 
with sage-green warts, this difference of course being 
caused by the different colour of the food seen through 
the transparent skin. 

The larva makes a toughish cocoon, lined with a 
fabric of white silk, and coated externally with leafy 
rubbish, about 15 or 16 mm. long, and about 6 mm. 

The pupa is about 11 mm. long, slender, 2 mm. 
across the thorax ; the eye-cases are rather prominent ; 
the tongue-, antenna-, and leg-cases, soldered together, 
are attached to the body as far as the end of the 
wing-cases, thence free, and reaching quite to the 
end of the abdomen, and overreached by the spike 
only ; the shoulders swell gradually from the head, 
the abdomen tapers very gently, the general figure is 
cylindrical; the anal spike is slightly curved, and is 
furnished with six curl-topped spines ; the pupa-skin 
is smooth, not very shiny, under a lens appearing 


rather roughened ; the colour generally is yellowish- 
brown, the eyes, the tip and the rings of the abdo- 
men, and the tip of the tongue-case, chestnut, the 
spike still darker. (John Hellins, 9th October, 1884 ; 
B.M.M., November, 1884, XXI, 121—123.) 

Cataclysta lemnata. 
Plate OLI, fig. 1. 

On the 10th of November, 1874, Mr. W. C. Boyd 
kindly sent me six young larvse of this species in 
their cases, and I found no great difficulty in keeping 
them in thriving condition by placing them in a 
vessel of water with a supply of Lemna minor floating 
on the top. It gave me much interest and pleasure 
to watch them from time to time, and I have set down 
my observations as it occurred to me to note them. 

When they first arrived these larvae were often 
protruding from their cases half or more of their 
bodies, both on the surface of the water and also below 
it, while apparently examining the surrounding weed; 
often they would ascend a little way on the side of the 
glass vessel, and fix themselves there with only their 
head downwards and projecting into the water, while 
the other end of their cases above it on the glass 
would have a bright silvery air-bubble. 

Sometimes they would descend beneath the surface 
of the water, down the side of the glass, for an inch 
or two, and even more ; and then, while crawling, they 
often protruded as many as eight segments, showing 
a line of silvery sparkles along each side in the spira- 
cular region, the other parts of the body appearing 

On the 16th of the month, having noticed that one 
had remained at the very bottom of the water, hidden 
entirely in its case, for some time, I removed it to 
another vessel of water, the better to observe its 
behaviour; at first it floated on the surface, but after 


a few minutes came out of the case as far as the fifth 
segment, and by crawling soon managed to arrive at 
the side of the glass, along which it continued to 
crawl at the level margin of the water, occasionally 
turning itself round within its case, and coming partly 
out at the other end, thus proving the case to be open 
at both ends — a fact which was not suggested by its 
appearance. The external figure of the case was of 
an irregular oval form, nearly half an inch in length, 
and varying in width from two to three lines, the 
leaves of which it was formed overlapping each other, 
but in an irregular manner, and so contrived that a 
leaf or two should bang down and mask the openings 
at the ends, when the occupant, as was often the case, 
remained quiet within; the two ends of the case are 
not quite alike in their fashioning, and the whole 
thing, when the larva is not seen, very much resembles 
an accidental accumulation of some of the duckweed, 
so slight is the eminence which it causes above the 
general level of the surface. 

When the larva reposed just so far within its case 
as only to show a little of its head, there was the 
smallest conceivable silvery sparkle lurking at the 
bases of its antennal papillae, and also about the 
mouth ; but when it was in motion with two-thirds 
of its body beyond its case, this quicksilver-like 
appearance of air in water was exhibited more 
extensively along each of its sides as a broad band, 
and even the bases of its anterior legs were encircled 
with radiance, and sparkling with each movement; 
this luminous appearance changed its position with 
that of the larva, according to the angle of light in 
which it was viewed ; sometimes, behind the second 
segment, the back appeared completely silvered over, 
and sometimes the belly ; and at other times trans- 
verse silvery lines marked the segmental divisions. 

After watching it some time I took it in my hand 
and stripped off the case of duckweed leaf by leaf, 
leaving the larva naked and perfectly dry ; then 

76 cataolysta lemnata. 

placing it in a small dry saucer, I found it much less 
helpless than I at first thought, for recovering in a 
few seconds from the surprise of its novel situation, 
it began to crawl about and up the side of the saucer ; 
I then put in a small quantity of water, and placed 
the larva on it, when it floated without sinking even 
its feet, and when touched slid quite helplessly about ; 
in fact, I found it now impossible to immerse the larva, 
for its specific gravity seemed as nothing in compari- 
son with the water. 

After figuring the naked larva I placed it in a 
glass of water with a little duckweed on the surface, 
and then it at once began to spin some of the leaves 
together with its anterior legs, placing and holding 
them suitably for its purpose; and still it remained 
all the while perfectly dry, its skin being the very 
perfection of waterproof texture. 

In the course of six minutes it had roughly con- 
structed a new case, and was almost hidden from 
view, by this time lying on its back and employed 
seemingly in finishing the interior. 

While out of its case I found it was three-eighths 
of an inch long, of slender proportion, thickest in the 
middle, the anal flap rounded above like a small knob, 
the colour of the head and second segment black 
above and shining, the rest of the body without gloss 
and of a sooty velvety blackness, but a blacker dorsal 
line could be distinguished ; a faint olive tint seemed 
to show through the sooty surface along the spiracular 
region under a lens, but even that aid did not enable 
me at this early stage to see the spiracles. 

At the approach of winter all the larvse ceased to 
feed on the duckweed, and shut themselves up in 
their cases for hibernation from early in December to 
the beginning of March, 1875, when during the 
occurrence of a few mild days they began to move 
about and protrude their front segments, but soon 
retired again until the middle of April ; thenceforward 
they frequently came partly out, and appeared to be 


feeding well, and by the 5th of May their cases were 
enlarged with additions from the fresh weed. 

On the 10th of May I saw, with some anxiety, a 
larva out of its case, apparently dead at the bottom of 
the water; when taken out for examination it proved 
to be still alive, but in hopeless plight, infested with 
extremely minute, slender, whitish, semi-translucent, 
parasitic worms, whicb, on emerging, coiled and 
wriggled round their dying victim. Three other larvae 
succumbed to these parasites soon afterwards. 

On turning over one of the two remaining cases on 
the 12th of May I was surprised to see the larva 
walk immediately out of it as though in alarm, and 
after crawling over the duckweed on the surface of 
the water partly ascend the side of the glass ; it 
seemed to be full-grown, so I placed it in a shallow 
saucer of water, and secured a couple of figures and 
the following description : 

Length just five-eighths of an inch, or a little more 
when stretched out to the utmost, in which position 
it appeared nearly uniform in size throughout, but its 
more usual appearance while at rest or crawling was 
to be thickest in the middle of the body, the first five 
segments tapering towards the head, which is partly 
retractile into the second segment ; the second seg- 
ment is longer than the usual proportion, while 
the third and fourth are shorter than the others ; the 
thickest segments are the sixth to the tenth ; from the 
latter the figure tapers again to the thirteenth, which 
is the smallest segment ; its former knob is not present ; 
the divisions and subdivisions are all deeply defined ; 
the anal tip is rounded and but little sloped ; the 
anterior legs are very well developed ; the ventral ones 
are full and fleshy, but with small feet ; the anal pair 
are rather small; the back, viewed sideways, is a little 
arched, sloping off towards the head, and more to the 
anal extremity. 

The colour of the head is pale olive-brown, darkest 
at the mouth, and shining ; the very lustrous black 


plate on the second segment is relieved behind by a 
pale margin of olive-greenish ; from thence the whole 
surface of the body is of a deep sooty olive blackness, 
soft and velvety, with the slight exception of the anal 
tip being a little browner than the rest, and rather 
less velvety ; a black dorsal stripe can just be dis- 
cerned ; the anterior legs are pale olive ; the puffed 
spiracular region is a little puckered, and the small 
circular blackish spiracles raised in the least degree 
above the surrounding surface, and slightly glistening; 
a few fine soft hairs from the usual situations are just 

As before, this larva, when supplied with a little 
duckweed, soon formed for itself a new case ; on 
examining the case of the other survivor I found it 
had already become a pupa; I put them in the same 
vessel together, and on the 15th of May I found the 
larva was joining its case to that which contained the 
pupa, thus making together a much bigger object 
floating on the water ; at intervals more weed was 
added by the larva until the 17th, when it became 
quiescent, and then the whole mass presented an oval 
form of about the bulk of a house-sparrow's egg. 

Not expecting an imago quite so early, 1 left the 
water uncovered until the 26th of May, when I noticed 
a diminution in size of the case, and knew I had lost 
the first moth ; but I secured the second moth, a fine 
female specimen which appeared on the 5th of June. 

On opening the deserted remains of the cases I 
found that of the first moth fallen to decay, while the 
one just vacated was oval within, five-eighths of an inch 
in length, thickly and smoothly lined with whitish 
silk, the old blackish cast skin of the larva and the 
broken pupa-skin remaining in it; this pupa-skin was 
a little more than three-eighths of an inch in length, 
with a large development of the wing-, antenna-, and 
leg-cases, the last projecting a little free from the 
body, which was smooth and shining, the head and 
thorax rounded off, the abdominal tip rather blunt, 


and but little produced beyond the last ring, and 
having on each side a small angular projection ; the 
circular flat button-like spiracles very slightly raised 
above the surface ; the colour was a warm brown, and 
shining. (William Buckler, 16th August, 1875; 
E.M.M., October, 1875, XII, 102—106.) 


Plate CLI, fig. 2. 

It gives me great pleasure to acknowledge with 
sincere thanks my obligation to Mr. W. C. Boyd, of 
Cheshunt, for all the trouble he has so kindly taken to 
furnish me with examples of this curious subaqueous 
larva, until I have been able to observe its habits with 
some degree of completeness. 

On the 10th of June, 1872, he sent me in wet moss 
in a tin box, by post, two cocoons and three larvae ; 
one of the latter, having died, was submitted to Dr. 
T. A. Chapman, who examined its structure under the 
microscope, and very kindly took considerable trouble 
in making pen-and-ink sketches of several portions of 
it — to my great assistance in making it out. 

The other examples I figured and described, but 
was baffled at that time in fully observing their habits 
by (as I believe) the carnivorous propensities of sundry 
leeches and other interlopers, that gained admittance 
among the leaves of the Anacharis alsinastrum, one of 
the plants on which Para/ponyx stratiotata feeds ; for 
by the end of the year not a trace of cocoons or larvae 
could be found. 

However, on the 21st of July, 1874, Mr. Boyd was 
able to send me, by railway, several cocoons and larvae, 
as well as a good supply of food, and with these, 
having taken more pains, I have been more successful, 
carefully removing from their habitat all creatures 


that could do them harm, and always straining the 
water supplied from time to time to make good what 
had been lost by evaporation. 

Before giving a detailed account of my observations 
I had better describe the larva, because the peculiari- 
ties of its structure will account for the most curious 
of its habits. 

The larva when full-grown is from six-eighths to 
seven-eighths of an inch in length, of cylindrical 
figure, though tapered a little on the four anterior 
segments, the head being rather the smallest, and the 
two hinder segments also a little tapered ; the anterior 
and anal legs are very well developed, the ventral ones 
moderately so ; the skin is soft and smooth, and 
furnished with eight rows of flexible branchiae,* com- 
posed of tufts of six or less slender fleshy filaments of 
unequal length tapering to rather fine points, and all 
radiating from a short thick basal stem, and occupying 
the positions of the usual warts or spots seen so 
distinctly in an Agrotis larva; otherwise, to the unas- 
sisted eye, they remind one of the spines of some 
butterfly larvae. 

In colour the semi-translucent body is of a very pale 
tint of olive-ochreous or of whitish-ochreous, gene- 
rally more or less tinged with olive, and marked with 
a few small purplish freckles ; the alimentary canal is 
conspicuous, showing through the skin as a broad 
dorsal stripe of dark grey, or brownish- or greenish - 
grey; the whitish tracheae can also be partially seen 
through the skin on each side ; the pale brown head 
has the lobes delicately outlined with dark brown, the 
mouth and ocelli blackish-brown ; the branch ia3 dirty 

# That these are rightly so called, and that they are connected with 
the respiratory system, I had a good proof while changing the water of 
the first two larvae I received; when I put them for a minute or two 
into a glass of spring water just drawn from a filter, immediately there 
appeared a small silvery air-bubble at the extreme point of each fila- 
ment, but when the larvae were returned to the fresh river water these 
air-bubbles soon disappeared. I did not try to make them appear 
again, as I feared the experiment might be detrimental to the health of 
the larvae. — W. B. 

PARAPONYX stratiotAta. 81 

whitish-grey ; the spiracles are exceedingly small and 
black, each being situated on the flat centre of a 
swelling eminence ; a small wart-like tubercle near 
the base of the ventral legs bears a single hair-like 

On putting the second supply of the larvae, etc., with 
the weed, into a glass globe of water, I found amongst 
them a cylindrical case formed with pieces of Butomus 
umbellatus, about an inch and a half long and half an 
inch in diameter, no doubt originally constructed by a 
very different aquatic larva, though now tenanted by 
a larva of P. stvatiotata ; this, on looking at it three 
hours afterwards, at night, I saw had been deserted; 
the next morning I found it again in possession of 
one of the larvae, when, for better observation, I 
transferred it with the larva to a wide-mouthed bottle 
of water and a spray or two of the food-plant ; I also 
placed four others of the larvae, separately, with pieces 
of the weed, into as many similar bottles of water ; in 
the course of the same evening I saw that the indi- 
vidua! in the case had contrived to sink its abode to 
the bottom of the bottle, and had fixed it there in a 
nearly perpendicular position by spinning a quantity 
of silken threads to the end of a stem of the food- 
plant, already made fast by similar means to the side 
and bottom of the bottle; this case had previously 
been floating on the surface of the water, both when 
empty and when a larva was inside. 

Another larva, that had its bottle supplied with a 
longer spray bent double, began at once to spin a 
quantity of silk to the bent part of the stem, and to 
the side and bottom of the bottle, thus forming a kind 
of silken tent open at one side, and through this open- 
ing I was able to observe all its movements from time 
to time. 

Another spun for itself a sloping wall or screen of 
silk, from the side to the middle of the bottom of the 
bottle, enclosing two pieces of the waterweed fixed 
within it; this was also open at one end. 

vol. ix. 6 

82 £akaponyx stratiotata. 

Another spun two stems to the side of its bottle in 
nearly a vertical position, about half an inch apart, 
and spread its web from one stern to the other, and 
upon the glass of the sides of the bottle, leaving an 
opening below half an inch from the bottom of the 
water, the top of the web being about the same 
distance from the top of the water ; this larva con- 
tinued to live in a position perpendicular to the 
bottom of the bottle, and eventually drew the stems 
of its food closer together, and spun itself up in a 
cocoon between them on the 25th of July. 

The fifth larva, which was smaller than the others, 
spun a squarish web for itself in the midst of three 
pieces of the waterweed, and when other pieces were 
supplied spun a fresh web amongst them. 

I soon found that these larvae in the bottles, as well 
as those in the globe, preferred to live at some depth 
in the water, not one of them choosing to reside at 
the surface ; each larva in the globe spun a web for 
itself, either a kind of open tent or a short gallery, 
and the form varied with its surrounding circum- 
stances, but it was invariably fastened to the food- 
plant, and occasionally to the glass also ; one larva, I 
noticed, often cut off leaves from the stem of its food, 
and then attached them to the silken wall of its 

I now come to mention the peculiar habit of this 
larva, which I watched with extreme interest during 
many months. 

Night and day, at intervals varying from one to 
three minutes apart, the larva, holding to its web by 
the anal legs, rapidly undulates its body upwards and 
forwards with considerable vigour and energy, while 
the three hinder segments appear motionless ; this 
intermittent movement lasts about twenty-one se- 
conds at a time, and is followed by a period of rest ; 
longer, that is for two or three minutes, when the 
larva is quiet ; and shorter when it is feeding, at such 
times not exceeding one minute. That this energetic 


undulation is connected with the respiration of the 
larva is evident from the fact that the branchial fila- 
ments are then all in strong action; for, instead of 
radiating as they do in repose, they become depressed 
a little, and point forwards in the direction of the 

As to their method of feeding, I noticed that the 
smaller larvae ate only the green cuticle from the 
leaves, thus bleaching them ; but the larger ones ate 
completely through the leaves, cutting out circular 
pieces ; when frass was ejected, the dark alimentary 
canal was seen suddenly to lose its contents as far 
back as the beginning of the third segment from the 
anal extremity (that is the eleventh segment counting 
in the usual way), and to discharge them with such 
great velocity that the frass was carried about an 
inch outside the opening of the silken residence, the 
larva having first moved backwards to the opening, 
and afterwards retiring within to its former place. I 
found in each of the above-mentioned bottles every 
morning, at the same distance from the web, an 
accumulation of rejectamenta, consisting of small 
ovate particles of olive-greenish vegetable debris, 
little changed in colour from that of the plant; in one 
instance, after cleaning out this accumulation, and 
supplying fresh water with no apparent disturbance 
to the larva, I found that, at the end of twenty-four 
hours, it had expelled twenty-six pellets of frass. 

On the 10th of September, 1874, I had the great 
satisfaction of breeding one moth from a larva that 
had spun up in a bottle ; but I got out no more, for 
although I bad then and previously so many other 
pupae, yet they, like most of the larvae, seemed stand- 
ing over for another season ; indeed, two larvae were 
not much more than half grown by the 5th of 
October ; up to that date all seemed going on very 
well, but as winter approached they and the others 
became somewhat torpid, ceased to feed, and carried 
on their peculiar motions in a slower manner, at 


longer intervals, and within webs of more contracted 

By January, 1875, the Anacharis had lost nearly 
every leaf, and the stems all vitality, and a rapid 
decay ensued, which destroyed all the contents both 
of the globe and the bottles by the end of the month ; 
and so I was not able to find out whether a second 
year would have brought out the rest of my stock in 
the perfect state. 

The general figure of the cocoon of silk in which 
the pupa of Paraponyx stratiotata is spun up is a 
long oval, about five-eighths of an inch in length by 
three-sixteenths in width, and gradually widening to 
the upper end, which is not rounded, but sloped off 
from above at an obtuse end, thus presenting a some- 
what truncated appearance; it is attached for its 
whole length, by the back, to a piece of the stem of 
the food-plant, which affords a strong support, besides 
being further moored by strong outlying threads 
from the upper part to the stem ; it is but a little 
tapered towards the hinder end, which is generally 
involved amongst some leaves. I saw some cocoons 
fixed to two stems. The colour of the silk is either 
pale pinkish or flesh- colour, inclining to olive ante- 
riorly, and darker greyish-olive behind ; its surface is 
very shining, but it is very opaque, and the pupa 
cannot be seen through it. 

The pupa itself is half an inch in length, rather 
slender in proportion, widest from behind the thorax, 
from whence the abdomen tapers to the rather blunt 
tip ; the thorax rounds off towards the squarish head; 
the eyes are large and prominent ; the wing-, antenna-, 
and leg-cases are well developed, the last extending 
free from the eighth to as far as the end of the 
twelfth segment ; only three spiracles on each side 
are distinguishable, viz. on the sixth, seventh, and 
eighth segments, but these are large, circular, and 
projecting considerably like knobs or warts from the 
side ; at first the pupa is unicolorous, of a delicate 


yellowish-flesh tint, but as it approaches maturity 
the wings appear a darkish grey-brown, and show the 
darker outlined central spot ; the eyes also become of 
the same dark colour, the thorax and legs light 
brown, the abdominal segments whitish-flesh colour 
transversely barred with light brown ; there is also a 
faint dorsal line of dusky spots, and a light brown 
spot on either side of each of the three segments 
before the last ; the spiracles are of a light orange- 
brown, ringed at the base with blackish, (William 
Buckler, 2l st September, 1875; E.M.M., December, 
1875, XII, 160—163.) 


Plate CLI, fig. 3. 

I am glad to express my thanks to Mr. Henry 
Laver, of Colchester, for the welcome gift, on the 
5th of July, 1875, of two aquatic larvae which proved 
to be of this species, and also for a supply of Pota- 
mogeton natans, the plant on which he had found 
them feeding; and I venture to suppose that some 
account of my observations may perhaps be accept- 

These larvse — differing much in size, but, as pre- 
sently appeared, both nearly full-fed, the difference 
in size being a sexual distinction, the female being 
larger than the male — were inhabiting cases floating 
on or near the surface of the water; the length of 
the largest case was one and a half inches by three- 
quarters in breadth, the smaller case not more than 
three-quarters of an inch long by three-eighths broad ; 
both of a flattish and somewhat oval general figure, 
formed with two pieces of the Potamogeton leaf 
placed one upon the other, and fastened together 
with silk at the sides ; the component pieces not cut 
quite alike, for at one part the upper piece projected 
a little beyond the lower, and at another part the 


reverse of this occurred ; these irregularities of outline 
were most noticeable in the smaller case ; the ends of 
both were free, though appearing to fit close ; the 
upper piece showing a slight convexity of surface, 
the lower piece nearly flat, possessing much elasticity 
at the ends ; the edges of the case were always a little 
submerged, and only the central convex part of the 
upper surface would appear above the water while it 
was floating at the top; when entirely submerged, 
with the occupant hidden within, it appeared quite 
flat, like a mere fragment of leaf, due to an optical 
effect of the water. 

Thinking the larvae appeared mature, I lost no time 
on the day they arrived in securing figures of them. 
I pushed the largest out of its case into a saucer of 
water; it soon ascended the side of the saucer, above 
the water, so far that only its hinder segment re- 
mained immersed, and in this position for several 
minutes it kept still, affording me the opportunity of 
a good examination. 

I found it to be seven-eighths of an inch in length, 
stout in proportion, thickest in the middle of the 
body, and tapering towards each end rather suddenly; 
the head rather small; the segments decreasing in 
thickness from the seventh, and again decreasing 
from the tenth to the anal tip, all well defined by 
deep, yet close, divisions ; the third and fourth 
segments with three subdividing wrinkles on the 
back, the other segments with only one deep wrinkle, 
the sides dimpled ; the anterior legs tolerably well 
developed, the ventral and anal legs mere fleshy 
swellings with a flat process at the extremity fringed 
with fine books. 

The colour of the head is light olive-brown, the 
lobes and mouth darker brown ; a pale olive shining 
plate on the second segment margined both in front 
and behind by a fine black line, and within it, after 
an interspace of the pale ground, there is in the 
middle a transverse fusiform brownish-black mark 


dorsally divided by a thin pale line; the rest of the 
body above is light olive-brown with a darker dorsal 
stripe, and fainter indications of a subdorsal stripe 
less dark ; the body beneath is much paler, of a light 
buff colour very faintly tinged with olive; there is no 
abrupt change of colour to mark the division of the 
back from the belly, as the tints of both melt slightly 
together along the spiracles, which are very small, 
roundish-oval, level with the skin, of the ground 
colour delicately outlined with reddish-brown ; the 
hooks of the feet are dark brown ; the whole skin is 
soft and velvety, appearing darker in the depths of 
the segmental divisions, and paler at the folds. 

After remaining quiet about ten minutes, whilst I 
was making my observations, the larva began by 
degrees to recover from its fright, and regaining 
confidence turned back into the water, sinking in it 
to the bottom, about an inch in depth ; here it 
stretched itself out to the length of apparently an 
inch and a half (probably an optical effect of water), 
looking very thin and silvery, reminding me of a 
preserved larva unnaturally attenuated ; in this way, 
by its motions, it appeared to be searching for its 
case, or for the food-plant ; and when presently its 
empty case was placed on the water near it, and it 
contrived to touch the case with its head, it seemed 
baffled at first in its attempt to get into it, but in a 
few minutes, while struggling with the buoyant 
structure, it arrived with it at the side of the saucer, 
up which it crawled, and from thence on to the top 
of the case, appearing perfectly dry, and with its 
previous proportions and shape resumed; and on 
corning to one end of the case it tucked down its 
head, and in a couple of seconds had entered within 
and was out of sio-ht. 

I then examined the smaller larva, and found it 
varied only in being a little deeper coloured. 

After this I left them quiet, and they seemed very 
shy for a couple of days, and lay under the lowest 


broad leaf of the floating Potamogeton ; but while 
thus hidden themselves from view, their situation 
could be made out easily enough by the large dis- 
coloured curved blotches they caused on the leaf by 
eating away the lower cuticle, and occasionally 
making a small hole quite through the upper surface; 
this leaf was nearly consumed by the fifth day, by 
which time their shyness had in a measure worn off, 
and they were then eating at the edges of another 
leaf, their cases in view alongside, or lying above the 
leaf; on the seventh day I noticed that the largest 
larva had drawn the edge of a leaf a little way within 
the opening of its case, and was then eating without 
at all exposing itself; its companion at this time was 
lying hidden in its case at the bottom of the water 
for several hours, but it came up again and fed at 
intervals, often protruding its front segments as it 
crawled along the stems and leaves of the plant ; the 
largest larva also at times protruded as many as 
seven segments downwards, as though exploring the 
depth of the water, but was generally the most intent 
on its food ; sometimes, while reposing within its 
case, it would lie on the upper surface of a leaf, in 
which position it was not readily detected, the 
assimilation being so perfect ; at other times, like 
its companion, it would be floating concealed, its 
case being just in contact with the edge of a leaf or 
stem ; indeed, I found I could not isolate either of 
them at such times in the clear space of water 
between the leaves, for whenever I placed one there, 
as lightly as possible, it seemed drawn, though 
gently, yet with an attraction irresistible, towards 
some part of the plant ; and if one end of the case 
first touched it, the other end swung round till the 
side of the case was in contact, when it would be 

Finding the water much sullied by the frass, I 
thought it necessary to have it changed every second 
day, and each time this operation occurred the larvse 


and their food were transferred for a few minutes 
from the large china bowl in which they were kept to 
a saucer of water, and while here it happened, on 
three occasions, that pellets of frass were ejected 
with some force out of the water, to the distance of 
eight inches beyond the saucer, on the table ; its 
propulsion seemed frequently to be in an upward 
direction, as I constantly noticed latterly a large pro- 
portion of frass adhering to the side of the bowl two 
inches or more above the water. 

After feeding well for ten days, during which time 
all the five leaves of the plant sent with them had 
become much ravaged and reduced to fragments, to my 
great satisfaction the larvse appeared on the 16th of 
the month to have ceased feeding ; and towards 
evening 1 was greatly surprised to see the smaller 
larva had abandoned its case, and was crawling naked 
over the remains of its food-plant, its colour a little 
faded ; on the morning of the 17th I found it half out 
of the water, on the side of the bowl; in the afternoon 
I saw, with much perplexity, the larger larva had also 
left its case, and was crawling about through the 
water in a forlorn condition, and much paler than 
before. I now had great anxiety for their ultimate 
fate, as their behaviour did not seem to agree with 
their alleged habit of pupating within their cases, 
which were still as fresh-looking as at first; so, with 
a faint hope of their spinning up amongst the debris 
of their food, I left them for the night. The next 
morning, seeing both larvse out of the water, and 
looking very miserable, it struck me that they were 
seeking some other kind of plant to make up in, and 
I supplied some Gallitriche verna and Helosciadium 
nodiflorum, but on neither of these plants would they 
stay, and I then tried some pieces of Sparganium 
ramosum, on which they crawled about and lingered 
some time, which induced me to obtain several longer 
pieces, and to stand them upright, with the lower ends 
in water, within a glass globe, and after placing the 


larvae there, to tie over a piece of muslin at the top, 
lest they might wander away. This arrangement proved 
successful ; the bur-reeds were now in position as they 
would be naturally growing out of water, and 1 had 
the great pleasure and relief of seeing, within a minute, 
the larger larva creep up about an inch or so above 
the water level, between two pieces of the Sparganium, 
and immediately begin to spin them together; the 
smaller larva also soon found out two other pieces 
suitable, and began to spin them together in the same 
manner, and at the same distance above the water ; 
and I watched their proceedings as long as their 
heads could be seen in motion, sometimes upwards 
from side to side, and then below in the same way, 
until the surfaces were closed up entirely. I let them 
remain until a week had elapsed, when seeing the 
Sparganium begin to look bad at the bottom, I cut 
the pieces shorter, and stood them on some dry moss 
in a pot covered with gauze. 

Both moths were out on the 7th of August, a male 
and a female; on examining the puparia I found the 
tissues of the Sparganium had shrank so much that 
the oval form of the enclosed cocoons stood out in 
rounded relief on the outer surfaces, while within, the 
entire space spun over with silk was about one and a 
quarter inches long by three-eighths wide; and in the 
middle of this was the cavity of the cocoon, five-eighths 
long by a quarter of an inch wade, smoothly lined with 
the same greyish- white silk as the rest; that which 
was below the cavity was more thickly spun than that 
above it, but both united the flat surfaces close 
together. The pupa-skin remained with the head 
uppermost, and the shrivelled-up larval skin at the 
lower end of the cavity; the dimensions of the pupa- 
skin were half an inch in length by nearly three- 
sixteenths in diameter at the thickest part of the body 
across the ends of the wing-covers, the abdomen 
tapering from thence to the anal tip, which is bluntly 
rounded off without any projecting boss or spike, but 


liaving instead a horny wart, cleft and bilabiate — not 
raised above the rest of the surface, — and furnished 
also with a few small bristles; the wing-covers long, 
the antennas and leg-cases very long, projecting at 
their ends free from the abdomen. The colour is a 
light warm brown on the wings and ventral surface, 
which, with the abdominal tip, are shining, while the 
thorax and the back of the abdomen are a little 
darker, and rather reddish-brown, without gloss ; the 
spiracles, projecting conspicuously large, like nipples, 
each on a slight eminence, were darkish brown in 
colour and shining, surrounded by a paler ring at the 
base, three of them being near the margin of the 
wings on the sixth, seventh, and eighth segments, and 
a smaller one less defined on the twelfth, but on the 
intermediate segments none are to be seen. 

To complete my notes in chronological order, I 
must here add that, on the 11th of August, 1875, I 
received, from the Rev. A. Fuller, a female moth of 
this species, captured by him a few days before, 
while it was flying about a pond at Harting. This 
moth was boxed and forgotten for a day or two, and 
when the box was opened it contained a batch of eggs, 
some of them still adhering to the abdomen of the 

The eggs were laid on the chip in clusters, with 
some in a string that were attached to the tail of the 
moth, all firmly glued together on the surfaces of the 

The shape of the egg is roundish -ovate and much 
flattened, without gloss, and of a very deep yellow 
amber colour. I placed the chip with the eggs to 
float in water, and on the 19th of August two eggs 
were turned black ; a few days later they had all 
become black, but none of them hatched, and I threw 
them away late in September. (William Buckler, 22nd 
October, 1875; E.M.M., February, 1876, XII, 210— 

After preparing the above notes for the press. 


Mr. McLachlan has most kindly given me the oppor- 
tunity of reading Reaumur's wonderfully interesting 
' Memoire des Chenilles Aquatiques,' by far the greater 
portion of which refers to Hydrocamjpa nymphasata ; 
and I should like to quote his observations on a 
few points which I had not myself the opportunity 
of observing. 

Reaumur found, near the edges of the Potamogeton 
leaves, many little clusters of the eggs, and he seems 
to think that the moth covers them with bits of the 
leaves ; but as he never closely watched a moth laying 
her eggs (and it is hard to understand how she could 
effect the concealment in the way he supposes), he 
cannot say how she managed to cover them. 

As soon as ever the larvse are hatched — at the end 
of July or the beginning of August — he says each 
makes a little case for itself, and as it grows, con- 
tinually makes fresh cases adapted to its increasing 

He watched some of the larger larva3 making cases, 
and thus describes what he saw : — " To make itself a 
new case, the larva clings to the lower side of a leaf 
of Potamogeton ; with its ' teeth ' it pierces some 
portion of the leaf, and then it bites it by degrees in 
following the curved line, which must have the outline 
of the piece it wishes to detach. . . . When the 
larva has cut, like a piece of clpth, a bit of the leaf of 
suitable size and figure, it has half the stuff necessary 
for making itself a case ; it seizes this piece with its 
' teeth,' and carries it either under another part of the 
same leaf, or beneath another leaf ; it stops and fixes 
it in the place which seems suitable. But it is to be 
noticed that it places it so that the under-side of the 
piece is turned towards the under-side of the new leaf, 
in order that the interior sides of the case are always 
made of the under surface of the two pieces of leaf, 
and the caterpillar has determined to use them thus 
for a good reason ; although the leaves of Potamo- 
geton are tolerably flat, they are a little concave below ; 


thus the under -sides of the two pieces of leaf are turned 
towards each other, though the edges of one are set 
against the edges of the other ; there remains between 
them a cavity for the dwelling of the larva ; and that 
cavity would be more difficult to contrive if the upper 
surface of one piece were applied to the under surface 
of the other. 

" Sometimes the larva is content to attach the 
piece to the under side of the leaf to which it has 
brought it, . . . and that is at the time when it is 
about to change to a pupa. Then it spins in the 
cavity enclosed by the two portions of leaf a some- 
what thin cocoon, but of very close tissue. 

" When the larva is not ready to change, it thinks 
to make itself a case — a dwelling, which it can carry 
about wheresoever it wishes to go. It begins by fixing 
lightly — by tacking, so to say — the piece it has already 
cut against the new leaf ; it leaves apparently all 
round between the leaf and the piece at intervals, 
but tolerably near one another, places by which it can 
put out its head. But it is certain that the piece 
which it has attached to the leaf serves as a model to 
cut from it another piece of equal size and similar 
shape. These two pieces together form its complete 
covering ; the larva finishes uniting them all round 
their outline, except at one of the ends, where the 
two halves of the case remain simply resting against 
one another. . . . 

" Whilst the larva continues to grow, its dwelling 
is nothing but these two pieces of leaf fastened to- 
gether, though when the time of its change draws 
near, it carpets its case, making in it a cocoon of 
white silk." 

As Reaumur speaks of finding cocoons under water 
containing pupas, and as the pupse themselves are 
furnished with spiracles similar to those of the larvae, 
it might well be that ordinarily the pupation takes 
place under water, but for the time the conduct of 
my two larvas puzzled me, when I saw them making 


their cocoons above the surface ; perhaps there was 
not a sufficient quantity of Potamogeton left to satisfy 
their requirements in spinning themselves up. Reaumur 
notices — but confesses he cannot explain — the fact 
that the cases, though constructed entirely under 
water, are yet themselves quite dry and free from 
water — diving-bells, in fact ; and he credits the larva 
with some power of expelling the water after it has 
completed a case. His description of the colour of 
the larva seems to refer to its appearance under 
water, when it shows luminous with a brilliant silvery 
glitter as it advances the front segments out beyond 
its case, for he says, "Almost all its body is white, 
and of a white that must be (called) glittering," 
though he calls the head brown, and the back of the 
first two or three segments tinted with brown. 

There is such an artlessness and freshness in 
Reaumur's writing, that in laying down the book one 
seems to have been listening to the conversation of a 
living brother of the net, rather than reading notes 
set down a century and a half ago ; and from having 
so recently travelled over the same ground with 
Gataclysta lemnata and Hydrocampa nymph&ata, I 
can add my testimony to all that has before been 
given to the wonderful quickness and truth of his 
powers of observation. (William Buckler, 20th 
November, 1875; E.M.M., February, 1876, XII, 213 

I have once more to express my gratitude to Mr. 
W. R. Jeffrey, of Ashford, for persevering aid in 
carrying on my observations on this species, by means 
of which I am in a position to offer several particu- 
lars as additions to my former paper in the Ent. Mo. 
Mag. for February, 1876 (vol. XII, p. 210). 

That paper contained descriptions of the larva, and 
of its case when made from Potamogeton, and was 
supplemented on points to which, at that time, my 
own observations had not extended, by extracts from 
Reaumur; and in the correspondence to which it 



gave rise between us, my friend Mr. R. McLachlan 
expressed a belief that further investigation would 
prove the larva to be polyphagous, and not confined 
to Potamogeton only. I have the pleasure of com- 
mencing my present notes by furnishing a full confir- 
mation of this belief ; I shall then relate in detail the 
movements of larvse, which I watched very carefully 
and minutely while they were engaged in case-making. 
I have to give an account of a moult which I 
witnessed, and I think I shall show that Reaumur's 
statement (which always seemed dubious) as to the 
protection of the eggs by the parent must have origi- 
nated in some mistake. 

If my paper seems long, it must be that I have not 
power to communicate to the reader the intense inte- 
rest I myself felt whilst watching the proceedings 
which I have now attempted to record. 

About the middle of June, 1876, Mr. Jeffrey sent 
me larva3 in cases made from Myosotis cxspitosa and 
Potamogeton nutans ; later in the month several from 
Hydroehavis morsus-ranse and Sparganium simplex, this 
last plant abounding with cases in one locality ; in 
August came cases from Gatabrosa aquatica, and in 
September small larvae of the next generation in 
cases from Potamogeton polygonifolius and P. pusillus. 
Meanwhile I had been searching in my own neigh- 
bourhood, and found a pond with plenty of Potamo- 
geton natans in it, and on examining the plants round 
its margin, detected cases cut from most of those 
mentioned above, and some also from Alisma plan- 
tago. It soon appeared, also, that the larvse sent to 
me on Hydrocharis, a plant not to be obtained here, 
made no difficulty in taking to any of the others, as 
well as to Nymphdea alba ; and, in fine, that whatever 
might be the food on which the larvse were found, 
they were quite as well pleased with that which was 
most convenient for me to give them ; showing them- 
selves, as far as aquatic plants go, thoroughly poly- 

96 hydrocAmpa nymph^eata. 

I now give the details of a case-making which I 
watched throughout. The naked larva crawled to 
near the tip of a leaf of Potamogeton natans, fixed its 
anal legs near the side, and began to eat a little curved 
channel from the edge through the leaf, working 
from right to left, its head and body bending round 
to the left more and more until three-fourths of the 
intended cut had been accomplished ; then, still 
keeping the same foothold, it ate back again from 
left to right, clearing out and widening the channel ; 
next it changed its foothold across the channel to the 
fixed part of the leaf, whence, stretching out its head, 
it continued eating from right to left, and so carried 
on the curve of the channel quite up to the edge of 
the leaf again, leaving only a very narrow isthmus 
uncut ; then, as before, it ate backwards to widen the 
last cut part of the channel; finally crossing over the 
channel again, and taking its position on the now 
almost detached piece, it ate away the last connecting 
morsel at the very edge, and was adrift as upon a 
raft. I noticed, however, that a change of plan took 
place between the first and second parts of its work ; 
the cut made from the first foothold on the side of the 
leaf had a long oval curve ; when, however, crossing 
the channel, the larva continued its work from its 
foothold on the leaf, it did not go on from the very 
end of the cut already made, but began again at a 
point a little distance further back, thus finally 
bringing out the channel with a shorter rounder 
curve, which had the effect of making the detached 
piece of leaf more symmetrical in outline. It was 
now afloat, with its ventral and anal legs clinging to 
its raft, but very soon it applied its thoracic legs to 
the fixed part ot' the leaf, and, guiding its course by 
them, conveyed itself and its raft under the leaf, 
apparently looking for a suitable place whence to cut 
the other half of its case ; presently it seemed to find 
what was wanted, the floating piece was made fast, 
and after some hours the upper half was cut out 


and detached, and the larva floated in its finished 
dwelling. Continuing to watch it, the next thing I 
noticed was a rapid horizontal motion of the head 
and front part of the body of the larva, just within 
the case, from one side to the other ; then, turning 
about, after a pause, the larva repeated this move- 
ment at the other end, rested awhile, and again re- 
peated the movement ; next it turned round again 
and protruded its head from the former end of the 
case, with the air of taking a survey of the outside, 
and whilst it was in this position a small silvery air- 
bubble floated out from inside the case, and when the 
larva, turning round once more, put out its head from 
the other end as if surveying that also, the bubble 
seemed somehow to be attracted and moved over and 
settled close to its head. After this the larva set 
about feeding, and journeying for about an inch, 
reached the stem of the plant and fed on it for some 
time, and then moored its case to the stem by a 
thread and rested; afterwards I saw it eating patches 
of leaf-cuticle, soon effecting a large hole through 
the entire substance. Next day I saw it again eating, 
and noticed that from time to time it stopped this 
occupation, withdrew its head into its case, and made 
from five to thirteen of these rapid movements from 
side to side. Vigorous and rapid as these movements 
were, they did not shake the case, and I think were 
quite independent of it; indeed, I am disposed to 
regard them as in some way connected with the act 
of respiration, being analogous to the movements of 
the larva of Parayonycc stratiotata, described by me 
at p. 161, Vol. XII, of the E.M.M. [and repeated at 
p. 82 of this volume]. Bearing on this point also 
will come some observations I made on the presence 
of water within the case ; once or twice it happened 
that a larva had brought its case into such a position 
that a good portion of it was above the surface of the 
water, and I was able to look down the opening at 
the end into the interior, quite through to the other 
VOL. ix. 7 


end, and I made sure that it was full of water ; and 
once I could notice a small silvery air-bubble clinging 
to the side of the case. Probably when the larva 
fastens up its case for pupating, it joins the two 
pieces so closely together as to render it watertight, 
but before that time the openings at the ends are 
generally so wide that the water cannot be kept out. 
I am, however, disposed to agree with Reaumur's 
statement that the larva can control the admission of 
water to its case, and probably this is regulated by 
its requirements in the matter of respiration, and 
must be managed by enlarging or contracting the 
orifice at either end. 

When a larva makes use of Myosotis, after selecting 
the end of a leaf, and detaching a piece of proper 
length by a semicircular cut, it floats oft' upon it to- 
wards the end of another leaf. There it either mounts 
on the upper surface, and turns over the piece it is 
carrying, so as to form its new roof, or else carries it 
underneath and fastens it there as its new floor ; 
either way, after fastening the edges of the detached 
piece in place, the larva seems to be at leisure in 
cutting out what is needed from the leaf to complete 
its case, eating away the surroundings, and not merely 
making a cut ; the cavity between the roof and the 
floor seems formed by having one of them broader in 
the first instance than the other, so that when the 
edges are joined there is necessarily a bulging out of 
the broader piece. 

When Sparganium is the material, the case is of a 
narrower and more elongated form, the floor being the 
flatter side, and thus shorter than the roof, which is 
arranged so that the keeled surface of the leaf is out- 
side, and the thin side-edges drawn inwards, and thus 
made to help in the formation of the cavity. Not 
unfrequently the case is formed of two sorts of leaf, 
for a larva is not particular to have its case all of the 
same material. Apparently in its growth between two 
moults it changes only one half of its case at a time 


whereas after a moult it sometimes makes a new case 
entirely ; when, therefore, it wants only a new roof or 
a new floor, it takes it from a suitable plant nearest 
at hand, cutting the new piece a little larger than its 
predecessor, and in this way, by changing the top and 
bottom alternately, it soon brings a small case up to 
a good size. 

On the 11th of June I noticed a larva looking as if 
about to moult, and isolated it for observation ; the 
moult took place on the 13th. After the skin burst at 
the neck the old head-cover first fell off, and then the 
(almost colourless) larva began slowly to advance into 
the water out of its case until nearly exposed ; then it 
stopped still for about ten minutes, when suddenly the 
hinder segments were set free with an effort that sent 
the case adrift, while the larva remained quite naked 
in the water. I secured the abandoned case, and 
opening it found the cast flaccid skin — not shrivelled 
up, but held out at full length by silk threads along 
the ventral region. 

This larva now proceeded to make itself a case of 
Alisma plantago, first securing a piece of leaf that was 
near, and then fastening this under another leaf that 
floated by. Three hours after it thus hid itself I 
turned the leaf over, and found the piece by this time 
fashioned into a suitable oval shape and attached to 
the oval edge of the leaf, so that on that side there 
was no need of cutting ; next day the larva was shap- 
ing the second piece — not merely by cutting a channel, 
but by eating away a large irregular hole outside its 
case, still, however, leaving a narrow isthmus uncut, 
so as to keep itself securely moored for a day or two 
longer; but at last, when it had to stretch out further 
and further to continue feeding on the leaf, it made 
its case tight, cut the mooring, and floated off. 

When the larva is about to pupate it attaches its 
case at the edge of one side beneath some floating leaf 
or submerged stem, often (as Mr. Jeffrey found a great 
number) to the decumbent stems and tough fibrous 


roots of the Myosotis bared by the action of water, 
but always fixed edgewise ; indeed, the only excep- 
tion was in a case fixed flat against a piece of Spar- 
g anium. 

After the larva had spun up, from seventeen to 
twenty days elapsed before the appearance of the 
imago ; I bred seventeen specimens in all at intervals 
from the 21st of June to the 26th of August. 

Fortunately for our knowledge of the interesting 
early part of the economy of Hydrocampa nymphceata, 
Mr. Jeffrey detected amongst some Potamogeton nu- 
tans, gathered promiscuously as food for his larva?, a 
large leaf having eggs deposited on the under surface, 
but without the least covering ; and cutting off the ex- 
treme tip of the leaf on which were six eggs, for him- 
self, most kindly sent me, on the 8th of August, the 
rest of the leaf, bearing about a hundred eggs of a pale 
ochreous-greenish colour, close together in a flattish 
mass near the margin from which the tip had been 
severed. Three days later, by the aid of a lens, I could 
see two black specks on each egg, and in two more 
days these were distinct enough, and the day after 
that, the 14th of August, the larva? all hatched, and 
soon hid themselves by mining into the under-side of the 
leaf, not, however, before I had observed and noted 
their black heads and collar-plates, with pale greenish- 
yellow translucent bodies. On the same day Mr. 
Jeffrey was watching the six eggs he had retained, 
having placed the severed bit of leaf on the upper 
surface of a fresh gathered leaf put in water, and 
about 8 a.m. saw the little creatures leave the egg- 
shells, and crawl over the upper surface of the fresh 
leaf, and from thence to the under surface, which they 
at once entered by mining on either side of the mid- 
rib near the base. In this manner my young brood 
remained ensconced from thirty hours to three days, 
and began to reappear, at first singly, then several 
together ; and then each cut out for itself a tiny film 
from the under cuticle of the leaf, and floated away 


on it just as 1 have described above, and by the 18th 
of the month the water was crowded with tiny cases 
not one-eighth of an inch long. 

After moulting the black colour of the head of the 
larva became brownish-ochreous, the collar-plate still 
black ; the body dirty whitish with broad greenish 
dorsal vessel ; and by the help of a strong lens I could 
see the fine opaque whitish tracheal thread. The larvae 
continued to thrive and were frequently making fresh 
cases, half at a time, until the period arrived for 
hibernation, when the cases were spun up flat against 
the leaves, and, content with what 1 had learnt, I sent 
them adrift to take their chance in a state of freedom. 
(William Buckler, 3rd March, 1881 ; E.M.M., April, 
1881, XVII, 249—254.) 

Hydrocampa stagnata. 
Plate CLII, fig. 1. 

When I was investigating the early stages of the 
other species of Hydrocampidde with aquatic larvas, I 
had been foiled with Hydrocampa stagimta, but, in the 
early summer of 1876, 1 was fortunate enough to find 
a kind and enthusiastic helper in Mr. W. R. Jeffrey, 
of Ashford, and by the aid he rendered me I am now 
able to give a full account of this species throughout. 

In Staiuton's Manual, the larva is counted among 
the unknowns ; Guenee says nothing about it ; but 
from the synonymy of the species dootamogalis Hb. 
being one of its names in Staudinger aud Wocke's 
Catalogue) it would appear that Potamogeton had 
passed for its food, and Dr. E. Hofmann says that 0. 
Hofmann found it in cases made of the leaves of that 
plant. But this notion had been driven out of my 
head by the result of many attempts to find the larva 
in such a situation, a,nd I had come to suspect that 
Sparganium would prove to be the right food, a 


suspicion now strengthened into certainty, as will be 
seen by what follows. 

Mr. Jeffrey began by sending me specimens of 
every sort of case he could find tenanted by aquatic 
larvse — and strange and interesting enough many of 
them were — and each fresh form was hailed as the 
desideratum, till the appearance of the imago dis- 
pelled our hopes. At last, on the 18th of July, he 
bred a specimen of Hydrocampa stagnata from one of 
three pupa-cases, all alike fastened to pieces oi. Spar- 
ganium 9 which he had found in a brook. This gave us 
encouragement ; but, though we most carefully scru- 
tinised again all the cases that had been found, we 
could detect none like these little pouches, from one 
of which H. stagnata had emerged. 

Then it occurred to my friend — by this time feeling 
nearly confident that I had been right in saying that 
Sparganium would in all likelihood prove the true 
food — to capture several moths of both sexes, and 
confine them in a vessel at the bottom of which he 
had arranged pieces of Sparganium, both floating on 
water and standing erect; this he did on the 21st of 
July, and seeing that by the 27th all the moths were 
dead, he examined the pieces of the plant, and on the 
under-side of one of the floating pieces found two 
neat little batches of eggs, and forwarded them to 
me. The larvae hatched on the 5th and 6th of 
August, and immediately on quitting the egg-shells 
began to eat their way into some fresh pieces of 
Sparganium simplex, which I had ready prepared, and 
when inside the rind mined, the pith of the plant in a 
longitudinal direction. Being almost colourless, and 
keeping well under water when moving from plant to 
plant, these larvae were very hard to watch ; but I 
was fortunately able to see one on its travels within 
twenty-four hours of hatching, and noted that it was 
about a sixteenth of an inch long, and that the food 
had begun to darken its internal vessels. In twelve 
days' time, 18th of August, I saw another larva, now 


an eighth of an inch long ; on the 26th, noticing that 
one of the oldest pieces of Sparganium seemed de- 
serted, being well riddled with mines through its 
length, as well as pierced by numerous little holes in 
the rind, through which the larvae had entered at 
first, I isolated it in a saucer of water, and watched 
to see if any larvae would still come out of it, for 
their transparency rendered it almost impossible to 
make sure of their presence or absence by holding the 
plant up to the light. After a few hours three larvae 
appeared, now grown to a quarter of an inch in 
length ; and by pursuing a similar course with other 
pieces of Sparganium as they became brown, I got a 
sight of ten larvae by the end of the month. On the 
11th of September I detected a larva now over three- 
eighths of an inch long, and turned it into a saucer 
of water without food in order to secure a figure of 
it. On the 28th I observed another, now half an inch 
long, and noticed that there was no colour down the 
back arising from food within ; this I took as a hint 
that it had ceased feeding and was preparing to hiber- 
nate, and on examining other pieces of Sparganium I 
discovered several larvae already laid up, quite colour- 
less, and quite torpid; unfortunately, these investiga- 
tions could be effected only at the cost of killing the 
larvae examined, for I found they soon died after their 
rest had been broken. 

However, by the beginning of October I had esta- 
blished a large cylindrical glass jar, in which several 
fine plants of Sparganium simplex were growing, no 
longer floating but erect and robust ; upon these 
were placed some of the less torpid larvae about an 
inch or two beneath the water, and I had the satis- 
faction of seeing them mine their way into the plants 
until they were out of sight ; the rest, still occupying 
pieces of Sparganium, were introduced among the 
growing plants to take their chance. 

The winter proved open and favourable for the 
experiment, and in due course the plants turned 


brown and died down naturally, collapsing and sink- 
ing at last to the bottom of the water; but by the 
middle of February, 1877, a few very thin and tender 
narrow shoots began to appear again. After this a 
thick growth of Conferva, which at first I did not like 
to meddle with, greatly impeded my view, till on the 
6th of April I cleared some of it away, and removed 
some worms I found feeding on the debris of the old 
plants, and a few other creatures which I regarded as 
water vermin ; and then I could see clearly quite a 
tangled growth of young and very tender leaves of the 
Spar g anium low in the water. Some of them in a few 
days reached the surface and lay floating there, and 
the first evidence 1 had of the larvge beginning to feed 
occurred on the 20th of April, when I detected a small 
fragment of a leaf floating on the surface, and near it 
a kind of green dust, which, by the help of a mag- 
nifier, I made out to be frass. At length I detected 
the whereabouts of the larva hidden between two 
young leaves, which at the place seemed spun to- 
gether just beneath the surface of the water; three 
days later I saw other similar appearances, and for 
the first time after hibernation saw a larva very dis- 
tinctly in the act of feeding ; its position was nearly 
vertical between two leaves, just at the point where, 
after rising about an inch above the water, they bent 
down again to float on it. Here it had spun the leaves 
together with silken threads, but had left a little 
opening through which I could watch it leisurely eat- 
ing the edge of the lower leaf ; more than half its 
body was above water, the remainder obscured by the 
lacing to and fro of the silk threads. This larva 
seemed to be half an inch long, or perhaps more, and 
paler than when feeding in autumn, but otherwise 
similar. Next clay it had cut the leaves asunder at 
that part, and ensconced itself in a fresh residence 
lower down the plant, under water, probably unable 
to tie the walls of its previous abode completely 
together, from the circumstance of another individual 


having firmly secured itself between the floating 
extremities of the same two leaves. Onwards from 
day to day I could distinguish the positions of others 
just beneath the surface, and some quite low down in 
the water, with minute air-bubbles clinging to some 
of their abodes. 

They now began to greatly ravage the plants, 
pieces cut from the tips of the leaves and other 
portions being often found floating on the surface. 
Occasionally 1 partly opened some of their residences 
to obtain a peep at the inmates, and found them 
steadily growing; one of these tenements I cut off on 
the 27th of April, and placed it in a saucer of water 
to take a figure of it. It had been constructed by 
drawing the two edges of a leaf partly towards each 
other for the length of nearly an inch, and by joining 
to them with a spinning of silk some parts of two 
other adjacent leaves, on both of which the larva had 
fed occasionally, advancing its head for this purpose 
as far as it chose. While my attention was engaged on 
its appearance, I saw five little pellets of frass sud- 
denly ejected from it, which convinced me that the 
occupant was in a proper state for examination, so I 
proceeded to pull the construction to pieces, and to 
expose the larva, which now measured three-quarters 
of an inch in length. After being turned out of its 
tenement into the water it seemed not the least 
incommoded, but without once approaching the sur- 
face, or causing any air-bubble, it walked about on 
the saucer at the bottom of the water, raising its head 
and extending it as though searching for tbe Spar- 
ganium, and when two or three small fragments were 
given to it, soon connected them together with silk 
threads ; presently, however, not finding them suffi- 
cient, it grew discontented and wandered about until 
it was restored to the growing plants, when it at once 
crept between two floating leaves, and made itself 
snug again in a new habitation. After this, at inter- 
vals, I disturbed one or two more, and was unlucky 

106 hydrocampa stagnata. 

enough to find them waiting for a moult. On the 
21st of May, while again removing Conferva, I found 
two larvae less advanced than the others, of rather an 
olive tint, and both laid up for moulting. 

The first moth appeared on the evening of the 29th 
of June, and the second on the 6th of August. During 
the interval my stock had been diminishing from the 
attacks of a merciless dragon-fly larva, of which once 
or twice I had a momentary glance, but which I 
failed to secure until almost too late, for then only 
two pupae remained, the last of which I sacrificed to 
the necessity of figuring and describing, and the other 
produced the second moth. 

This sketch of the progress of R. stagnata reared 
from eggs on Sparganium simplex will have shown 
that on this plant the larva is a veritable miner from 
the moment it leaves the egg-shell until after hiber- 
nation in the spring, when it finds itself unable to 
mine into the young leaves of its food-plant, which 
are then too narrow and thin for the purpose, but, 
accommodating itself' to the changed condition of the 
plant, it now spins parts of the flaccid leaves together 
and lives between them, securely hidden from view. 

Its habits on Sparganium ramosum, a plant of 
larger size, are somewhat different. This plant in 
spring at first bends under any flowing water, but 
soon gathering substance and strength stands erect; 
and the larva after hibernation is still a miner, no 
longer, indeed, eating its way longitudinally through 
the tissues of a single leaf, but excavating large irre- 
gular perforations through some of the inner leaves, 
generally sparing the keel as well as the fibre at the 
outer margins, so that, when thus ravaged, the leaves 
can still retain their position. 

The larva keeps itself a little below the surface of 
the water, and as the plant grows, the ravages in the 
leaves turn blackish, and become exposed to view at a 
distance above it, and thus afford a sure indication of 
the larva below, generally about where the green 


colouring of the plant begins to fade a little. On ap- 
proaching its full growth the larva keeps nearer the 
surface of the water, and sometimes cuts through a 
leaf all but just the fibre on one side, which causes 
the upper portion to fall and be suspended in the 
water. Observing how this was done by a larva in 
captivity which I had received from Mr. Jeffrey, I 
was enabled to find one by seeing a Sparganium 
similarly treated in a brook, where, in former years, 
I had often sought for the larva in vain ; on those 
occasions, however, I had only sought it on the sur- 
face of the water, or above it, seldom or never be- 
neath, expecting, as I did, to find it in a case of some 
kind, after the manner of its congener Hydrocampa 

The eggs, which my friend sent me in two groups, 
appeared to number thirty-seven in one group, and 
forty-nine in the other, laid very closely and evenly 
together in rows, and somewhat imbricated ; in shape 
the egg is roundish-ovate, and its surface striated; 
the colour, olive-yellow and semi-pellucid, showing 
the embryo rather paler. In about a week they be- 
come roundish above, and greyish, and begin to show 
a black blotch at their summits, and next day the 
larvae appear. 

The newly-hatched larva has a blackish head and 
plate on the second segment, a clear and colourless 
body, and in twenty-four hours shows a broad, 
greenish-grey dorsal vessel through the clear skin ; 
the lobes of the head blackish ; mouth and ocelli black, 
being about one-sixteenth of an inch in length ; when 
twelve days old it is in length a trifle more than an 
eighth of an inch, the head and plate on second 
segment changed to very pale brown, the body trans- 
lucent, of a watery yellowish-green tint, the internal 
vessel light greenish ; in twenty days . it grows to 
be a quarter of an inch long, of slender proportion, 
the third and fourth segments the stoutest, slightly 
tapering from them each way, the head and second 

108 HYDROCAMPA stagnata. 

segment light brown, body pale greyish-brown, the 
internal vessel rather deeper greyish-brown, broad at 
the beginning of the third segment, and not visible 
beyond the ninth, the second segment clear and 
transparent as the others. 

In another month's time it is nearly half an inch 
long, of a light brownish-olive colour, the segmental 
folds of skin and its outline showing the most colour, 
and also the fine tracheal thread ; the lobes of the 
head are outlined with darker brown, and the mouth 
is darker, the ocelli black. When about to hibernate, 
the body becomes transparent and colourless. 

The full-grown larva measures seven-eighths of an 
inch in length, is of rather slender proportion, taper- 
ing from the third segment to the head, and again 
gradually from about the tenth to the anal extremity ; 
the head is small, flattened, and tapering towards the 
mouth ; the segmental divisions and subdivisions are 
moderately well defined, the skin puckered a little and 
dimpled along the sides ; the ventral and anal legs 
fairly well developed, each foot being furnished with a 
complete circlet of fine hooks ; in colour the head is 
pale translucent brown, the lobes margined with a 
reticulation of darker brown, and a similar streak in 
the middle of each ; the mouth is blackish-brown — 
sometimes there is a spot of this dark colour on the 
triangular space above it ; the ocelli are large and 
black ; the second segment, yellow or olive-yellow, 
has sometimes a few brown freckles, and a thin trans- 
verse streak of brown at the hind margin, and a few 
fainter freckles on each side the dorsal region ; all the 
rest of the body is of a bright, deep yellow, or else of 
olive-yellow, but so translucent as to show very dis- 
tinctly through the skin, not only the broad and 
blackish-olive internal vessel sliding to and fro, but 
also the paler trachea, with its larger branches, and 
the multitude of excessively fine ramifications. In the 
more olive tinged examples there occur two parallel 
brown streaks low on the sides of the second, third, 


fourth, and fifth segments, sometimes most marked 
on the fourth and fifth; the spiracles are of the 
ground colour, ringed with brown ; some extremely 
minute hairs, one in each usual tubercular situation, 
can only be seen with the aid of a powerful lens. 

When the larva has fed up on the soft, narrow, 
ribbon-like, floating leaves of S. simplex, it cuts off a 
couple of pieces of the plant, varying in length from 
about three-quarters to nearly an inch, without regard 
to their being equal in size ; these it spins securely 
together and moors with silk near the edge to a 
floating leaf; thepuparium thus made lies horizontally, 
partly or entirely submerged. 

But when S. ramosum is the food-plant, the larva 
chooses a situation close to the outside edge of a leaf 
in an almost perpendicular position, and there, low in 
the water, attaches a piece of the plant, broader at the 
lower than at the upper end, and draws it round 
itself close to the leaf, on which it looks like a natural 
excrescence, being about an inch and a quarter in 
length, rather bluntly rounded off below, and for half 
an inch tapering to a point above. 

The cocoon is of white silk, apparently quite dry 
within, and closely enveloping the pupa with the old 
larval skin sticking behind ; the pupa itself is a trifle 
over three-eighths of an inch in length, of moderate 
slenderness, the head well produced, the back of the 
thorax gently rising from it, and from thence the 
width is uniform to the ends of the wing-covers ; these, 
though well defined, are pressed close to the body ; 
the abdomen begins to taper from the tenth segment, 
to which the ends of the leg- pieces reach, projecting 
free ; the tip of the abdomen terminates in a hook, 
curved downwards ; the colour is a deep bright yellow, 
a little inclining to orange-yellow; a narrow brown 
streak obliquely crosses each eye-piece ; three spiracles 
on either side are conspicuously prominent on circular 
swellings, paler than other parts, and are like nipples 
of brownish-red with rather darker orifices ; the other 


spiracles behind these are very small, flat, and brown, 
yet can just be detected with a lens. (William 
Buckler, 11th September, 1877 ; E.M.M., October, 
1877, XIV, 97—103.) 


Plate CLII, fig. 2. 

On the 21st of July, 1874, I received from Mr. W. 
C. Boyd, of Cheshunt, a bottle containing, with other 
aquatic pupse and larvae, several pupse similarly spun 
up in silken cocoons between small pieces of stem and 
leaves of water-thyme, Anacharis alsinastrum. 

The cocoon is about four lines in length, of a dirty 
whitish colour externally, marked or blotched irre- 
gularly with brown; but when this is scraped off a 
pearly white inflated envelope remains. 

The pupa lying within is three lines long and one 
line in diameter, tolerably equal in bulk throughout, 
although it has the usual contour of lepidopterous 
pupae in general. The wing-cases and antenna- and 
leg-covers lie close to the body, and are long in 
proportion. The head, eyes, and thorax are as usual, 
but the spiracles are remarkable. They are three in 
number on either side of what would be in the larva 
the sixth, seventh, and eighth segments, and project 
a little, like the trunnions of a piece of ordnance. The 
anal tip appeared, through a strong lens, to have two 
minute short bristles, and a circlet of them, few in 
number, round the ridge of the thirteenth segment. 

In colour it reminded me of the pupa of Hepialns 
hamuli, though paler than that species. It was of an 
ochreous-yellow colour, brown on the thorax and 
head; the eyes dark brown; the under-side of the 
abdomen was paler than the wing-covers, which were 
themselves rather paler than the back of the abdomen, 
which was tinged lightly with orange-brown ; the 
spiracles were brownish-orange, surrounded with a 


pale ring; and the tip of the abdomen was orange- 
brown. (William Buckler, July, 1874 ; Note Book II, 

On the 8th of August, 1881, I received from Lord 
Walsingham some leaves of Polygonum amphibium, of 
the aquatic form, together with dead moths of 
Acentropus niveus, male and female, both winged and 
apterous, and on examination I found about eight 
eggs had been laid in a line along the very edge at 
the side of a leaf, and on the under-side of another leaf 
was a neat little group of four more, and two single 
eggs near. 

These eggs were roundish-oval but somewhat pear- 
shaped; subsequently I found a very numerous batch 
of extremely small eggs laid close together; they 
appeared to be oval in shape. 

Afterwards Lord Walsingham sent me more of the 
Polygonum with numerous [specimens] of these minute 
eggs, and some of the above-mentioned, and also some 
others quite different and larger. 

On the 16th of August I received from Mr. W. R. 
Jeffrey three full-grown examples of the larva, which 
a few weeks before he had taken with some water- 
weed from a part where he had observed some 
remains of these insects in a canal near Ashford, and 
after a little time he observed one of these larvae in 
his aquarium, when on searching he found two others, 
and that they were feeding, the first on Hydrocharis 
morsus-range, the others on Ceratophyllum demersum 
and Potamogeton crispus between united leaves, and he 
kindly sent them off the same afternoon to me. On 
the 17th I figured the largest, both magnified and 
life size. I had to divest it of some Potamogeton 
pectinatus, which it had spun together in the morning, 
and after completing my figures I left it for half an 
hour, and on returning found it very much changed, 
its liveliness gone, a sleepy torpor pervading it, its 
transparency less and giving way to a more opaque 
appearance, as though some change was drawing near ; 


and in a day or two I found it bad spun itself up in 
the axil of a stem of Pot. crispus and had drawn a 
couple of leaves around it. The web was very white, 
and on the day following I could see through the web 
close to the stem-axil the head of the larva busily 
spinning more silk from side to side at that part 
within the cocoon. On the 28th I found the smaller 
larva had also spun up between two leaves of Pot. 
pertinatus, but only for moulting, and this was got 
over by the 3rd of September, when it reappeared and 
was feeding well and making many pellets of green 
frass daily ; its situation when hidden from view 
amongst the leaves of Pot. crispus could be readily 
ascertained by the presence of a small air-bubble 
floating near, and an air-bubble constantly floated in 
attendance near by the cocoon ; and between the dates 
of the 8th and 16th of September the moth — a 
male specimen — was bred from it. On removing the 
gauze cover to change the water in the pot on the 
17th I found the moth floating near the side, and, of 
course, dead ; and from my having neglected to pro- 
vide a twig for the insect to ascend and develop its 
wings, they were rather crippled, from its inability to 
crawl up the slippery side of the pot. At the above 
date the other larva was still feeding, as proved by 
the little pellets of frass dropped at intervals in the 
fresh water. (William Buckler, 17th September, 1881 ; 
Note Book IV, 97.) 


Plate CLIII, fig. 1. 

Hitherto the early stages of this species have re- 
mained in profound obscurity, and now that I have 
become familiar with them I can understand why the 
larva, from its mode of life, had never been detected ; 
therefore my pleasure is all the greater in being able 
to render an account of it, which I owe to the discern- 


ment and kindness of my friend Mr. W. R. Jeffrey, of 
Ashford, who, on the 13th of June, 1879, captured a 
female Botys pandalis, and with hope of obtaining 
eggs confined her in a jam-pot, together with leaves 
of several Compositse and Labiatse ; yet not an egg was 
deposited on any of them. 

However, two days later Mr. Jeffrey found several 
eggs had been laid on the inside smooth surface of 
the pot, and five more on its piece of plate-glass cover, 
looking for all the world like splashes of moisture 
that should be wiped off at once, but the next moment 
with keen intuition he knew they were ova; and 
though wishing to send some directly to me, he after- 
wards very wisely resolved not to risk forwarding the 
piece of glass, but to pay attention to them and their 
produce himself till they were fit to travel, and to 
furnish me with his observations, which here follow : 

"When first laid, on the 14th and 15th of June, the 
eggs were flat, scale-like, but more translucent than 
any I have observed, like minute drops of fluid or oil ; 
under the microscope the shell is seen to be reticulated 
and beautifully iridescent. On the fifth day the 
embryo was distinctly visible, on the eighth day the 
ocelli could be seen, on the tenth the mandibles 
plainly, the segmental divisions and dorsal canal 
slightly, and on the twelfth day the black head and 
plate on the second segment showed most plainly ; 
indeed, the slow undulating movement in the alimen- 
tary canal could be distinctly traced. About 10 o'clock 
the same night, 27th of June, they began to hatch, 
and the little larvse were all out of the shells before 
next morning. 

" The colour of the larvae when first hatched is 
creamy-white, with black head and plate. Fortunately 
I had growing plants of Solidago virgaurea, Origanum 
vulgar e, and other species, from which I at once 
gathered leaves to see what they would take as food ; 
but at first they were too restless, crawling upward 
and trying to escape from under the glass cover of 

VOL. ix. 8 


the pot ; but next day I noticed one larva had attacked 
a leaf of Solidago by eating a small hole partly through 
it ; subsequently other leaves were similarly eaten 
into, and by the beginning of July they evidently pre- 
ferred the golden-rod and marjoram." 

With this account Mr. Jeffrey kindly forwarded to 
me a dozen of the larvae on the 3rd of July, just as 
they had completed their first moult, and were then 
not quite a tenth of an inch long, having a glossy 
black head and collar-plate, a whitish pellucid skin, 
bearing blackish-brown dots, and a broad yellowish- 
green internal vessel showing through. 

On the 8th of July I found they had moulted for 
the second time and become less transparent, except- 
ing the belly, which remained much as before though 
slightly yellower, while the body above was darker 
and rather dingy green, the head, the plate, and dots 
shining brownish-black. 

They lived contentedly, but well apart from each 
other, and when preparing for the third moult spun 
little hammock-shaped silk webs on the under-side of 
the leaves, or between leaves, slightly uniting the 

After the third moult, on the 17th of July, I was at 
first astonished at not seeing the larvae, until I became 
aware that they were inhabiting little cases, which 
they had made for themselves with portions cut from 
the leaves of their food-plants ; some of the cases 
were lying loose among the leaves, though one or two 
at first were still adhering to the leaves by a small 
part not cut away ; on turning out a larva two days 
later I saw its back and sides were deeply tinged with 
dark purplish-brown. 

Henceforward the larvae were not easily observed, 
as they were exceedingly shy, never protruding their 
heads to feed during the day, unless in darkness and 
perfectly undisturbed ; they evidently fed well, and 
made fresh cases whenever they required roomier 
abodes, or those in use changed colour from decay; 


indeed, the leaves of Clinopodium, Origanum, and 
Solidago, from which they constructed tbem, were not 
of a nature to last long in a good condition ; it there- 
fore seemed probable that in complete liberty the 
larvoe would use any more suitable leaves for case- 
making they might happen to find ; and to test this 
idea I introduced some leaves of beech with their food, 
and they were not slow to appreciate this better ma- 
terial, as one larva after another constructed a new 
residence, and before long they were all occupying 
cases cut from beech. 

On one occasion I chanced to surprise a larva three 
parts grown, lying along the midrib on the upper 
surface of a beech leaf, engaged in spinning a great 
number of silk threads, close together and parallel, 
from one side to the other, as a foundation for a new 
case, — I had only just observed this, and that the 
sides of the leaves were drawing upwards, when I was 
called away for a little while, — and on my return 
fouud a large oval piece of the leaf the size of a 
pigeon's egg had been neatly cut out and drawn 
closely together at the edges into a well-fashioned 
elongate, plump, pasty-like case, having a circular hole 
of egress at both ends ; all the cases were of similar 
form, and varied but little in size after the last were 
made, nearly an inch long by almost three-eighths 
across the broad middle. 

Latterly indications appeared of some of the larvae 
being nearly or quite full-fed, as I found some cases 
attached by silk threads to the marjoram and basil, 
when I added a few leaves of Teucrium scorodonia, 
and this the few still feeding appeared to relish so 
much as to care but little for their previous diet. All 
but one were full-fed by the 9th of September, and 
that last one on the 19th ; they had moored their cases 
destined for puparia to some of the neighbouring 
leaves with threads of brownish silk, and one hole of 
each case had disappeared by the edges being drawn 
closely together, the other hole being evenly plugged 


up with silk ; in one instance the case was strongly 
moored near either end across the under edge of a 
beech leaf, from which a large oval piece had been cut 
away as material for a similar construction, an inter- 
esting example Mr. Jeffrey gave me to figure. 

Most unexpectedly, when I chanced to look into 
their cages on the 16th of November, I found in one 
a female, apparently just out of pupa; and in another 
I found a second female equally perfect, while at the 
bottom lay a dead male specimen, partly discoloured. 

This season, 1880, I bred a male specimen rather 
crippled on the 27th of May, and this afternoon (5th 
of June) a fine female, the remainder no doubt re- 
tarded by ungenial weather. 

The full-grown larva is seven -eighths of an inch in 
length, of moderate slenderness, cylindrical, though 
tapering very little from the fourth segment to the 
head, and again only at the end of the thirteenth ; all 
are plump and well defined, with a transverse wrinkle 
across the back of each ; the ventral legs are shortish, 
the anal pair extending behind ; the colour of the 
back and sides as far as the spiracular region is very 
dark grey, tinged more or less with purplish-brown, 
the dorsal line still darker ; the glossy head, of the 
same dark colour, is marked with black in front of 
each lobe, a black glossy plate dorsally divided with 
dark grey is on the second segment, and on either side 
of the third and fourth are two faintly paler longitu- 
dinal lines gradually lost beyond them ; the tubercular 
spots are large, black, and glossy, each with a fine 
hair ; below the small round black spiracles the whole 
surface is rather light greenish -grey or drab, and the 
spots there are brownish-grey. 

The pupa is half an inch long, rather slender, of 
pyraloid character, with the back of the thorax and 
abdominal upper segments very slightly keeled, the 
head parts moderately produced, the wing-covers long 
and well defined, the tapering hind part of the abdo- 
men having a flattened taper prolongation and blunt 


extremity,f urnishedwith minute curly-topped bristles ; 
in colour it is dark purplish-brown, with the lower 
abdominal divisions golden-brown, the wing-covers 
glistening, and all the rest glossy. (William Buckler, 
June 5th, 1880; E.M.M., July, 1880, XVII, 28— 

That I am able this year to offer a few more 
observations on the larva of Botys pandalis, as a 
supplement to those on p. 28 of this volume of 
E.M.M. [and repeated just above], is owing to the 
great kindness of Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, who sent 
me on the 27th of May a batch of eggs laid by a 
female he had beaten out from a tangled growth of 
rose and bramble in the New Forest. 

These eggs were laid in a chip box, in five separate 
flat patches, containing from ten and upwards to 
twenty in each, as near as they could be counted with 
the aid of a strong lens, which also showed them to 
be somewhat overlapping one another, yet withal 
showing so smooth a surface as to look like a deposit 
of yellow grease upon the chip. 

Four days after I had received these eggs there 
appeared on many of them two most minute dusky 
specks, and after two more days strong bluish-black 
marks (doubtless the ocelli, mandibles, head, etc., so 
accurately observed by Mr. Jeffrey). Every day 
produced these appearances on more of the eggs in 
succession, while from the most forward at intervals 
the larvaa were hatching by night, when, on the 8th 
of June, the remainder were fatally arrested by a 
sudden fall in the temperature. 

On the 2nd of June, the first four young larvse were as 
an experiment placed with leaves of rose and bramble ; 
the next four with leaves of Teucrium scorodonia; 
after a day or two I found the former had gnawed a 
little of the cuticle from the softest of the bramble 
leaves only, thus causing their white bodies to be 
very faintly tinged with greenish, while the latter had 
made holes quite through the leaves of Teucrium, 


and evidently liked their food so much better that 
afterwards I kept all the larvae entirely on Teucrium, 
and they throve on it remarkably well ; but this food 
certainly seemed to influence their colouring, as they 
were all very much paler than the brood of last year, 
fed chiefly on other labiate plants. 

The larvae had constructed their first cases by the 
25th of June, and I noticed some of these, as well as 
one or two of a later period, varying from the usual 
pasty-shape, and having a more fusiform outline ; 
and for some time leaves of their food-plant furnished 
the materials, until by accident a piece of honey- 
suckle got introduced, and a case was cut from it ; 
after that I made trial of other leaves, until the 
preference seemed given to those of Bubus corylifolius, 
from which latterly all the cases were fabricated. 

Early in July I established the larvae in a large 
glass vessel holding plenty of Teucrium sprays 
standing upright, secured at the top with stout un- 
bleached calico, an arrangement allowing me to 
watch, without disturbing, the shy little creatures ; 
and I soon found that their habit was to remain 
constantly hidden in the case, whether lying on the 
surface of a leaf, or hanging, as they would for hours, 
suspended from a leaf or a stem by a dirty coloured 
thread half an inch or less in length ; and even when 
desirous of feeding they put forth their anterior 
segments only, for the purpose of reaching the part 
of the leaf they meant to attack, and then im- 
mediately, w T ith a little jerk, pulled forward the case 
over the segments they had exposed in moving, and 
fed away as it were by stealth. 

Occasionally one could be seen attempting the diffi- 
cult task of ascending the glass from the bottom, 
and, of course, often failing to secure a footing on 
the slippery surface; but during these efforts, made 
with half its body exposed and stretched to the 
utmost extent, if it chanced to touch any part of the 
food-plant for a foothold the case would be quickly 


drawn up over it, a performance which reminded me 
vividly of an old acquaintance — the aquatic Hydro- 
campa nymphceata ; — but while thus engaged it would 
at the least alarm shoot back in an instant within the 
case, often causing it to fall lightly to the bottom, 
and there, lying perfectly still, it had the natural 
appearance of a mere fragment of leaf rubbish. 

The colouring of these larvae was light pinkish- 
drab above, and much paler beneath, the darker dorsal 
line invariably noticeable between two pale lines (a 
detail inadvertently omitted in my previous descrip- 
tion) ; the tubercular shining spots though blackish on 
the thoracic segments were on the others of a warm 
lightish brown ; when full-fed and almost ready to 
spin up the length was about an inch, and the 
colouring changed to a very pale yellowish flesh tint, 
except just at each end of the body. 

When all but one were spun up in their cases, and 
I wished to examine that one in mature condition, 
I tried to push it out of its case with a piece of string, 
but though this passed through from end to end it 
failed to expel the larva, whereupon I stripped it of 
the case piecemeal, and kept it unclothed until 1 had 
figured it ; then I supplied it with various leaves, but 
it refused to utilize any of them for a new case, and 
eventually took up a new position on the stout calico 
top of its prison; twice I removed it and put it first 
on a leaf of bramble, and then on one of beech, but it 
would persist, even a third time, in returning at night to 
the same spot, as though it had lost reliance on any 
leaf, and there it expended five days of hard labour in 
cutting through and fashioning the tough material 
into a pasty-shaped case, which it moored to a few 
leaflets of its food-plant, and spun up on the last day 
of August. 

On the 22nd of October I luckily bethought myself 
of the three perfect insects of last year's brood that 
emerged in autumn, and at once inspected the pot of 
this season's pupae and found two perfect specimens, 


male and female, quietly sitting on the leno cover ; 
this, without disturbing the moths, I removed to 
a fresh pot, and on the 24th found presumptive 
evidence of their having paired, in a patch of the deep 
yellow eggs laid on the white surface near the bottom. 

Whether in our climate the imago would emerge at 
this time of the year when under natural conditions I 
should think is very doubtful ; in a warmer climate it 
seems to be regularly double-brooded, for Gruenee 
says it flies "en mai, puis juillet et aout;" perhaps 
therefore in hot summers a second flight of moths 
might occur in August with us, but hitherto only one 
flight has been recorded, the date of which Wood, 
Humphreys and Westw^ood, and Stainton agree in 
giving as (the beginning of) " June." (William 
Buckler, 5th November, 1880; E.M.M., December, 
1880, XVII, 156—158.) 


Plate OLIII, fig. 2. 

On the 27th of July, 1883, Mr. W. R. Jeffrey 
captured a female moth of this species, which 
deposited her eggs between the 30th of July and 
the 2nd of August. The larvse hatched on the 11th of 
August, and on being supplied with leaves of various 
plants growing in the locality where the moths 
were flying, soon showed their preference for those of 
Centaur ea nigra, at once spinning little webs along the 
side of the midrib towards the stem; they ate away 
the under-side, leaving the upper cuticle untouched, 
and thus making little transparent blotches, which 
showed where they were feeding; they were, however, 
themselves so glassy and translucent that they were 
most difficult to detect, and hence several were lost or 
destroyed in changing their food. They continued to 
grow till the beginning of October, and as it then 
became apparent that they would hibernate, Mr. 


Jeffrey supplied them with dry beech leaves, on which 
they soon constructed their tough hibernacula, and 
were afterwards placed out of doors with a potted 
plant of Centaurea. About the middle of December, 
during mild weather, it was noticed that they had 
nibbled some of the leaves, but the larvae themselves 
were not seen. In January, 1884, I received Mr. 
Buckler's stock of hibernating larvae, some ten or 
twelve in number, but did not examine them for some 
time ; on the 8th of March I opened a little web, and 
found the enclosed larva quite dormant. Soon after 
this they must have begun to feed again, for on the 
19th of March Mr. Jeffrev found a Centaurea leaf 
nibbled asunder near some loose spinning of silk, and 
on the 31st I found similar indications of my larvae 
being at work. On the 7th of April, in the evening, I 
examined my growing plant of Centaurea, and saw 
that I had three larvae alive and feeding, apparently 
still using their hibernacula for hiding-places, and 
spinning short galleries from them to the tender young 
leaves just shooting out of the earth, the whole 
substance of which they ate in the usual way ; one of 
these larvae was about to moult. On the 8th of May I 
found them full-grown, and during the next fortnight 
they spun gauzy cocoons, and became pupae during 
the first week in Jane; unfortunately, I kept them too 
dry, and bred only one moth, 27th of June. Mr. 
Jeffrey's larvae were rather later in their dates, 
becoming pupae towards the end of June ; and he bred 
the moths from the 5th to the 13th July, and again 
captured the moths flying at large on the 31st of 

The eggs are described as being deposited in little 
patches, somewhat overlapping each other ; they are 
flat in form, of a pale honey colour, and so transparent 
that the development of the larvae within could be 
plainly watched; thus in about a week the eyes could 
be seen, and in two or three days more the organs of 


the mouth were visible, and an modulatory motion of 
the whole body was set up, as if the larva was feeding 
on whatever fluid remained in the egg-shell with it. 

The newly-hatched larva is glassy or translucent; 
in about five weeks' time it has become greenish, with 
black spots, and reminds one of the larva of 8 copula 
olivalis ; at about the age of two months, when 9 or 
10 mm. in length, they spin their hibernacula, which 
are very tough flat cocoons of roundish outline, some 
10 mm. in length by 7 or 8 mm. in width, and made 
of thin but very close-woven pale grey silk; the larvse 
during hibernation seem to become dingy, for the one 
I examined was reddish-brown in colour, with the 
spots large, prominent, and glittering; but as three- 
fourths of my stock did not feed again in spring, 
it may be this dingy colour which I noticed was not 
the colour of health during the hibernating stage. 

After the last moult I made notes of the larva 
at two dates; in April, just as it was beginning to feed 
again, it was about 11 mm. long when at rest, 14 
or 15 mm. when in motion, of shortish fat figure, 
stoutest about the sixth and seventh segments, and 
thence tapering dorsally in a curve to either end ; 
colour all over dull opaque white ; head horny, pale 
yellowish-brown, mouth darker brown, a small dark 
spot on the top of each lobe ; the collar, Avhich covers 
the whole of the back of the second segment, paler 
than the head; the anal plate not distinguishable; the 
usual dots small and black, placed on pale Indian-ink 
warts, which glitter brilliantly ; the front pair of the 
trapezoidals on each segment are on the largest warts, 
which are in outline stumpy pear-shaped, having the 
broad ends turned inwards towards one another, and 
the blunt stems turned outwards and backwards ; the 
hinder pair of trapezoidals are placed on paler and 
narrower warts (growing broader in figure on the 
hinder segments), which have their long diameter 
placed transversely; each dot bears a pale brown 
bristle; the dorsal vessel appears as an interrupted 


fine brown thread on the latter half of each segment, 
and there is a little transverse streak of the same tint 
at each segmental division, and also at the middle 
wrinkle of each segment ; the spiracles appear of the 
ground colour ringed with brown. 

Early in May the full-grown larva is about 16 mm. 
long when at rest, and quite 22 mm. when extended 
in walking, 3 mm. wide at the seventh segment, where 
it is stoutest; the colour is still dull opaque white, 
with perhaps the faintest tinge of green ; the dorsal 
region with a faint shade of black from the internal 
vessels ; the head very pale reddish, with a dark dot 
on the top of each lobe, and another dot on each 
cheek ; the collar now with scarce any reddish tinge 
at all, but showing its dots distinctly, namely, a row 
of six small ones close to its front edge, about the 
middle on either side a double dot like a figure of 8, 
and then a transverse row of eight dots varying in 
size, and lastly, a pair near the dorsal line just on the 
hinder edge; the belly is now of a yellowish-white, 
the spiracles are black, the thoracic legs rich brown ; 
the dots and warts are just as before, perhaps more 
prominent, and as the lateral and ventral dots, as well 
as the dorsal, are all placed on shining warts, the 
effect is striking. 

The cocoon is regular in figure, about 20 mm. long 
and 12 mm. wide, of very fine gauzy texture, made of 
white silk. 

The pupa is slender, 13 or 14 mm. long, tapering 
gradually to the tail, the tip of which terminates in a 
long spike with square end, set with six long curled 
spines; the pupa-skin is glossy and shining, curiously 
ornamented with tufts of hair; on the back of each 
segment, just in the region of the subdorsal lines, 
there is a pair of tubercles, each set with a whorl 
of eight or ten harsh-looking waved and curled hairs; 
three of the anterior segments bear in addition each a 
pair of longish transverse ridges behind these tubercles, 
and closely set with shorter curled bristles, and on the 


sides of the two segments next the head there is a 
group of three or four small spine-bearing tubercles ; 
below the spiracles the abdomen is ornamented with 
tubercles bearing fewer and shorter bristles than 
those on the back; the general colour is pale chestnut- 
brown, the wing-cases and some patches on the back 
of the front segments darker brown; the bristles, 
which under a lens look like cocoanut fibre, are light 
brown ; altogether, this is one of the most singular 
pupae I have seen. (John Hellins, 6th September, 
1884; E.M.M., October, 1884, XXI, 99—101.) 


Plate CLIII, fig. 3. 

Towards the end of March (1878) I found a larva a 
quarter of an inch long in the twisted top of a stinging- 
nettle ; it was a pale translucent green, with raised 
spots of opaque darker green and a conspicuous 
internal vessel of similar darkish green. The plate on 
the second segment was outlined with blackish at the 
sides, and the head had dark freckles. 

Through the month of April it continued to grow 
and to moult. Each time of this operation the spots 
became less and less distinct, and at length were of 
the same colour as the skin itself ; after the penulti- 
mate moult each side of the mouth was blackish and 
the ocelli black, and a blackish side outline remained 
to the plate on the second segment, with a dusky sub- 
dorsal dot on each side of the plate. 

On the 26th of May it moulted for the last time, 
and no dark outline remained on the plate, only the 
black mouth and ocelli. By the 31st it had grown to 
be one inch long and stout in proportion for a Botys 
larva ; the back was quite bluish-green, the belly, head 
and legs a much paler yellowish-green, the mouth 
blackish and the prominent ocelli black, and a black 
subdorsal dot on each side of the second segment ; a 


very dark bluish-green dorsal pulsating vessel shows 
through the translucent glassy skin ; the oval spiracles 
are pale flesh-colour and slightly prominent; the 
tracheal creamy-whitish thread on which they are 
situate is plainly visible, and the branched ramifications 
from it also ; the tubercular warty eminences are 
transversely oval on the back and longitudinally oval 
on the sides, all of the colour of the surrounding part, 
and each with a whity-brown hair; on the thirteenth 
segment are a few blackish freckles. 

The pupa is three-quarters of an inch in length, 
of moderately slender proportions ; the head is well 
developed, the thorax somewhat ridged, the wing- 
covers long, the flexible rings of the abdomen well 
cut and gradually tapered, with a prolonged point at 
the thirteenth segment, furnished with two small 
curled-topped converging spines crossing each other 
near their extremities, thus ensuring a secure attach- 
ment. The colour of the pupa is pitchy black, the 
segmental divisions of the abdomen dark ochreous 
brown, and with not much gloss excepting on the head 
and thorax. 

The cocoon was a very roomy lining of silk within 
leaves of nettle drawn together, and to this the old 
larva skin adhered, and the tail-spines of the pupa to 
the old larva skin. (William Buckler, June, 1878 ; 
Note Book III, 232.) 


Plate CLIII, fig. 4. 

Since the publication of that interesting paper, " In 
Memoriam Carl von Hoyden," in the * Entomologist's 
Annual ' for 1867, 1 had cherished the hope of obtaining 
the larva of Botys lancealis, and this hope has at 
length been fulfilled, thanks to the kindness of Dr. J. 
H. Wood of Tarrington, who succeeded in detecting 
it in Herefordshire, and kindly sent me two young 


examples on the 13th of August, and three more (full- 
grown) on the 1st of September, 1874. 

Not having seen any description of this larva, it 
has occurred to me to give one, together with some 
account of the few individuals I had in captivity. 

Of the first two larvse I received, one had been acci- 
dentally crushed, but its companion arrived in a lively 
condition, wriggling and leaping, both forwards and 
backwards equally well, whenever disturbed from its 
web spun amongst the leaves of the Eujpatorium canna- 

The youngest larva was about five-eighths of an inch 
long, and at this stage of its growth was rather uni- 
form in size, though in other respects showing the 
characteristics of a Pyralis ; its pale drab head spotted 
and freckled with darkish brown, the back and upper 
sides of the body bluish-green, the thoracic segments 
rather yellower green, a whitish hair-like spiracular 
line, the belly and legs pale whitish-green ; the second 
segment as shining as the head, and minutely speckled 
with black, the dorsal vessel faintly showing as a 
rather darker green pulsating stripe ; the segmental 
folds greenish- white, the tubercular warty eminences, 
though of the ground colour, yet glistening with a 
pearly lustre ; the rest of the skin at t-his time gener- 
ally without gloss, but so thin as to be semi-trans- 

When fresh food was supplied to this larva it soon 
spun a new web for its dwelling under the end of a 
leaf, folding it down and remaining quiet for some 
time ; afterwards often coming out at intervals to feed 
on the neighbouring leaves. 

On one occasion of changing the food I watched the 
larva spin another web ; it first took up its position 
on the under-side of a leaf, across the midrib, about 
an inch from the tip, and began operations by fixing 
a thread of silk on one side of the leaf ; then stretching 
itself round, it carried over the thread and fixed it on 
the opposite side, and so it continued regularly from 


one side to the other, the fore -part of its body at each 
movement describing a segment of a circle ; occa- 
sionally it paused a moment to advance a step ; and 
then began spinning again, and so on until satisfied 
that it had spun enough ; then it changed its position, 
and laid itself to rest along the midrib of the leaf. 
This web was more than half as long again as the larva 
itself, and about half an inch in width, excepting just 
at the ends, which were a little less and both open ; 
the silk of which it was spun was rather fine in 
texture, and whitish. After a short rest the larva 
crept a little way out of the web, and began nibbling 
the edge of the leaf it had chosen to reside under. 
At this moment, in order to have a clearer view, I 
cautiously ventured to turn aside the tip of another leaf 
adjacent; but so timorous was the larva that it sprang 
instantly backwards into its web, where in alarm it 
remained for a long time with its length much con- 
tracted. In the course of a few hours after this it had 
firmly fastened its leaf to two or three other leaves 
close by, and J did not disturb it again until the 18th 
of the month, when I found it had just moulted, and 
not only increased somewhat in size, but assumed a 
different dress, together with the usual proportions 
that characterise the genus. On the 23rd I saw it was 
full-grown, and took the following description : 

Length seven-eighths of an inch, the body tapering 
at each end, and thickest in the middle, especially when 
viewed sideways ; the head small and rather flattened ; 
the segments plump and well defined on the back and 
sides, and more particularly on the belly, where they 
are deeply cut, and very tumid at the setting on of all 
the legs, especially the ventral ones, which are rather 
long, slender, and spreading a little at their hooked 
extremities, the anal pair extending backwards and a 
little outwards ; the anterior legs very well developed. 
In colour the glossy head is light drab, speckled with 
dark brown, and having the papillae tipped with brown ; 
the second segment, also glossy, is green above, with 


the boundary of a plate defined on either side by a series 
of four black dots decreasing in size from the front ; 
on the rest of the back a dark green dorsal stripe, 
which is attenuated a little towards each end, its 
course relieved on either side by a broad stripe of 
opaque pearly greyish-white, followed by a broader 
semi-transparent green stripe, distinct without hard- 
ness, margined below by a thread-like opaque whitish 
line which thickens as it approaches each segmental 
division ; on this line are situated the small circular 
black spiracles ; all beneafch, including the belly and 
legs, have a pale watery tint of greenish ; the tuber- 
cular warts have each a fine silky hair ; the whole skin 
is tense, shining, and more or less translucent. 

On the 25th of August this larva ceased to feed, 
left the plant, and spun a web in a corner at the top 
of its cage, having by degrees become of a beautiful 
opaque rose-pink colour on the back, and greenish- 
flesh colour on the belly, destitute of any line or stripe, 
the head alone remaining unaltered in colour and 

By the 31st I found the web completed ; it was of 
triangular shape, composed of whitish silk enclosing a 
space an inch in length ; within was a hammock-like 
cocoon of finer white silk, and in this lay the larva. 
Its colouring again changed to a uniform flesh tint, 
and from this time it rested quiescent, without any 
further change in its appearance, until the last week 
in April, 1875, when I saw its position was different, 
and it seemed a little shorter and thicker than before ; 
on the 3rd of May I found it had pupated. 

This pupa was three-eighths of an inch in length, 
moderately slender in form, with the wing- and 
antenna-cases long, the abdominal tip terminating 
with four or five minute bristles converging at their 
extremities, which were entangled in the silk of the 
cocoon, the old larval skin lying behind them; the 
colour of the pupa was a very pale brown, with shining 


Of the three other full-grown larvaa before men- 
tioned, it will suffice to say that their details were just 
as I have already described ; the variations were simply 
in the depth of the colouring; one was much darker 
than the others, in which the light stripes of the back 
were greenish-grey, the other parts proportionally 
darker ; another was much paler, the stripes of the 
back being ivory-white ; their habits also were similar. 
Two of them reached the roseate stage on the 9th of 
September, the third on the 12th. 

One spun its cocoon on the straight upper edge of 
its cage, against the gauze top, to which it partly 
adhered ; this was exteriorly much of a hammock 
shape; this larva pupated on the 6th of May, 1875. 
The two others chose to spin themselves up under two 
or three leaves, which they securely fastened to the 
side and bottom of their respective cages, hidden from 

The earliest moth to appear was a male on the 29th 
of May from the first larva whose progress I have 
traced ; from the second pupa a female emerged on 
the 31st, and on the 7th of June a male ; the remaining 
larva died from mildew attacking it and its leafy 
hibernaculum. (William Buckler, 28th January, 1876 ; 
E.M.M., May 1876, XII, 277—279.) 


Plate CLIII, fig. 5. 

For this subject I have again to thank my friend 
Mr. W. R. Jeffrey, who, some years ago, used to find 
this larva near Saffron Walden on that local plant 
Melampyrum cristatum ; and, while thinking it likely 
that the more common species of cow-wheat might 
also prove to be its food, he accordingly sought for it 
in the summer of 1878 with complete success, taking 
several of the larvaa, and most kindly sharing them 
with me. 

VOL. ix. 9 


I received the larvao on the 25th of July, 1878, some 
of them nearly full-grown, feeding on the flowers and 
tender seed-capsules of Melampyrum pratense, inhabit- 
ing webs or galleries formed with silk, uniting the 
flowers and capsules to the stalk, and much covered in 
parts with frass. 

The earliest were full-fed at the end of July, and on 
the 2nd of August spun their cocoons ; the others 
continued feeding until the 5th, when they also left 
the plant, and soon after spun themselves up in the 
angles at top and bottom of their cage, within tough 
semi-opaline silken cocoons, sufficiently clear, for a 
long time afterwards, to show the very pale larvae 
through the silk ; pupation not occurring before the 
following spring. 

With me the moths emerged from the 8th to the 
20th of July, 1879, and with Mr. Jeffrey about the 
same time, though some of his were bred as late as the 
end of that month. 

The full-grown larva is a little more than half an 
inch in length, very slightly tapering at either end, but 
not very fusiform, though Pyralis-like ; the segments 
have each a subdividing wrinkle across the back, and 
are well-defined, having almost as plump a character 
as with B. asinalis, the head rather smaller than the 
second segment, but roundish in form, with the lobes 
well developed on the crown ; the colour of the back 
and sides is darkish grey-brown, darkest anteriorly; 
the spiracular region and belly are pale, rather 
ochreous-drab colour, the head blackish-brown and 
glossy, also the semilunar plate dorsally divided by a 
fine line on the second segment, whose margin of skin 
next the head is remarkably paler than elsewhere ; the 
dorsal line is darker and warmer brown than that of 
the back ; the folds of skin at the segmental divisions, 
when they occur, are of an ochreous-drab ; the tuber- 
cular warty spots are blackish-brown and shining, the 
dorsal anterior pairs largest, becoming rather of a 
warmer brown on the hinder segments, united on the 


front part of the thirteenth, where they form one large 
spot ; a brown plate minutely freckled with blackish- 
brown is on the anal flap ; the spiracles are small, 
round, and black ; below them the spots on the belly 
are of a light warm brown, and each spot bears a fine 

When full-fed, the larva, like other of its congeners, 
undergoes a complete change of colour, and becomes 
uniformly of a pale pinkish-flesh tint. 

The pupa is barely three-eighths of an inch in length, 
of moderate substance, the wing-covers long, the 
thorax keeled, also the three upper abdominal segments, 
and on these the spiracles are tumid eminences, as 
they are also on the penultimate, the last segment 
ending in a taper, downward curving, flattened point, 
slightly bifid, and furnished with six excessively fine 
curly-topped bristles ; the colour is a light, warm, 
mahogany-brown, the tips of the wing-covers and 
abdomen darker brown ; the surface generally glisten- 
ing. (William Buckler, 10th November, 1879 ; E.M.M., 
December, 1879, XVI, 161.) 


Plate CLIII, fig. 6. 

On the 13th of September, 1862, I received a larva 
of Botys terrealis from Mr. J. B. Hodgkinson, feeding 
on flowers of golden -rod. 

The larva was five-eighths of an inch in length, 
cylindrical, thickest in the middle segments, tapering 
a little forwards to the head, which was quite as 
broad as the second segment, and tapering also behind 
to the anal tip; the head and thoracic segments are 
rather flattened above ; the ventral legs are well 

In colour the head is pale brown, freckled with 
rather darker brown; the ground colour of the body is 
a bright rather yellowish green, becoming by degrees 


paler on the sides and paler still on the belly and 
ventral legs, and rather translucent; the dorsal stripe 
is of the pure green ground colour, rather darker than 
the sides; the subdorsal is a very fine line of the 
green ground-colour ; and the space of the back 
between them is filled up with greenish white ; a faint 
line of greenish-white, ragged in character, follows 
close below and parallel to the subdorsal; a little 
distance below comes the spiracular stripe of faiut 
greenish-white ; and this after au interrupted lino 
of the ground colour is followed by another such 
stripe ; the belly is faintly greenish ; the spiracles and 
tubercular dots are black, with a whitish fine hair 
from each of the last, the longest hairs behind. 

By the 19th of September the larva had grown to 
be almost an inch in length, lying along the stalk in 
a flower panicle in a web with some seed filaments ad- 
hering to them. By the 24th, when about to change, 
it began to turn greenish-ochreous uniformly, and 
crawled up to the leno cover at the side of the 
pot. Here on the 5th of October I observed that it 
had spun itself a slight silken cocoon in which to 
hibernate. (William Buckler, October, 1862; Note 
Book I, 199, 200.) 

On the 13th September, 1875, I received a fine full- 
grown larva of this species from Mr. J. B. Hodgkin- 
son, who had collected about half-a-score at Grange 
two days previously. 

The larva is very lively, about an inch in length, 
and of tolerable bulk in proportion ; the head is 
globular and shining, small, about the same width 
as the second, but much narrower than the succeeding 
segments ; the body is cylindrical and very markedly 
attenuated towards the extremities ; the segmental 
divisions are rather deeply cut ; the somewhat glossy 
and semi-translucent skin is clothed with a few scat- 
tered short hairs ; the usual dots are distinct. 

The ground colour is rich reddish-pink ; the head 
and anal segment are pale yellowish-brown ; the 


mandibles and a few spots on the lobes darker brown; 
the most conspicuous of its markings is the broad 
pulsating vessel which forms the medio-dorsal stripe; 
it is of a considerably darker tint than the general 
ground colour; there are no other particular markings, 
but the sides are variegated a little with a darker 
shade of the ground colour. The ventral surface is a 
little paler, and each proleg is tipped on the outside 
with a black dot. 

Freyer describes the larva as " pale green, with 
several slender, rather darker, lateral lines." This 
mast have been taken from a very different variety 
to mine. 

Mr. Hodgkinson collected the larvae from golden-rod 
(Solidago virgaurea), and in his note accompanying 
the one sent me says, " the plants they are on are 
denuded of flowers, as a rule, and generally shabby." 
He could find no larvae on the plants which were 
in full bloom. (George T. Porritt, 2nd December, 
1875; E.M.M., February, 1876, XII, 209.) 


Plate CLIII, fig. 7. 

On the 3rd of July, 1865, I received from Mr. A. E. 
Hudd, of Clifton, some eggs of Botys asinalis. 

These eggs were scale-like, being very flat, of a 
slightly oval form, deposited in little patches of ten or 
less on the sides of the chip box ; in colour they were 
very slightly greenish, and very shiny, looking some- 
what like spots of grease. On being examined with 
an inch lens after the larvae were hatched, the shell 
appeared to be very thin, and most delicately 

By the 6th of July the heads of the larvae could be 
seen like a tiny black dot in each egg, reminding one 
somewhat of a patch of toad's spawn ; and a few 


hours after, the young larvae began to make their 
debut, little tiny yellowish fellows with dark heads. 

Mr. Hudd had conjectured the food to be Bubia 
peregrina (madder), and it soon appeared that he was 
right ; the larvae at once fed freely on the flowers and 
young seeds of this plant, and began to increase in 
bulk, growing paler in colour, but showing a dark 
line down the back. After a time they seemed to 
take to the leaves of the madder, eating out the thick 
substance of them from below, and leaving the upper 
skin quite perfect in large transparent blotches ; I 
should have said that from the first they spun them- 
selves little hammocks, with a hole at either end, 
after the custom of their tribe, in which they passed a 
great deal of their time. 

By the 29th of July they had attained some size, 
and had become translucent, of a shining light 
brownish colour, with brown dorsal markings. 

By the 7th of August they were grown as big as 
they intended to grow, and one or two showed 
symptoms of changing. 

At this time their length was about three-quarters 
of an inch, the figure tapering towards each end, 
the legs sixteen, the head small and flat, the segmental 
divisions strongly cut, a horny plate on the second 
segment, the whole skin very translucent and shining, 
with a few bristles. The colour was a yellowish- 
brown on the back, paler and more greyish below, 
the reddish-brown dorsal line rather interrupted, the 
subdorsal stripe broader, brownish, and containing 
within it two large black dots on each segment; 
a broad, brown, lateral stripe below again, with one 
black dot within it on the front of each segment ; 
the spiracles black. On examination with a lens the 
colours appeared more pinkish. 

On the 8th of August, and following days, the 
eight or nine larvae which I had succeeded in rearing 
spun themselves up to the sides of their flower-pot in 
silk webs, and changed to rather slender bright red 


pupae, with the antennae and wing-cases reaching far 
down the abdomen, and ending in a projecting knob. 

On the 31st of August and two following days 
there emerged five imagos, rather under-sized, but 
very perfect; I suppose that in nature this species 
cannot be double-brooded. 

Mr. Hudd has kindly supplied me with the following 
dates of its appearance : 

This year he took the moths at the beginning of 
July, and could see no more after the middle of the 
month ; however, within the last day or two he has 
found in his garden (on madder growing there) two 
very young larvae, and the eggs whence these emerged 
could not have been laid earlier than the 20th of 
August ; in 1864 he took the moth on the 14th of 
August ; and he tells me that he once knew it taken 
at ivy so late as the end of September, but it was then 
in a very worn condition. (John Hellins, 6th Sep- 
tember, 1865 ; E.M.M., November, 1865, II, 135.) 

On the 11th of May, 1876, I received through the 
kindness of Mr. A. E. Hudd, of Clifton, Bristol, half-a- 
dozen larvae of this species. 

Two of them were full-grown, and were an inch 
and an eighth in length ; the middle segments were 
plump and round, but each becomes smaller than its 
predecessor from the middle to the extremities, 
giving the body a strongly attenuated appearance. 
The head is broad when seen from above, but narrow 
when viewed from the sides ; the lobes are rather 
rounded and polished. The body is irregularly 
cylindrical, each segment tapering towards its edges, 
and thus rendering the divisions very conspicuous ; 
each segment is also further divided into two parts 
by a central transverse groove. The skin is soft and 
semi-translucent, clothed with a few short hairs. 
The last pair of prolegs is extended in a >-like form 
beyond the anal segment. The ground-colour is dull 
pinkish-brown, brighter in young specimens ; the 
head is straw colour, marked with darker brown ; the 


dorsal stripe is pale pinkish-yellow, intersected 
throughout with a dark olive-brown line ; the sub- 
dorsal stripes are also pinkish-yellow, broadly bordered 
above with olive-brown ; indeed, this dark colour 
forms a broad stripe between the dorsal and subdorsal 
lines ; the spiracles and trapezoidal dots are distinct, 
black; the ventral surface, legs, and pro-legs greyish- 
green. The skin is so transparent that the movements 
of all the muscles can be distinctly seen. 

Feeds on Bubia peregrina ; and in some seasons the 
larvae are so abundant in the neighbourhood of 
Bristol that the conspicuous marks made by them on 
the madder plants form quite a feature in the locality. 
(George T. Porritt, 4th July, 1878 ; Entom., August, 
1878, XI, 190.) 


Plate CLIII, fig. 8. 

A small larva was found on the 11th of September, 
1876, along with four of Ebulea stachydalis on a plant 
of Stachys sylvatica growing in a ditch. It was nearly 
three-eighths of an inch long, and about uniform in size 
throughout, tapering only a little at the twelfth and 
thirteenth segments; the hind pair of legs was long in 
proportion, the ventral ones rather long; the segments 
well cut and tumid beneath. In colour the ground is a 
lightish green, not bright; the dorsal line is deeper 
green with a paler whitish-grey line on each side 
of it, followed by a broad stripe of the same deeper 
dull green as the dorsal line ; this without harshness 
is followed by the pale rather greenish-flesh colour of 
the more translucent belly and legs ; the head is light 
greenish blotched with black largely on each lobe ; 
these blotches are partly filled up with black freckles, 
and a margin of black freckles outlines the side of the 
cheeks and mouth; on the second segment is a thick, 
squarish, black spot on each side. 


On the 15th of September, 1876, while searching 
the plants of Stachys sylvatica for larvae of Ebulea 
stachydalis I found on some of those plants, in folded 
leaves, three larvae of larger size, which had probably 
come from nettles, amongst which the Stachys was 

One of the larvae I figured, and found it to be 
one inch long in repose, but when stretched out in 
walking was even an eighth longer. Its shape was 
fusiform and its general ground colour, seen best on 
the belly, was a faint greenish tint, rather translucent; 
the folds of skin or segmental divisions were faint 
yellowish, the dorsal stripe darkish full or slightly 
yellowish-green, within which can be seen the 
pulsations of the dorsal vessel; this green stripe 
is bordered by a narrowish stripe of yellowish or 
whitish-yellow, rather opaque; below this, as far as the 
spiracles (which are small, round, and black), the colour 
is rather a deeper greenish than the ground, and 
somewhat translucent, as is also the paler belly and 
legs; the head is green, but broadly marked with black 
on each lobe, on the lower part of which a spot of the 
green is left, and the triangular space between the 
lobes is green ; the mouth is outlined with black and 
also the face; the second segment is green with a 
black, thick, subdorsal stripe on each side ; the 
tubercular warts are small and raised, each with a 
fine hair. The segments are subdivided with a 
deepish wrinkle across the back, and the segmental 
divisions are well cut, particularly on the belly, where 
the segments appear tumid ; the ventral and anal legs 
are rather long and slender, with rather spreading, 
hooked extremities. 

When full-fed the larva changes colour to a deep 
rosy-pink on the back, and the belly is flesh colour; 
this occurred with the larva figured on the 28th of 
September, while it was spinning its cocoon, the 
head and second segment still retaining the black 
marks as before. 


The larva spins itself a strong enveloping outer 
silken web, and within that a silken cocoon or 
hammock, in which its change to a pupa is effected 
and the tail of the pupa afterwards held fast, the old 
skin lying by, the head and thoracic segments of 
which show plainly its identity even after the moth 
has emerged. 

The pupa itself is a little more than three-eighths of 
an inch in length, quite of the usual pyralideous 
shape, widest across the thorax, the wing-covers long, 
the abdomen slender, the extremity slightly prolonged 
above, from whence proceeds a group of about five 
minute, curled-topped bristles. In colour it is of an 
uniform brown, excepting only the abdominal tip, 
which is darker, rather shining. (William Buckler, 
October, 1876 ; Note Book III, 143 and 145-146.) 

Ebulea. crocealis. 
Plate CLIV, fig. 1. 

On the 30th of October, 1877, I received from 
Mr. Jeffrey five or six young larvse already spun up 
in their hibernacula under the turned-down tips of 
leaves of Inula dysenterica, but I turned them out to 
examine, and in the hope that they would spin 
themselves up afresh in a plant I had potted for them. 

They were about three-sixteenths of an inch in 
length, rather stout in proportion, and slightly 
fusiform ; the head was black, and there was a black 
plate on the second segment, already broadly divided, 
especially behind, with the ground colour of the body, 
which is pale or whitish- ochreous, with a faint 
greenish dorsal line between two paler lines ; aud also 
the faintest indication of the future tubercular 
dots and hairs could be made out with the lens, 
enough to assure me that they were Ebulea crocealis. 

In April, 1878, I found only two remaining, and 
both dead, but on the 1st of May I received three 


from Mr. Barrett, one of them about the same 
dimensions as the above-mentioned before hibernation, 
and the two others of larger size. These I put on 
the growing plant of Inula dysenterica, although they 
had been found on I. conyza. 

The largest of these was nearly three-eighths of an 
inch long, and the other rather less. They had both 
black heads, but the side-ends only of the plate on the 
second segment were broadly black, the central area 
being light green ; the colour of the body was pale 
ochreous-greenish, the dorsal vessel a little more 
green or of a deeper tint of the same, showing as a 
stripe between two opaque, pale, faint yellowish 
stripes, for they seem to lie beneath the skin and 
to show through it; another more faint but narrower 
occurs lower on the side, and the line on which the 
spiracles occur is similar ; the warts all bear black 
central dots ; the head when full-grown is black and 
glossy, with a faint ochreous streak across just above 
the mouth; the papillae whitish-yellow with black tips; 
the spiracles black; the tubercular dots very small and 
black ; the plate on the second segment is light 
ochreous-green, bordered thickly at the sides with 
shining black. 

By the 23rd of May one had changed to pupa, and 
another by the 24th. 

The pupa is nearly half an inch long with pitchy 
black head and thorax, the wings and abdomen very 
dark purplish-brown, moderately glossy, the abdomen 
cherry-red at the sides and beneath ; the segmental 
divisions of the flexible segments of the abdomen 
very glossy, the head and thorax also. In shape it is 
rather slender, of about equal substance from the 
front of the thorax to the end of the wing-covers, 
narrowing from the thorax to the head, all the parts 
and the eye-pieces well developed, the wing-cases 
of moderate length, the abdomen slender and tapering, 
the thorax rather ridged on the back ; the tip of the 
abdomen has a little prolongation ending in two small 


curled-topped spines converging so as to cross near 
their tops. (William Buckler, 23rd May, 1878; Note 
Book III, 117.) 

On the 14th of June, 1875, I received a few larvae 
of this species from Mr. J. H. Threlfall of Preston, 
who had collected them at Grange ; and on the follow- 
ing day a further supply from Mr. W. H. Grigg, of 

The full-grown larva is about half an inch in length, 
and stout in proportion ; the head globular, the same 
width as the second segment ; the body cylindrical, 
slightly attenuated at the extremities ; the segmental 
divisions deeply cut ; the tubercles raised, each emitting 
a fine hair ; a distinct polished plate behind the head. 

The ground colour is a very pale semi-translucent 
glaucous-green ; the head and the plate on the second 
segment are intensely black and shining ; a dark green 
pulsating vessel forms the medio-dorsal line, this line 
dividing even the plate on the second segment. The 
subdorsal lines are waved, of the same colour, but 
finer and less distinct ; there are no perceptible 
spiracular lines ; the tubercles and spiracles black ; 
hairs brownish. The ventral surface is uniformly very 
pale, transparent glaucous-green. 

Feeds on Inula dysenterica, and when full-grown 
draws the edges of the leaves together, and in the 
cavity thus formed changes to pupa. 

The pupa is rather elongated, smooth, and shining; 
its colour a deep rich brown ; the abdominal divisions 

The imagos began to appear on the 30th of June. 
(George T. Porritt, 3rd March, 1876 ; Entom., April, 
1876, IX, 88.) 



Plate CLIV, fig. 2. 

In the ' Entomologists' Weekly Intelligencer,' Vol. 
10, p. 71, is recorded the first information of Teucrium 
scorodonia being the food-plant of Ebulea verbascalis, 
by Mr. McLachlan, who mentions therein the fact of 
his finding in the autumn of 1860, " larvae, evidently 
Pyralidae, on this plant," which, with true prophetic 
instinct, he refers to this species ; from the brief 
description there given of the characters he observed 
in those larvae I have the fullest evidence now to offer 
in proof of the correctness of his judgment. 

Dr. Hofmann, in his ' Kleinschmetterlingsraupen,' 
published in 1875, quotes first the Vienna Catalogue, 
wherein Verba scum is given as the food-plant, and, 
secondly, adds that, according to Rossler, the larva 
should rather be sought on Teucrium ; Rossler's work 
is dated 1864 — -1866, four vears after Mr. McLachlan 
had published his discovery. 

On the 8th of August, 1877, I had the pleasure to 
receive from my friend Mr. W. R. Jeffrey two dozen 
eggs of this species, being part of a batch laid a few 
days before on both sides of some leaves of Teucrium 
scorodonia, beyond doubt their proper food-plant, 
which had been ascertained the previous season by 
Mr. Jeffrey, who on this occasion kept a few of the 
eggs for himself, with advantage to our object of 
elucidating the history of this hitherto unknown larva. 

The eggs hatched on the 11th and 12th of August 
and the young larvae were supplied with Teucrium, on 
which they soon settled themselves, creeping under 
the leaves, each one by itself choosing a place whereon 
to spin a small layer of silk to secure its footing, and 
soon to convert into a most minute tubular kind of 
gallery, which, in some instances, slightly united one 
leaf to another, if they were at all in contact. In a 


few days they ate small holes through the leaves, and 
after a moult or two the holes became more con- 
spicuous, so that as the larvas grew their ravages 
indicated sufficiently well their situations on the plant ; 
and by the end of August they had grown to be a 
quarter of an inch long, still protecting themselves 
with a little silk under the leaves ; but as their growth 
increased, they no longer made any elaborate retreat, 
beyond occasionally turning down a part of a leaf with 
a few threads of silk, or more often by similar means 
attaching one leaf to another as a screen or hiding- 
place in which to lie sheltered. They were in their last 
coats when about thirty to thirty-five days old, and 
were full-fed by the fortieth and spinning themselves 
up, mine in earthen cocoons, those of Mr. Jeffrey in 
sand, which his local knowledge enabled him to give 
them to make up in. Judging from the behaviour of 
the larvae in captivity, they should be easily dislodged 
from the plants by shaking or beating ; indeed, the 
first two larvae I had to figure, in 1876, were obtained 
in this way by Mr. Jeffrey, at Folkestone, as late as the 
27th of September. 

As to the moths, Mr. Jeffrey fortunately bred a few 
this summer on the 27th and 30th of June and the 
8th of July, although some of his larvae, like the whole 
of mine, died in their cocoons during hibernation. 

The egg of E. verbascalis is circular, flat, and scale- 
like, colourless and semi-transparent. Two days before 
hatching it begins to fill out gradually with some 
degree of plumpness on the upper surface, showing 
opaquely the embryo through the shell, which has on 
it numerous little glistening pits. 

When first hatched the larva is whitish, semi- 
translucent, and rather lively ; when seven clays old 
it becomes slightly tinged with pale bluish -green ; and 
about the nineteenth day, when a quarter of an inch 
long, shows faintly a stronger green dorsal stripe 
between two lines of whitish, some light brown freckles 
on the head, and most minute black dots sprinkled 


over the body; at the age of twenty-five days, its 
length is from three-eighths to nearly half-an-inch, 
when the pale head is more distinctly freckled with 
brown, the green stripe on the back and broad band 
of the sides are brighter, darker, and broader than 
before, the two white stripes of the back appear more 
purely white, and a whitish spiracular line is seen 
extending from the third segment to the side of the 
anal legs, while beside the black dots, previously 
noticeable, one on either side of the third and fourth 
segments is now conspicuously larger than the others. 
The fall-grown larva measures from six-eighths to 
seven-eighths of an inch in length, tapering at each 
end, the segments well divided, and beyond the fourth 
each is sub-divided by a deep transverse wrinkle on 
the back into two nearly equal portions ; on the belly 
they are more deeply divided and very plump ; the 
ventral and anal legs are slender, the anal pair 
extended behind in line with the body. In colour the 
head is of a pale watery drab, finely dotted on the 
crown with black, and freckled with brown on the 
sides of the lobes, and a pair of blackish dots are a 
little above the mouth ; the second segment has much 
the same pale ground colour as the head, and is also 
freckled with light brown on the side, where there is 
a conspicuous black elongated dot, and on the dorsal 
region is broadly marked, somewhat triangularly, 
with rich semi-translucent full green, which continues 
from thence as a broadish dorsal stripe of equal 
breadth as far as the eleventh segment, from whence 
it becomes gradually narrower to the thirteenth, having 
within it a darker pulsating vessel; this green stripe 
is bordered on either side by a rather narrower stripe 
of opaque-whitish, with its outer edge a little ragged 
and slightly melting into the rich translucent full 
green of the sides, inclining a little in part to bluish- 
green ; this is again relieved by the spiracular stripe 
of yellowish-white extending to the anal legs, having 
throughout its course along each segment a straight 


lower edge and a concave upper edge, thickening the 
stripe at each segmental division, and thinning it in 
the middle of a segment, just where each round black 
spiracle is placed on it. The belly is of a very pale, 
watery, tint of greenish, and has the faintest possible 
paler line a little below the spiracles ; the tubercular 
warts are of the ground colour on which they occur, 
each having a small central black dot with a fine hair; 
the whole skin is very glassy and shining. 

The cocoon is more or less of an oval shape, about 
half an inch in length by a quarter in breadth, exter- 
nally covered with fine grains of sand or of earth, and 
internally lined smoothly with greyish-white silk, very 
tough in texture. 

The pupa measures three-eighths of an inch in 
length, is moderately slender, and quite of the usual 
pyralideous form, the thorax being slightly keeled, the 
spiracles on the fixed rings of the abdomen rather 
prominent and larger than those on the flexible rings, 
the wing-covers long, the leg- and antenna-cases longer 
still, extending a little free beyond them; the bluntish 
tip of the tapering abdomen has a more pointed dorsal 
prolongation, furnished with two very minute con- 
verging bristles ; its colour is ochreous-brown and 
rather shining. (William Buckler, 31st August, 1878 ; 
E.M.M., October, 1878, XV, 102—104.) 

Ebulea stachydalis. 

Plate CLIV, fig. 3. 

TThe description of the larva of this species is given 
under and in comparison with the next species.] 



Plate CLIV, fig. 4. 

Comparative Description of the Larvse and Habits of 
Ebulea stachydalis and E. sambucalis. — On the 11th 
of September, 1876, whilst gathering some Angelica 
sylvestris, I accidentally fell into a deep ditch, and 
whilst there made acquaintance with a large plant of 
Stachys sylvatica, the leaves of which bore unmistakable 
marks of the work of some sort of larva ; this incited 
me to pull up the plant, and on examination I found 
thereon five larvae of a pyraloid form. Remembering 
what I had read of the new Ebtdea, I formed hopes 
immediately that I had taken its larva, and further 
investigation, with the help of books and figures, 
turned my hopes into such certainty as can exist until 
the moths have been bred. 

Further search in more ditches was rewarded by the 
capture of several other examples of the larva, and 
after that I set to work to get E. sambucalis in the 
same stage for comparison, and I took five-and-tvventy 
of this species also. And I may say briefly at once 
that, although at first sight the two larvge are not un- 
like, they possess ample and satisfactory points of dis- 
tinctness ; E. sambucalis is longer in proportion to its 
stoutness than E. stachydalis ; it is not so glass-like in 
appearance ; and it has always on the third segment, 
and often on the fourth also, a black lateral spot, 
which is wanting in E. stachydalis. I now proceed to 
give other points at greater length below. 

Ebulea stachydalis. — The larva lives in a sort of tube, 
formed either by turning down the tip of a leaf and 
folding it closely on to the under surface with a 
quantity of silk, or else by drawing together a fold of 
the under surface, and covering it over with a thich 
silken web, in either case leaving an opening at each 
end ; in such a retreat it seems to live quietly by day, 
vol. tx. 10 ' 


and comes out at night to feed on the remaining por- 
tions of the same leaf; so that as it grows it must 
move from leaf to leaf. I think I found most of the 
larvse low down on the plants of Stachys, for though I 
found several webs on the upper leaves, they were 
generally empty. The larva eats large holes quite 
through the substance of the leaf, thus giving con- 
spicuous marks of its presence, and leaving the ribs 
and the margin untouched ; when full-fed it quits the 
plant in search of a suitable hiding-place in which to 
spin its cocoon for passing the winter. 

The smallest larva I chanced to meet with was 
about three-eighths of an inch long, and possessed all 
the characters of those more mature. 

The full-grown larva is about five-eighths of an inch 
in length, with the true Pyralis contour, thickest in 
the middle of the body, with the segments well defined 
and plump, especially on the belly, and on the back 
subdivided by a transverse wrinkle ; the head is small, 
and projecting forwards in a line with the body ; the 
ventral legs are slender, furnished with rather spread- 
ing hooked feet, the anal pair extended behind the 
body. In colour the head is whitish with the least 
possible flesh tinge, the mouth brownish, the ocelli 
blackish, the second segment whitish with a triangular 
broadish spot behind of bright transparent green ; 
from this starts the conspicuous dorsal stripe of the 
same colour, more or less dark, of uniform width to 
near the anal extremity, where it narrows a little by 
degrees and is seen to be pulsating; on either side of 
this is a broad rather ragged-edged stripe, quite 
attenuated anteriorly and a little posteriorly, of pure 
opaque ivhite, bearing a few minute freckles trans- 
versely near the front of each segment ; the segmental 
folds pure white ; below on the side is an uniformly 
broadish stripe of transparent green, darker in some 
parts than in others, and along its lower edge the 
tracheal thread of whitish can be seen beneath the skin, 
on which are the small round black spiracles ; the belly 


and legs are pale, the former of a semi-pellucid faint 
greenish tint, yet withal having a most delicate flesh 
tinge, the latter pellucid ; the tubercular warts are 
raised, their centres green and glittering, each bearing 
a fine hair ; the whole shin of the larva is lustrous as 
the clearest glass. 

When full-fed it by degrees loses all its previous 
details of colouring and texture, until it becomes uni- 
formly lllce polished white ivory, and, after remaining 
a few days in this state, begins to spin its cocoon. 

By the 25th of September all my larvss had spun 
themselves up in strong and closely woven silken 
cocoons, transparent at first, but as soon as they were 
made thicker changing to a flesh-colour, and in the 
course of a week to pale brownish. 

Guenee (Vol. VIII, p. 364) says of this species, " Elle 
est bien distincte de la sambucalis, quoiqu'en dise 
Duponchel. Sa chenille vit sur la Parietaire, et aussi 
sur le Stachys sylvestris, au dire de Germar, qui la 
decrit ainsi : Larva obesa, rugosa, glabra, sub-pellucida, 
alba, habitat in foliis Stachys sylvestris contortis;" 
but it seems to me that this description by Germar 
does not suit the larva until it is about to spin. 

Ebidea sambucalis . — When setting myself to look for 
this species, I first tried the tall bushes with stiff 
leaves, but meeting with no success on them, I then 
tried some young growth of Sambucus nigra a foot or 
two high, and soon found several larvae, each of them 
lying under a whitish silken web spun on the under 
surface of a leaf, and causing a narrow fold, which, 
though slight, was perceptible even on the upper sur- 
face. When the leaf was turned up, the larva was seen 
lying in the hollow, covered with this semi-transparent 
screen of silk, open at each end, and from this at 
night it would emerge to feed on other parts of the 
leaf. The smallest example I found was from three- 
eighths to half an inch long, and very slender, of a 
pale watery greenish tint, having a deeper green dorsal 
stripe, bordered on each side with a stripe of faint 


semi-opaque whitish-grey ; all the rest of the body 
rather translucent. 

The full-grown larva is three-quarters to seven- 
eighths of an inch in length, of slender proportions, 
fusiform, the head in line with the body, the segments 
subdivided by a wrinkle on the back of each, while on 
the belly they are plump and well divided ; all the legs 
are slender, and the anal pair extended behind the 
body. In colour the head is of a pale semi-pellucid 
watery greenish tint, having a faint tinge of flesh-colour, 
the second segment similar, but with a broad dorsal 
triangular mark behind of a bright and full semi- 
transparent green, from which the dorsal pulsating 
stripe of the same colour proceeds ; on either side of 
this is a wider stripe, though much attenuated in front 
and a little behind, of semi-opaque whitish green, 
having a few small green freckles transversely near 
the front of each segment ; the segmental folds are 
yellowish ; below is an equally wide stripe of the full 
semi-transparent green, somew^hat softened above and 
also below, where the small round black spiracles occur ; 
the belly and legs are of the same semi-pellucid pale 
watery greenish tint as the head ; the tubercular warts 
have a small green central eminence emitting a fine 
hair; on the front of the third and fourth segments on 
either side is a velvety black spot ; a few individuals 
occur in which these spots are almost obsolete or ab- 
sent on the fourth segment; the skin on the head and 
on the plate of the second segment is like shining glass, 
but on all the rest of the body it is like ground, glass. 

When full-fed the details of colouring fade gradu- 
ally away, and the larva changes to a pale pink hue, 
and then spins itself up in a cocoon of whitish silk, 
Avhich soon turns rather brown. (William Buckler, 
7th October, 1876 ; E.M.M., November, 1876, XIII, 



On the 27tli of August, 1879, I received eggs, 
together with a living female, of Lemiodes pulveralis, 
from Mr. William Purdej, of Folkestone. 

The eggs were deposited in masses, and attached to 
the bottom of a glass -topped box ; they were oval, 
flattened at the base, and but slightly rounded above; 
they had a semi-transparent appearance and were of a 
dingy grey horn colour. 

They hatched out on the 9th of September, and 
a week later the young larvaa seemed to be feeding 
well on common garden mint; they were of a semi- 
transparent straw-colour, with the alimentary dorsal 
vessel slightly visible, and the head and frontal plate 
black. (George T. Porritt, Note Book, 1879.) 

On the 7th of August, 1880, I received from 
Mr. Sydney Webb a batch of eggs laid on the glass 
top of a box, in number about fifty or fifty-four, in 
little scattered groups. The eggs were laid by the 
parent moth on the 4th of August. 

On arrival the eggs were of a dirty whitish colour, 
or faint tint of drab, not flat, but swollen or plump, 
of an elliptical form, and with the surface very 
minutely pitted. On the fourth day the embryo 
showed through the slightly glistening shell, coiled 
round, of a faint greyish colour. Without undergoing 
any change of colour they seemed to be getting 
gradually rather more opaque on the 14th, and on the 
15th, in the morning, that is on the eleventh day 
after being laid, they were nearly all hatched. 

The newly-hatched larva is of a faint creamy white 
colour, semi-opaque, showing the faintest possible 
greyish internal dorsal vessel through the skin of the 
anterior segments, the head and narrow plate on the 
second segment light brown. On the 16th five more 
were hatched. 


On the 17th I observed that they had taken to the 
under-sides of the leaves of the mint {Mentha hirsuta, 
of which Mr. Webb had previously sent me a plant to 
pot, in readiness for them), and had acquired a light 
greenish tinge rather inclining to drab, but quite 
translucent. They were eating out little hollows from 
the under surface, and leaving little heaps of black 

On the 26th, after their second moult, their heads 
and plates were light brown and shining, their 
bodies brownish and semi-transparent beneath, though 
without gloss. 

On the 29th only two were alive, one of which lay 
in a small silken hammock-like web spun beneath the 
hairs of a leaf (on the under-side), and the larva seemed 
to be an eighth of an inch long, and apparently 
preparing for its third moult; the other, about the 
same size, was actively crawling. 

On the 31st only one larva survived, having 
apparently moulted for the third time. It was of a 
pale drab brownish colour, with pale brownish 
glittering head and plate ; the spots on the body, now 
just visible, are about the same colour as the body, 
but are shining, while the surrounding skin is dull. 

At this point the history of Lemiodes pulveralis 
abruptly ends. There are various observations in my 
Note Book down to pupation on the 16th October, 
but I believe that a young changeling larva, unper- 
ceived, was accidentally introduced, and devoured the 
L. pulveralis, taking its place in my observations from 
the 31st of August. 

On the 19th of July, 1881, Mr. Sydney Webb 
kindly sent me another batch of eggs of L. pulveralis, 
laid in a glass-topped box on the 16th by the parent 
moth captured on the 14th. At 11.50 on the night of 
the 26th they began to hatch to the number of five, 
and these were placed on Mentha, hirsuta, potted for 
them a week before. Next morning about thirty, 
more or less, were hatched and placed on the leaves of 


the plant; some of them I observed crawled to the 
edge of the leaves and there suspended themselves by 
a silk thread an inch long hanging from the leaves, but 
in a short time they had all disappeared under the lower 
surface of the leaves. At night of the 27th three 
more were hatched and put on the plants, and on the 
morning of the 28th seven more. (William Buckler, 
28th July, 1881; Note Book IV, 27, and 44-45.) 


Plate OLIV, fig. 5. 

Length about three-quarters of an inch when 
crawling, shorter when at rest. It is very contractile, 
so that although when at rest it has a very plump ap- 
pearance, when crawling it is comparatively slender. 
The head has the lobes rounded, and, being flattened 
above, has a narrow appearance when viewed from 
the side. Body cylindrical, attenuated very consider- 
ably from the sixth to the anal segment posteriorly, 
and from the fifth to the head anteriorly; segmental 
divisions well defined ; skin semi-translucent, soft and 
glossy; tubercular dots raised and distinct; from 
each of them springs a short hair, and there are a few 
similar hairs also on the head. 

The ground colour varies in different specimens 
from dull dark yellowish-green to brownish-green; the 
shining head is pale wainscot brown, with the 
mandibles and a few scattered dots dark brown ; a 
broad dark green pulsating vessel forms the medio- 
dorsal stripe ; and the space between this stripe and 
the spiracles is filled up with confused stripes of 
various shades of grey or green ; there is a pale 
whitish stripe along the region of the spiracles ; 
segmental divisions yellowish ; trapezoidal spots very 
distinct, intensely black with white edging. Ventral 
area, legs, and prolegs uniformly pale semi-trans- 


lucent green, with faint indications of two darker 
green longitudinal side-lines. 

Before spinning up it changes colour to an almost 
uniform pale glossy rather bright green, consequent 
on the colouring matter having left the skin, and the 
pulsating vessel forming the dorsal stripe is then 
narrower and very distinct; the dark trapezoidal spots 
also show out prominently. 

Feeds on various species of Brassica, horse-radish, 
etc. (George T. Porritt, Note Book, 11th September, 


Plate CLIV, fig. 7. 

In the first part of a " Calendrier clu Micro-Lepidop- 
teriste," by M. Camille Jourdheuille, published in the 
volume for 1869 of the i Annales de la Societe Ento- 
mologique de France,' at p. 540, under the heading for 
March we read : " Botys stramentalis, Hb. Dans les 
tiges de ble : quelquefois tres nuisible." This has been 
cited by Dr. E. Hofmann in his ' Kleinschmetterlings- 
raupen,' and also more recently by M. E. L. Ragonot, 
in Vol. XVI, p. 154 of the ' Ent. Mo. Magazine,' where 
he tells us " it has been stated that the larVa feeds in 
March, in stems of wheat, and that it is sometimes 
injurious to crops." 

Now in what follows I think I shall be able to 
dispose effectually of the foregoing misconception of 
Pionea stramentalis, by showing that the larva is not 
at all an internal feeder, or to be found in March, and 
is quite innocent of attacking any cereal crop. 

On the 27th of July, 1881, I had the pleasure to 
receive from Mr. William R. Jeffrey a numerous batch 
of eggs laid by some female moths of this species he 
and his son had captured, and imprisoned with a 
variety of leaves of plants that grew where the insects 
were flying. 


The eggs were first observed on the 24th of the 
month to be laid on leaves of Lotus major, Glechoma 
hederacea, Barbarea vulgaris and seed-pod, Myosotis 
cse-spitosa and Phalaris arundinacea, scattered in little 
flat masses ; the largest number in any mass amounted 
to thirteen ; others ranged from three to five, six, seven, 
and eight, overlapping each other after the manner of 
Botys pandalis, and like them presented a smooth and 
greasy appearance. 

It was some time before I could detect on the 
Glechoma a mass of eggs of precisely the same colour 
as the under-side of the leaf where they adhered, and 
only when the mass presently in a slight degree began 
to swell above the surrounding surface could I feel 
sure it was composed of eggs, so perfect was the 

In the interval while the eggs were maturing, Mr. 
Jeffrey and I exchanged ideas with regard to the 
probable food-plant, so as to be provided in readiness 
for the young larvae, and I found we were both in 
accord in having fixed on the cruciferous plant as the 
most likely among those above mentioned to have 
induced the parent insects to have parted with their 
eggs so freely as they had, both on it and the other 
leaves, probably from knowing the right food was 
present, which their progeny would unerringly find. 
And we had good ground for assuming this to be the 
case, as we remembered the fact that our only two 
other British species of Pionea, viz. P. forficalis and 
P. wargaritalis, both feed on Cruciferae. 

Accordingly, when the eggs hatched on the 2nd, 
3rd, and 4th of August, we were both prepared with 
Barbarea vulgaris for the young larvae, whose liking 
for it became soon unmistakably apparent, for though 
the other kinds of leaves were at first put with it, yet 
each little larva in turn found its way from them to 
the Barbarea, and crept down the upper-side of the 
leaf to near the stalk and there rested, and in course 
of an hour or two three became a numerous assemblage 


of the little creatures lying in rows side by side most 
contentedly, and where they afterwards began to feed, 
and to spread themselves in small companies over the 
surface, but showed no disposition to wander away 
from the leaf; thus they continued all through their 
subsequent stages unto the very end of their career 
to be of exceptionally amiable disposition, never inter- 
fering with one another when, as often happened, some 
would be laid up to moult while their companions were 
still by their side feeding in such a sociable manner 
as to suggest the probability of their being in nature 
more or less gregarious. 

Very soon I experimented with six individuals by 
placing them on leaves of Sinapis arvensis, and they 
contentedly throve on this food as long as it could be 
supplied ; but after a time these plants seeded so rapidly 
that good leaves w r ere difficult to obtain, and as they 
would not eat the seed-pods of this or the other plant, 
but only the leaves, I eventually, after they had 
moulted, returned them to their former companions 
on the Barbarea ; Mr. Jeffrey had also varied the food 
of some of his larva? by giving them Gardamine 
amara, and he found they took to it freely. The result 
of these experiments tended to the belief that though 
the Barbarea is at least one of their natural food- 
plants, yet that there are other plants liked by them 
quite as well to be found amongst the tribe of Cruci- 

The larvae moulted thrice, first from the 8th to the 
10th of August, a few rather later; the second moult 
happened with most of them on the 17th and 18th, and 
the third moult occurred with some on the 24th ; and 
all had safely accomplished that operation by the 27th 
of the month. 

By the 9th of September all were full-fed, and shut 
up in cocoons of earth, more or less in small companies 
partly clustered together, many attached to the leaves 
lying on the surface of the ground, in which none had 
gone to any great depth. 


The perfect insects were bred, the first by Mr. 
Jeffrey as early as the 29th of June, 1882, followed 
by a very great number in his cages, where they con- 
tinued to appear at intervals — often three or four 
together, and occasionally six at a time — up to the 27th 
of July, though with me the first appeared on the 14th 
of July, and then my anxiety was dispelled by a feeling 
of great satisfaction at the completion of data for this 

The egg of Pionea stramentalis is ovate in shape, 
very flat at first, but swells gradually, and in about 
six days appears to be finely reticulated on the surface, 
and is then glistening and of a brownish-ochreous 
yellow colour, transparent enough to show through 
the shell the greenish embryo coiled round within, and 
surrounded with yellow granules ; on the seventh day 
it is more filled out and rather prominent, and then 
becomes a little dingier in tint, and hatches on the 
day following. 

The newly-hatched larva is green, and rather trans- 
parent, with a flattened black shining head and dark 
brown neck-plate, and on the body can just be dis- 
cerned most minute black dots and hairs. After eating 
out little pits and channels from the cuticle, causing 
transparent blotches on the leaf for about five or six 
days, and acquiring more colour, it becomes of a very 
pale watery green as it lays up to moult. 

After the first moult it eats holes quite through the 
leaf, and its ravages are very perceptible. Its head is 
black, the back dark green, the belly pale watery- 
green, the sides of the shining neck-plate dark brown, 
while the middle of the plate is of the same green 
colour as that of the back, the wart-like spots are of 
the ground colour, but have dark brown centres bearing- 
single hairs, and a pale ring is at the base of each 

Soon after the second moult it is very dark on the 
back with a deep and subdued blackish olive-green 
colour, while the belly has a much lighter tint of the 


same ; these are separated by a spiracular stripe of 
bright yellow; the head, the side margins of the neck- 
plate, and the warty spots on the upper surface are 
shining black ; on each side of the back are two very 
fine and much interrupted series of white linear dots, 
less broken on the second segment to the end of the 
fourth than on the others ; the warty spots on the 
ventral surface are of the ground colour, having dark 
olive-brown centres. 

Directly after the third moult, and for a day or so, 
the ground colour of the larva appears perfectly black, 
which enhances the brilliancy of the broken white lines 
and the yellow spiracular stripes ; but by degrees, after 
it settles down to feed aofain and erow, the black skin 
expands and the ground colour of the back becomes 
more and more green until it is ag^ain of a blackish 
olivaceous-green, when the length ranges from 13 to 
16 mm. 

It now consumes a great quantity of food^ and the 
plump skin begins to shine a little ; at the end of about 
ten days it attains full growth, of an average length of 
21 mm., and is thick in proportion, tapering a little 
at each end, the anal legs extended behind in a line 
with the body; the glossy black head has the upper 
lip light green, edged at the mouth with black, the 
papillae colourless, the side margins of the plate on the 
second segment and the warty tubercles, each with a 
hair, are black and glossy ; the upper series of broken 
linear white dots commence rather wide apart on the 
front margin of the second segment, and in their 
course down the back form a base to the upper side 
of each first pair of tubercles ; the lower series com- 
mence on the third segment and are still more inter- 
rupted ; the spiracular stripe of very bright and deep 
yellow begins on the second segment and extends to 
the thirteenth ; another narrower stripe begins on the 
fifth and follows almost close below, of either pale 
primrose-yellow or whitish ; the circular spiracles are 
yellowish-brown with shining black centres ; the belly 


is of a dingy drab-green, less dark than the back ; the 
anterior legs are greenish, the ventral and anal legs 
almost colourless ; after the ten days' feeding, and 
while still eating at intervals, it gradually contracts its 
length, and the dark back assumes a bright purplish- 
violet-coloured ground more shining than before, when 
it is very beautiful; but in two more clays' time it 
ceases to eat, and then the spiracular yellow stripes 
lose their brilliancy, while it lingers a few hours before 
spinning its cocoon on or just below the earth, wherein 
it remains in the larval state and retains the purple- 
violet colour until the spring of the year following, 
when it changes to a pupa. 

The broad-oval cocoon is covered with particles of 
earth, and measures from 16 to 19 mm. in length and 
from 10 to 12 in breadth, the interior being very 
smoothly lined with pale drab-coloured silk. 

The pupa is of rather a dumpy figure, from 8 to 9 
mm. long, the wing-covers longish, of a light 
yellowish-brown colour marked with dark brown, and 
having the nervures in high relief; the e}^e-pieces and 
abdomen dark brown, the surface smooth and glossy ; 
the last segment of the abdomen is a little prolonged 
and rounded off at the tip, without any points of 
attachment, which probably would be in this instance 
superfluous, as the tail of the pupa is brought to rest 
closely packed against the side of the cast-off larval 
skin, bristling with stiff hairs, which evidently afford 
sufficient support and resistance for the escape of the 
insect. (William Buckler, 11th September, 1882; 
E.M.M., November, 1882, XIX, 126—130.) 


Plate CLIY, fig. 8. 

On the 8th of June, 1866, Mr. T. Brown, of Cam- 
bridge, kindly sent me eggs of this species. 

These were roundish in form, shining, and very soft 


to look at ; deposited one on another in an irregular 
mass ; colour an orange-yellow, changiug just an hour 
or two before the larvae emerged to smoky grey, the 
heads of the larvae showing as black dots. 

The larvae appeared on the 10th of June, and from 
the first were very active. Seeing Artemisia given as 
their food by Treitschke, I supplied them with A. 
vulgaris, and they took to it readily, and throve so 
well that by the 7th of July they were nearly full-fed. 
I noticed that they ate away the upper side of a leaf, 
avoiding the ribs and veins, and leaving the under side 
untouched. They were very active, walking rapidly, 
and could jump backwards an inch at a time. 

When full-fed the larva is scarcely an inch in length, 
slightly tapering towards either end from the stoutest 
part, which is at the fifth segment. The head is black 
and shining, as is also in some specimens the plate at 
the second segment, which in others is of the ground 
colour; the ground is of a dull leaden-grey hue; some 
larvae have a pale dorsal line with dark outlines, whilst 
in others the pale line is not seen, but the dark out- 
lines run together to form a stripe with a paler line on 
either side ; subdorsal line pale ; spiracular stripe pale 
sulphur-yellow, deeper above and paler below, and 
intersected by an interrupted dark grey line. The 
usual dorsal spots appear as large shining warts, 
which have a pale centre enclosed with a blackish ring, 
and emit bristles; spiracles black; the belly pale 
olive-grey with shining warts. 

There was one variety of a pale grey ground colour, 
with the lines faintly yellow, and this combination 
gave a greenish appearance to the larva. 

These larva? appeared to go under ground for 
pupation, but I have not yet disturbed the pupae. 

Three or four of the imagos appeared during the 
second week in August, and I am hoping to see some 
more next June. (John Hellins, 28th January, 1867 ; 
E.M.M., April, 1867, III, 260.) 


Spilodes PALEALIS. 
Plate CLIV, fig. 9. 

On the 4th of September, 1875, Mr. W. H. Har- 
wood sent me several larvae living in cylindrical webs 
spun within the seed heads of Daucus carota, which 
were closed up together, affording a good indication of 
their presence by the closeness of the mass ; the webs 
of the larvae are just sufficiently large and long enough 
to contain each larva, and made of light greyish 
glistening silk, the outer stalks of the umbel being 
brought up together by a few single outlying threads. 

The smallest larva 1 had was about little more than 
a quarter of an inch long, of a very pale watery 
greenish tint dotted with black, and having a black 
plate occupying only the middle of the second seg- 
ment. Those larvae that were about half to five- 
eighths of an inch in length were very much darker 
than the others, being of a dark slaty greenish colour 
with their spots conspicuously large. 

The full-grown larva is rather stout in proportion 
to its length of three-quarters or seven-eighths of an 
inch ; it is of a plump character, though the segments 
are deeply divided, and subdivided on the back by one 
wrinkle ; it tapers a little at both ends, the head 
closely fitting a little within the second segment. The 
head is a greenish-yellow in ground colour, much 
blotched and spotted with black on each lobe and 
above and at the mouth ; the plate behind it is shining 
like the head, and has a pale yellow margin in front ; 
its ground colour is similar to the head, and it is also 
blotched with black on each side and marked with 
smaller black spots towards the centre; the ground 
colour of the back is a light slaty green, lively, but not 
a bright colour, and the tubercular spots are large for 
the size of the larva ; these are shining black with a 


ground-coloured middle and black centre, from which 
proceeds a blackish hair, and each spot is surrounded 
with a paler ring ; the dorsal stripe is a darker tint of 
the slaty green ; besides the usual trapezoidal series 
along the back there is a single line of spots along 
the side, succeeded immediately by a whitish-yellow 
spiracular stripe, on which each black spiracle is 
situated ; beneath this and on the belly the colouring 
is as pale, but scarcely so primrose a yellow, and more 
inclining to pale flesh-colour; the three rows of spots 
along the lower parts are smaller, paler, and more 
faintly marked ; a broad whitish faint central stripe is 
on the belly ; the anterior legs are black and shining, 
with paler joints. 

As the larva becomes full-fed its colours begin to 
fade and turn drab and then reddish ; one individual 
arrived quite crimson, having after feeding grown of 
this dark hue, and as soon as supplied with earth 
it burrowed out of sisfht within a minute. The whole 
number (six) had by the 24th of September retired 
under the earth. A year after, on the 26th of 
September, 1876, finding that no moth had appeared 
from the larva3 above described, I turned out the con- 
tents of their pot of earth, in which were six earthen- 
covered silken and very strong and tough cocoons, 
miniature editions of those of Gucullia verbasci; I cut 
one of them open, and found the larva within still 
alive, after a whole year's lapse. Thus in this habit 
of standing over for a time, as well as in the construc- 
tion and shape of their cocoons, do they resemble G. 

On the 1st of September, 1876, I received two of 
these larvae in an umbel of unripe carrot seeds, and 
they fed well until the 12th, when they burrowed into 
the earth. On the 19th Miss Terry found and 
brought me from the front orchard at Lumley a very 
small larva in a carrot umbel. In the course of four 
days it moulted and proved to be this species, and on 
the 23rd I searched myself the umbels of wild carrot 


growing there and found five more of the larvse, one 
or two of them full-grown. 

One of the cocoons I opened contained a pupa, 
which measured half an inch in length and was rather 
stout in proportion ; the thorax fall and slightly 
keeled, as also is the back of the abdomen as far 
as the beginning of the flexible rings ; the head, eyes 
and legs, and antennas well developed, extending free 
a little beyond the end of the wing-covers; the 
spiracles, three on either side, are rather large and 
prominent on the upper parts of the abdomen, 
but those below on the flexible rings are smaller, and 
as usual these rings are deeply cut ; the tip of the 
abdomen is rather blunt, with a few minute points. 
The colour is a light warm brown, rather shining. 
(William Buckler, August, 1878; Note Book III, 
27 and 58.) 

The larvae from which the following description was 
taken were sent to me the last week in August, 
1876, by the Rev. P. H. Jennings, M.A., of Longfield 
Rectory, Gravesend. He had found them in that 
district, feeding on the umbels and flowers of Baucus 

Length when at rest about three-quarters of an 
inch, when crawling about an inch. Body stout and 
cylindrical, the segmental divisions well marked ; 
head polished, the lobes globular, and there is a plate 
of the same polished appearance on the second 
segment; the skin has a soft appearance and is 
sparingly clothed with short hairs. Ground colour of 
the dorsal surface dull dingy green; head and plate 
yellowish-green, conspicuously marbled with intense 
black; dorsal stripe dark green, broad except at the 
segmental divisions ; tubercles raised, large and 
brightly polished, intense black encircled with yellow; 
spiracular region yellow ; on its upper edge is a row 
of black tubercles, similar to, but smaller than, those 
on the dorsal region ; spiracles very small but distinct, 
also black. Ventral surface yellowish-white, legs and 

VOL. IX. 11 


tubercles intense black; prolegs also tipped with 
black on the outside. 

One larva had the ground colour of the dorsal 
surface purple, the dorsal stripe darker purple, 
and the black tubercles encircled with pinkish ; 
the spiracular region was also pinkish. (George T. 
Porritt, 7th November, 1878 ; Entom., January, 1879, 
XII, 17.) 


On the 15th of August, 1874, I received from Mr. 
J. T. Carrington a few eggs of this species, that bad 
been laid on the 23rd of July on the lid and sides of 
a pill-box. 

These eggs were round and almost flat, laid singly 
and in little groups of two, three, four or more 
together, generally the edges of some overlapping the 
others, like thin scales, which they much resembled, 
their glistening surface (most finely reticulated and 
depressed or indented in an irregular manner) so 
transparent as to take the colour of the surface on 
which they are laid when the light is not shining and 
caught by their irregular surface ; but when the light 
shone the illumined parts had a faint greyish pearly 
lustre. (William Buckler, 18th August, 1874; Note 
Book II, 101.) 


Plate CLV, fig. 1. 

For years I have tried to find out the larva of this 
species, but, although the perfect insect is so abundant 
with us as to become almost a nuisauce when it is out, 
it was not until the present season that my endeavours 
were crowned with success. 1 had done my best 


to find the larva at large; and had watched the 
female moths where they abounded, in the hope of 
seeing them deposit their eggs, from early evening 
till late at night ; I have had numbers imprisoned 
with sprigs of every likely plant I could think of, but 
to no purpose ; not a larva nor an egg could I get. 
Last year, however, I received information from Dr. 
F. Buchanan White that he had reared the moths 
from larvaa found on one of the thistles, and having 
obtained this clue, I hoped there might not be much 
more difficulty, as I was not sure that I had ever 
particularly searched any thistles. In the spring of 
this year, 1877, therefore, I carefully preserved every 
thistle plant that appeared above ground in a field 
I have adjoining the garden (where Scopula lutealis 
was common last year), much to the amusement, and 
possibly disgust, of some of my friends. The thistles 
grew vigorously, but although I examined them 
minutely from time to time, no trace of S. lutealis 
could I detect. I had almost given up in despair, 
when, on the 30th of June, I had occasion to fetch in 
some dock leaves on which to feed larvse. On one 
of the leaves I had plucked from a plant near where 
one of the preserved thistles was growing, I acci- 
dentally saw on the under side, beneath a web, the 
larva of a Pyralis with which I was unacquainted. 
The thought at once crossed my mind, " Here is the 
long-looked-for lutealis" The appearance of the 
imago has since proved the suspicion correct. I 
searched long to find another larva, but without 
success ; perhaps they had all spun up, as this was 
evidently almost full-fed. 

Length about three-quarters of an inch, and of 
average bulk in proportion ; the head is slightly 
polished; it has the lobes rounded, and is the same 
width as, or perhaps a trifle narrower than, the 
second segment; the body is cylindrical, and attenu- 
ated towards both extremities ; it is also divided into 
conspicuous sections by the segmental divisions, which 


are deeply cut all round, or, to be more strictly 
correct, have the appearance of being so, from each 
segment being plump and rounded, especially at 
the sides ; the skin has a semi-translucent glossy 
appearance, and each tubercle emits a single but 
noticeable hair. 

The ground colour is pale green ; the head pale 
yellowish-brown with a few scattered dark brown 
dots ; a conspicuous broad dark green stripe extends 
through the dorsal area, widest on the second, third, 
fourth, fifth and sixth segments ; on each side of this 
stripe, and edging it, is an equally broad greyish- 
white stripe, these together forming the caterpillar's 
most noticeable markings ; there is also a fine greyish 
line along the region of the spiracles ; the tubercular 
dots are dark green, the hairs grey. The ventral 
surface is uniformly pale greyish-green. 

In some respects, the larva reminds me very forcibly 
of that of Ebulea sambucalis. 

In a week the larva changed to pale straw-colour, 
and in another day had spun a loose cocoon in a part 
of the dock leaf which had become folded against the 
sides of its cage. Two or three days later it had 
changed to a pupa, and I found the imago dead in the 
cage on my return borne from a collecting expedition 
to the New Forest on the 9th August. (George T. 
Porritt, 14th August, 1877; E.M.M., October, 1877, 
XIV, 114.) 

Since the foregoing was written I have found the 
larvae in plenty on brambles, wild strawberry, Plan- 
tago lanceolata, Ranunculus, and other low plants. — 

g! t. p. 



Plate CLV, fig. 2. 

For opportunities of observing the larva of this 
species I have been much indebted to the kindness 
of the Rev. J. Hellins and Mr. W. Jeffrey, during 
September and October of 1876 and 1877, and again 
to the last-named for further examples of the larva in 
the spring of 1878, from which the moths were bred 
in the first week of June. 

The several food-plants consisted of Sambucus nigra, 
Galeobdolon luteum, Stacliys sylvatica, MercMrialis 
perennis, Vrtica dioica, and Humulus lupulus. 

In autumn the young larva resides in the twisted 
top of a leaf, or under a part of the edge turned down, 
sometimes between two leaves partly spun together 
with white silk, w r here it feeds at intervals until its 
third moult, and is about a quarter of an inch long, of 
a green colour spotted with black, the spots large in 
proportion, having all the characters of the adult; it 
then spins itself up in an opaque white silken oval 
cocoon-like hibernaculum, firmly and closely attached 
to part of the under surface of a leaf having the edge 
turned down, hiding it completely. 

In spring, when the plants begin to put forth new 
leaves, usually in March, the larva wakes up, feeds, 
and its growth is soon considerable, so that by the 
end of the month it becomes nearly half an inch long ; 
it continues to draw the leaves tightly together 
around itself with a few threads, as it eats portions 
out of them, and feeds secure from observation until 
about the middle of April or the end of the first week 
in May, according to the season, when it is full-fed, 
though now, and a little before this period, many 
a larva is slain by that of an ichneumon emerging from 
the mere skin, which directly afterwards shrivels up. 

The full-grown larva measures three-quarters of an 


inch in length, and tapers a little at both ends ; the 
middle segments of the body are rather stout and 
of plump character, well cut at the divisions, 
especially on the belly ; the ventral and anal legs are 
slender; the ground colour of the head and body is a 
semi-transparent green, sometimes a blackish-green 
on the back as a dorsal line, but always melting 
gradually into a paler green on the belly, the skin 
rather shining; the glossy head is marked just on the 
crown of each lobe with a short black streak of 
freckles and more broadly at the sides with two 
longer streaks of black freckles ; two pairs of minute 
black dots on the face, the mouth brownish, the 
antennal papillae tipped with black; the semilunar 
shining plate on the second segment is of the ground 
colour, but boldly defined at the sides with black 
blotchy freckles, also in front and back with black 
dots ; on the third and fourth segments the glossy 
black spots form a transverse series, the uppermost 
roundish-ovate, the next semilunar, the lower group 
of three roundish, and a small subdorsal spot occurs 
behind each of these segments ; the black spots on the 
other segments are conspicuously large, each dorsal 
front pair of a rounded-ofF squarish form, each hinder 
pair somewhat transversely oval ; an extra large spot 
occurs on the front of the thirteenth, the anal flap 
bearing a few black dots ; along the sides the row of 
single large spots are of an irregular form, being 
squarish above and in front, and obliquely hollowed 
in a concavity behind, wherein occurs the small round 
black spiracle situated exactly on the whitish tracheal 
thread, which shows faintly through the skin ; below 
are two more rows of single roundish-ovate spots, and 
below them on the belly, on either side of each seg- 
ment is a group of two or three minute black dots ; 
the ventral and anal legs are tipped with dark brown 
hooks ; all the black spots are most minutely wrin- 
kled, and furnished with a fine hair, while the rest 
of the skin is plump and smooth. 


When full-fed the larva is restless and wanders 
over the plant till it finds a suitable leaf, and then 
with silk threads it folds or twists it up tightly for a 
puparium, and makes for itself within, by way of 
cocoon, a very open-worked web of coarse meshes. 

The pupa is from seven-sixteenths to half an inch in 
length, moderately slender, the parts of the head well 
developed, the wing-covers long, the leg-cases extend- 
ing beyond them, the thorax well produced and 
slightly keeled on the back, also on the upper abdo- 
minal segments, and there the spiracles are a little 
prominent ; from thence the flexible segments taper 
gradually, the last two rapidly to a projecting knob, 
furnished with three or four curled-topped converging 
spines ; the colour is pitchy black, with brown seg- 
mental divisions, antenna- and leg-cases ; it is rather 
shining, though most lustre is on the head and thorax. 
(William Buckler, 11th February, 1880; E.M.M., 
March, 1880, XVI, 227.) 

Some larvse beaten out of stinging-nettles at 
Hambleton, near Selby, during Whitsuntide last 
(1879), produced this species. 

Length when full-grown nearly an inch, and of 
moderate bulk in proportion ; the head has the lobes 
rounded, is glossy, and about the same width as the 
second segment ; body cylindrical and of nearly 
uniform width, tapering only very slightly at the 
extremities ; each segment is plump and rounded, ren- 
dering the divisions distinct, and each has also a 
transverse depression in its centre ; the skin is rather 
glossy and semi-translucent ; a short hair is emitted 
from each tubercle. 

The ground colour is pale bluish-grey, though some 
specimens have a strong under-ground of greenish ; 
the head is grey much marbled with black, the man- 
dibles brown ; the dark green alimentary canal forms 
the dorsal line, and there is a pale greyish stripe, 
almost a ridge, along the spiracular region. Its most 
noticeable feature, however, is the tubercles, which 


appear as large glossy intensely black spots, four 
round ones on the dorsal area of each segment, and a 
row of triangular ones above the spiracular stripe. 

The ventral surface and prolegs are of the same 
colour as the dorsal area ; the legs highly polished and 
black; below the spiracular stripe, but adjoining it, is 
a series of oval black spots, one on each segment ; yet 
lower is a similar series of spots, but each placed a 
little further behind than the one above it; and still 
below these again, indeed, just at the top of each leg 
and proleg, is another similar but smaller spot ; whilst 
those segments which have no legs nor prolegs (the 
fifth, sixth, eleventh and twelfth) have each three 
similar transverse spots. 

Shortly before spinning up the ground colour 
changes to a straw-colour ; then, in the two leaves 
spun together in which the larva seems to live when 
not feeding, a loose cocoon is formed. 

The pupa is about five-eighths of an inch long, 
rather slender, and attenuated towards the point; the 
wing-cases are long, and, as are also the eye-sheaths, 
well defined ; there is a sharply defined ridge along the 
thorax. The colour of the thorax, wing-cases, and 
eye-sheaths is dark chocolate-brown, the under-side 
of the abdomen paler brown, the divisions yellow. 

The imagos emerged at the end of June and in 
July. (George T. Porritt, 7th February, 1880; 
E.M.M., March, 1880, XVI, 228.) 


Plate CLV, fig. 3. 

During October, 1876, Mr. William R. Jeffrey 
drew my attention to some very juvenile larvse, such 
as he had before found at that time of year on 
Galeobdolon, Lamium, and a few other plants, but 
I was unable to name the larvee then, or to find any 
description giving a clue to their identity, or to rear 


them ; hence, as an enigma to be solved, their identifi- 
cation stood over to the following season. 

For this purpose in 1877 my good friend, again in 
October, found and kindly sent me five examples of 
these little larvae, when I was prepared with a potted 
plant of Galeobdolon luteam for a better attempt to 
rear them to maturity, and this, greatly to my satis- 
faction, I was just able to do, and breed the moth on 
the 18th of June, 1878. 

In October the larva varies in length from three- to 
four- or five-sixteenths of an inch, is slightly fusiform, 
with a very pale translucent faintly greenish body, 
the head black, a small black mark on each side of 
the collar or second segment ; it is found in a silken 
spinning under the turned-down edge of a leaf. 

The larvae were placed openly on the plant and left 
to take care of themselves ; they moulted during 
November, and then showed very faint whitish sub- 
dorsal stripes, and, apparently without feeding, soon 
spun up in white silken hibernacula securely attached 
beneath the edges of the leaves. 

As January, 1878, proved comparatively mild, and 
the plant was kept sheltered in a window, I was not 
at all surprised to see one or two of the larvae occa- 
sionally on the under-side of the leaves, nibbling little 
channels out of the lower cuticle, causing a change of 
colour on the upper surface and betraying their situa- 
tions ; but as much colder weather set in during 
March, not one could be observed for many days until 
near the end of the month, when I detected one 
feeding, and soon after found another laid up in a 
slight web between two leaves waiting to moult — 
though it failed in the operation eventually and died ; 
while the other, the only one left on the plant, soon 
left its shelter under a large leaf, after eating a couple 
of holes through the substance, and took possession 
of the under- side of a smaller and fresher leaf. It was 
now from a quarter to three-eighths of an inch long, 
the head black as in autumn, the body paler ; here it 


began to draw down part of one side of the leaf with 
a few threads, and occasionally feed on the opposite 
side, eating a hole quite through; after two or three 
days it began to eat away a narrow open channel 
through one side of the leaf near the stalk, for the 
purpose of turning the part under from the cut to 
make a covered-in abode ; and as this progressed the 
larva went at intervals to feed on the opposite half of 
the leaf, which became pierced with many holes by the 
24th of March ; and as no fresh holes appeared then 
for a day or two, I turned up the leaf to see what had 
occurred, and found a part of it had been rolled com- 
pletely round the larva, which lay hidden within. But 
on tearing back a small portion the larva could just be 
discerned in a web, lying with its head coiled round 
waiting to moult, and getting over this operation on 
the 30th, it deserted the leaf and wandered about over 
several others before again settling down to feed. 

After this moult the skin was much more trans- 
lucent and the head only partly black on the lobes of 
the crown and on the cheek behind level with the 
ocelli, the characteristic black mark on each side of 
the second segment now very distinct, rather like that 
of 8. ferrugalis, yet with the round dot behind not 
separated, but forming part of it, somewhat after the 
fashion of a dumpy ninepin with projecting knob at 
the end. 

The last moult occurred on the 25th of April, when 
these black marks disappeared and left but mere 
specks of brownish-grey where they had been. Of 
course now in its last stage I could be sure it was 
my old acquaintance, S. prunalis, which I had long 
ago figured, and found in this state on elm, honey- 
suckle, and dog's-mercury. As if to impress these facts 
upon me, ere April closed Mr. 0. Gr. Barrett found 
several nearly mature larvse on Stachys sylvatica and 
Teucrium scorodonia, which he kindly forwarded, and 
reported meeting with more on Lychnis and marjoram, 
while here one was found on elder. 


It will suffice to say that the larva I had carefully 
wintered differed in no respect at last from any of 
these, and that when full grown it measured seven- 
eighths of an inch in length, and tapered a little at 
each end ; the segments plump, especially on the belly, 
subdivided on the back by a deep wrinkle ; the head 
of an opaline tint, had the mouth and tips of the 
papillae brown with dusky traces of former marks, 
similarly also on the second segment, the colour of 
the back as far as the spiracular region of a bright 
and deep transparent green, relieved by two broadish 
brilliant opaque-white subdorsal stripes ; on these the 
transparent tubercular warts are partly situated and 
consequently show half white and half green, each 
with a whitish hair, the whitish tracheal thread being 
visible, and along it the minute round cream-coloured 
spiracles ; below them the pale side and legs faintly 
tinged with watery translucent greyish-greenish, and 
like all the rest of the skin brilliantly glittering ; 
when seen from beneath the alimentary vessels 
showed green at the segmental divisions. 

To prevent its escape, towards the last this larva 
was placed in captivity with a few gathered leaves, 
and amongst them it, in a few hours, cut from the 
edge of one in a semicircular direction to near the 
midrib, then turned itself round and commenced a 
similar cut in the opposite direction about an inch 
distant from the first, though not going this time so 
near the midrib ; the edges of the cut portion were 
then drawn together with silk threads and formed a 
leafy puparium of the pasty-like form of Agrotera 
nemoralis and others ; the interior lining was after- 
wards found to be a very coarse openly-wrought 
reticulation of silk threads, wherein the pupa lay as 
in a hammock, its tail attached to one end, where the 
threads converged. 

The pupa itself, half an inch in length, has a rather 
slender character, tapering from the thorax to the 
well-produced head, with prominent eye-pieces, and 


more towards the tail ; the wing-covers long, also the 
antennas and leg-cases ; the back of the abdomen 
keeled on the fonr upper segments and having a row 
of minute raised dots on either side ; the spiracles 
prominent ; the tip furnished with two small curly- 
topped spines crossing each other near the ends ; the 
colour of the head, thorax, and wing-covers pitchy- 
black and glossy ; the abdomen quite dull, black 
above, brown on the sides and belly, and ringed with 
orange-ochreous at the divisions. (William Buckler, 
12th January, 1880; E.M.M., February, 1880, XVI, 


Plate CLV, fig. 4. 

I have again to thank my good friend Mr. William 
R. Jeffrey, of Ashford, and this time for a twofold 
kindness ; he has enabled me to identify a larva which 
I figured, but could not rear, in 1867, and also to give 
the economy of a species which, common enough 
sometimes in the imago, has hitherto remained un- 
described in its preparatory stages. 

The larva I had in 1867 was found on some sea- 
shore plant gathered for another larva, and not de- 
tected at the time of gathering, so I could not at 
that time follow up the search ; but on the 27th of 
September, 1876, Mr. Jeffrey found exactly such 
another larva at Folkestone, feeding on Eiipatorium 
cannabinum ; this became full-fed and spun up on the 
7th of October, not, as I expected, among its food- 
plant, but at the top of its cage, which was protected 
with a double covering of grenadine first, and over 
that of fine cambric ; the larva made a hole through 
the grenadine, and, crawling between the two cover- 
ings, cut through the cambric in a horseshoe curve 
with about five-eighths inch radius, and drawing this 
partially detached portion together with silk, fixed it 


to the grenadine in such a manner as to form a 
cocoon, lined throughout with silk, which, from 
above, had much the form of a pasty ; the imago, a 
female Scopula ferrugalis, appeared at the end of 
August, 1877. 

Very nearly at the same date Mr. Jeffrey dis- 
turbed a female moth from some plants of E. canna- 
binum, which he captured and shut up in a pill-box ; 
and on the white paper lining she deposited about 
thirty eggs, in little groups of twos, threes, and fours, 
and when these had been sent to me (12th of Sep- 
tember) she continued to lay a few more on the side 
of a jam-pot, into which she had been put, together 
with leaves of the food-plant. We doubted the fer- 
tility of the eggs at first, but thej all hatched in due 
time, those in my possession on the 14th and 15th of 
September, and all the larvas matured and spun up, 
some in the leaves of their food, and some in pieces of 
muslin supplied for the purpose. 

Meanwhile both Mr. Jeffrey and myself did not 
forget to look occasionally on other plants, and on 
the 19th of September he found several of the larvas 
far advanced, others very young, on the Eupatorium, 
and on the 10th of October a few nearly full-fed on 
Stachys palustris, and, curiously enough, one or two 
more under strawberry leaves in his own garden ! — a 
fact which accounted very well for his little boys 
having' earlier in the season disturbed several of the 
moths from some fagots of wood there, which at 
the time was a puzzling circumstance. On my part, 
besides finding one on E. cannabinum, I took a full- 
fed larva on Stachys sylvatica on the 4th of October, 
and on the 11th found a solitary plant of Arctium 
minus much ravaged, and after a careful search de- 
tected one full-grown larva still remaining, the others, 
which I reckoned might have been twenty in number, 
having fed up and gone. To my surprise the larva 
I had taken on Stachys sylvatica, which had pupated 
in a day or two, produced the moth on the twenty- 


fifth day, i. e. 29th of October, and Mr. Jeffrey bred 
one in a cage out of doors on the 9th of September; 
and the Rev. John Heilins, to whom I had sent two 
of the larvae reared from eggs, bred one moth on the 
17th of the month, and the second moth in the first 
week of January, 1878. 

Whether there are two broods or more of Scopula 
ferrugalis I am at present unable to say, but that 
some few are bred late in the year, and probably 
hibernate till spring, has now become evident. 

The white egg is very small, roundish, flat, and 
scale-like at first, and most difficult to detect when 
laid on a white surface, but by the seventh or eighth 
day the margin becomes rounded or raised, and, like 
the rest of the upper surface, a little convex ; the 
shell then is seen to be minutely pitted, and through 
it the whitish, wax-like, opaque, faint form of the 
larva, coiled round, can be just discerned ; on the 
ninth day it shows more distinctly, and on the tenth 
the head can be plainly seen as a black spot on the 
margin; the shell is pearly and glistening ; and after 
this the larva hatches in a few hours. 

When hatched the larva at first is semi-pellucid, 
whitish, and glistening, with a black head ; it soon 
begins to feed, and when but a day old shows a dark 
greenish-grey dorsal line; it eats out little pits and 
channelled depressions on the under surface of a leaf, 
and by the third day even pierces quite through it. 
In about a week, the first moult well over, it is rather 
broadly and very faintly tinged with greenish on the 
back, and with a green dorsal line ; head black ; at the 
end of a fortnight it is a quarter of an inch long, and 
still having a black head, yet the body begins to show 
faintly some of the characters which will afterwards 
mark the adult, such as black specks on either side of 
the second segment, the growing opacity and white- 
ness generally under the skin of the back, and the 
translucent green colour of the dorsal line ; at the 
next moult, within five more days, the black head- 


piece is finally cast off, and the general appearance 
very similar to that of the mature larva, excepting 
only that the back is often of a more silvery white- 
ness. After another moult the growth increases 
considerably, and after the last operation of this 
nature the full growth is soon developed, for its 
appetite also increases in proportion, and large pieces 
are eaten from the leaves, as well as large holes through 
them, so that at this period the indications of its pre- 
sence on a plant are sufficiently obvious. 

Its habits from the first are to hide itself by draw- 
ing together with white silk a part of a leaf, or to 
fold under a part of one edge ; afterwards to partially 
join two leaves together so as to conceal itself; and 
latterly to lie in a very slight and open web of a few 
fine threads, which, spun on the under surface of a 
leaf, create and retain the hollow the larva designs to 
dwell in ; and where it finds a secure footing, stretched 
out on the threads. 

The full-grown larva varies from three-quarters to 
nearly seven-eighths of an inch in length ; it is mode- 
rately stout along the middle of the body and attenu- 
ated at each end ; the head is flattened, widest near 
the mouth, which is rather prominently in advance ; 
the segments beyond the fourth are well defined, 
especially beneath, and the deepest wrinkle across 
the back of each is farther behind than in many 
Pyrales, but this is not very deep ; another rather less 
deep is near the beginning, and a much fainter one 
near the end ; the ventral legs are slender, and the 
anal pair extended behind the body. 

The colour of the head is pale drab, the front 
margins of the lobes freckled with brown, and a group 
of similar freckles on each cheek, the mouth and a 
transverse streak above it light brown, the ocelli 
black ; the dorsal stripe is dark translucent green, 
showing at times a still darker pulsating vessel 
within ; this stripe is less distinct on the thoracic 
segments, as they are broadly tinged on the back with 


similar green, but beyond them, on either side of the 
dorsal stripe, the back is of an opaque creamy-whitish 
or cream-colour, or sometimes a very pale tint of 
yellowish-drab, commencing narrow and faint on the 
third or fourth segment, widening and strengthening 
from thence along the middle segments, and then 
narrowing gradually to the end ; this is bounded by 
a very fine line of the darh translucent green, closely 
followed by a much stouter line of opaque whitish, 
which originates on the second segment and ends on 
the thirteenth, well relieved below by a broad stripe 
of translucent darkish green or greyish-green, the pale 
tracheal thread showing along its lower edge through 
the clear glassy skin ; the spiracles of the same pale 
tint of creamy- white ; the belly and legs are semi- 
translucent watery greenish, sometimes having the 
faintest possible tinge of flesh-colour; on either side 
of the second segment are tivo blade velvety spots, viz. one 
in front, elongate-oval, and one behind it, small and 
round, reminding one of a printer's stumpy-propor- 
tioned note of exclamation; on the light parts of the 
back, near the beginning of each segment, a trans- 
verse row of fine green freckles can be seen, and on 
the anal flap a few black ones ; the tubercular warts 
are slightly raised, each having its small summit 
green, bearing an extremely fine hair ; hairs proceed 
also from the head. 

When about to spin up amongst its food, it cuts 
partly out a portion of a leaf, and draws it over around 
itself, much in the fashion before mentioned, and then 
spins its cocoon as a silken lining, and pupates 

The pupa is about five- sixteenths of an inch in 
length, of moderate substance in proportion, the head 
and all its parts well produced, the eyes prominent, the 
thorax well developed ; the wing-, leg-, and antenna- 
cases long; the tip of the abdomen with a small 
pointed projection furnished with two curled-topped 
spines crossing each other ; four rows of minute warts, 


with single hairs pointing a little forwards, are visible 
down the back of the thorax and abdomen; the sur- 
face of the head, thorax, and wing-covers, and last 
ring of abdomen are brilliantly glossy, the other seg- 
ments dull ; the colour is black, save in the segmental 
divisions, which are shining brown. (William Buckler, 
8th January, 1878 ; E.M.M., February, 1878, XIV, 


We are indebted to Dr. T. A. Chapman, of Burghill, 
Hereford, for the discovery of the larva of this species. 
In June of last year, 1886, Dr. Chapman captured 
specimens of the moth in Scotland, Hying among 
Asplenium filix-fcemina and Lastrcea spinulosa, and 
from some of the females was fortunate enough to ob- 
tain eggs. These duly hatched, and after seeing that 
the young larva3 fed and were making satisfactory 
progress, Dr. Chapman most kindly shared them with 
myself, Mr. Jeffrey, and, I believe, also the late Rev. 
John Hellins. Those entrusted to my care fed on 
well, but, unfortunately, they apparently reached full 
growth during my absence from home, and, evidently 
from mismanagement at this time, on my return I 
found some of them dead, and the others nearly so, 
having probably been drowned by the excess of 
moisture which had accumulated inside their glass, in 
their wanderings to find suitable places in which to 
spin up. Some of Dr. Chapman's and Mr. Jeffrey's 
larva? did spin up, but the imagos not emerging in 
the early summer, it was found that the larvse had 
died without changing to pupse. At the end of last 
month (August, 1887) Dr. Chapman was again in 
Scotland, and after a long search managed to find 
three larvse in slightly spun webs under leaves of L. 
spinulosa, exactly in the position he expected to find 
them, and on the fern which he had become convinced 
was really the natural food. 

VOL. ix. 12 


Dr. Chapman and Mr. Jeffrey each took notes with 
a view to publishing the history of the species, but as 
they have both expressed the wish that I should do 
the writing of it, I have undertaken to do so ; although 
as Dr. Chapman really knows so much more about the 
species than any of us, I was most anxious that it 
should come from his pen in preference to my own. 
He very kindly placed his notes in my hands to be 
incorporated with my own, and as I find he has noted 
some details I had omitted, such as the position of the 
hairs, etc., besides giving description of the egg and 
the first stages of the larvse, the history is thereby 
rendered much more complete than would otherwise 
have been the case. 

The eggs were laid about the 20th of June, on leaves 
of Teucrium scorodoiiia, and Dr. Chapman described 
them as amorphous-looking objects, nearly colourless, 
flat, and approximately round, fitting accurately into 
the grooves and roughnesses of the leaves of the 
Teucrium, as if at the time of laying they had been 
fluid, and really not looking very solid still. The 
surface is not, however, smooth, but faintly and irre- 
gularly rough and shagreened. They became more 
white and opaque when towards hatching, and the 
black eye-spots of the included larvas could sometimes 
be detected. They hatched on the 3rd of July. 

The newly emerged larva? are colourless or whitish, 
very transparent, with very black eye-spots, and faintly 
brown jaw tips ; the hairs are long, as long as the 
diameter of the body, and directed forwards and back- 
wards, but the disposition of the tubercles could not be 
ascertained, owing to the uniform colourlessness of the 
larvae ; they seemed to be of the usual pattern, with 
one bristle each. 

The first moult occurred on the 7th July. It makes 
no change in the aspect of the larva, which has, 
however, a greenish tint from the time it begins 
feeding, from the intestinal contents. 

The second moult occurred about the 11th of July, 


aud again produced little change in the appearance of 
the larva. When about to moult, the eye-spots present 
a curious aspect, as black spots on the second segment. 
The disposition of the tubercles and hairs can now be 
determined with some difficulty ; the dorsal tubercles 
are placed nearly squarely rather than in the usual 
trapezoidal manner ; the bristles of the anterior pair 
are directed forwards and inwards, of the posterior 
backwards and outwards, and of the lateral or super- 
spiracular, forwards and downwards ; all looking 
depressed to the larva instead of standing off perpen- 
dicularly to the surface. 

The third moult occurred about the 15th, one as 
late as the 18th of July. 

My larvae reached me on the 17th of July, and were 
then about a quarter of an inch long, transparent, 
pale yellow, but- the dark green alimentary canal, with 
the green internal organs generally, gave it a strong 
green appearance ; head very pale yellow tinged with 
pink; eye-spots black; jaws pale brown. 

The fourth moult occurred on the 20th of July. 

By the 28th of July a length of about five-eighths 
of an inch had been attained ; it was slender, and of 
nearly uniform width ; the skin of the same glossy 
transparent texture as before. The dorsal, subdorsal, 
and lateral tubercles are raised bosses, surrounded by 
radiating lines or plaits which encroach on the dorsal 
bosses, but not on the subdorsal ; in some respects the 
tubercles from these plaits remind one of the summit 
of a Noctua egg ; the hairs of the anterior pair of 
dorsal tubercles are directed forwards and inwards, of 
the others outwards and a little backwards ; the 
tubercles of the third and fourth segments are the 
same as the others, but the second pairs are very 
small ; the sub-spiracular tubercle is a compound one 
of some length, and carries two bristles, one directed 
forwards, and one backwards, both rather downwards. 

The ground colour is pale yellow, but the very 
conspicuous dark green alimentary vessel showing 


through, together with the green internal organs along 
the sides, still form the prevailing colour of the dorsal 
area; the dorsal stripe is broadly bordered on each 
side with pale greenish- white ; the spiracles are black ; 
the head is pale yellow, with blackish ocelli, and brown 
mandibles, as before. 

When about to moult, from abstinence from food 
the dark green colouring is lost, and the larva appears 
almost uniformly bright pale yellow. 

On and about the 31st of July they were moulting 
for the last time, and on the 5th of August I described 
them as follows : 

Five-eighths to three-quarters of an inch in length, 
and rather slender ; head polished, rather broader 
than the second, but about the same width as the 
third segment ; body cylindrical, and of almost uni- 
form width throughout its entire length ; skin semi- 

Ground colour pale yellow, but the green internal 
parts at first sight make it appear to be of that 
colour ; head pale straw-colour ; mandibles brown, 
and the ocelli still darker brown ; dorsal stripe a 
median shade of green, edged on each side with a 
broad whitish stripe; subdorsal stripes also of the 
same green colour, followed by a pale whitish line 
above the spiracles, and then by a waved whitish 
stripe along the spiracular region. Ventral surface, 
legs, and prolegs of the same median shade of green 
as the stripes of the dorsal area. Dr. Chapman says 
the prolegs are terminated by a circlet of two very 
fine nooks, though on the anal prolegs one side of the 
circlet is hardly developed ; anterior legs terminated 
by a very fine brown claw. 

After ceasing to feed, and before spinning up, the 
colour (as is the case with others in the genus) 
changed considerably. The ground became bright 
brownish-yellow, and the dorsal stripe still browner, 
and the former whitish stripes lemon-yellow ; the 
green colouring of the earlier stages had entirely dis- 


appeared, clearly showing that it was caused solely 
by food in process of digestion. 

Dr. Chapman's larvae spun strong silken cocoons, 
in which doubtless the winter is spent, the change to 
pupa taking place in the spring. Throughout life, 
when not feeding, the larva lives under a slight web 
spun over itself; and when about to moult, a much 
firmer domicile, almost a cocoon indeed, is formed, so 
much so that in one or two instances Dr. Chapman 
suspected that they had reached a stage at which they 
naturally enclosed themselves for hibernation. 

Dr. Chapman, by his captures of the larvse this year, 
1887, has proved the natural food to be, as indeed he 
was quite sure it was, Lastrsea spinulosa. (George T. 
Porritt, 28th September, 1887; E.M.M., November 
1887, XXIV, 121—123.) 

Stenopteryx hybridalis. 

A specimen of this insect, which I captured at the 
end of July or the beginning of August last, 1876, in 
the New Forest, deposited eggs ; these were attached 
to the sides of the chip-box in batches of six or eight, 
and were slightly oblong, globular, and highly polished, 
the colour dark olive-green. 

On the 14«th of August the infant larvae emerged, 
and were dingy green, with highly polished intensely 
black heads. 

Not knowing the proper food I tried various low 
plants, but they very soon showed a decided preference 
for Polygonum aviculare. On this plant they fed 
greedily, and in a few days I put six or eight of 
them in a warm room, with a view of accelerating 
their growth, and by this method this lot were full- 
grown by the end of September. 

Length when crawling quite an inch, but when at 
rest only about three-quarters of an inch ; in this 
position too it is tolerably plump, but when crawling 


has an attenuated appearance. Head a little wider 
than the second, but scarcely so wide as the third 
segment ; it is highly polished, has the lobes rounded, 
and the jaws prominent. Body attenuated a little 
towards the extremities ; it is cylindrical, but the 
segmental divisions being deeply cut, and each seg- 
ment plump and rounded, and divided into two sections, 
give it a very uneven appearance. There is a polished 
plate on the second segment; the skin is semi-trans- 
lucent and glossy, with a tough appearance ; tubercles 
raised, and from each of them springs a short stiff 

The ground colour is a warm olive-drab ; the head 
varies in different specimens from reddish-brown to 
dark sienna-brown, and is more or less marbled with 
black, the mandibles being black in all cases. The 
plate on the second segment takes the same colouring 
as the segments which follow, in some instances, how- 
ever, being a little browner. Dorsal line dark olive- 
drab, and being bordered with pale drab is very 
distinct; outside it is a prettily-arranged series, four 
on each segment (one on each side of every section of 
the segment), of large, round, black polished plate- 
like marks, and each mark is enclosed in a circle 
of pale drab. These form the most characteristic 
markings of the larva. There are no noticeable sub- 
dorsal or spiracular lines, but there is a pale whitish 
waved stripe below the spiracles, which are black, 
encircled with grey. Ventral surface uniformly semi- 
translucent dark olive-green. 

When young, and indeed until just before its full 
growth is attained, the larva is much more slender, 
and the head is then even larger than the third seg- 

These larvae were about the liveliest creatures I 
ever reared ; they wriggled backwards and forwards 
in all attitudes, excelled in this respect by no Tortrix ; 
they reminded me more of young eels than anything 
else, in both their colour and actions mimicking those 


creatures most wonderfully. They were, too, very 
pugnacious, as two coming in contact immediately 
showed fight, and bit each other with their mandibles 
most unmercifully. 

They formed rather tough, white, glossy, silken 
cocoons in the corners or on the bottom of the cage, 
amongst leaves of the food-plant, and all changed to 
pupae a day or two after finishing their cocoons. 

The pupa is large for the size of the moth; is 
five-eighths of an inch long, glossy, and of the usual 
shape, except that the case containing the head, eyes, 
and palpi is considerably narrower and smaller than 
the thorax ; and there is a very peculiar and conspicu- 
ous tubercle on each side of the front of the thorax. 
Colour, pale yellowish-brown, the eye-cases, dorsal 
stripe, and abdominal divisions dark brown ; the 
hooked anal point, and the eye-like frontal tubercles, 
alluded to above, nearly black. 

Theimagos from these forced larvae appeared at the 
end of September ; and at the same time the larvae of 
the remainder of the brood, which had been kept at a 
natural temperature, were fast spinning up. At 
the beginning of October they had all become pupae, 
in which state they will now no doubt remain over 
until spring. (George T. Porritt, 3rd November, 
1877; E.MJVL, December, 1877, XIV, 160.) 


On the 16th of May, 1882, I received in roots of 
Tussilago farfara five or six larvae from Mr. J. Gardner, 
of Hartlepool, which he supposed to be Eudorea 
cembrae, from the fact of that species being seen to 
fly in the neighbourhood of that plant. 

The larva is about 20 to 24 mm. when stretched 
out at full length, and is of very slender proportion 
in substance, rather tapering from the third segment 
to the head and a little from the tenth to the thirteenth, 


but this tapering is but slight. The colour of the 
head, which is a trifle flattened, is reddish-brown ; the 
mouth, largely developed, a little darker with black 
jaws, very glossy ; the second segment is equally 
glossy, with lighter orange-brown plate with not well- 
defined edges ; the general ground colour of the body 
is pale watery greyish ochreous, having a dull skin 
suggestive of ground glass ; and the usual large spots 
of this genus appear as of clear polished glass, and 
the dark grey internal dorsal vessel and quite broad 
stomach on most of the interior segments show 


through them with great distinctness, and indeed 
show through the other dull parts also but in lesser 
degree ; a minute blackish dot is on each clear spot, 
giving forth a fine dusky hair ; the spiracles are round, 
black, and shining, and rather prominent. 

They are very active larvse, and move backward or 
forward equally well amongst the root stems, making 
quantities of frass and spinning silk threads forming 
tunnel-like entrances to their burrows. 

On the 25th two had spun up in cocoons formed of 
gnawings of root and particles of earth ; others were 
still feeding. On the 31st two more had spun up in 
slight cocoons covered with gnawings of the roots, 
and another between the root stems. 

The pupa is quite of the ordinary form, 9 mm. long, 
and of moderate substance ; the wing-covers are 
rather long, and closely wrapped to the body ; from 
them the abdomen tapers to the blunt tip, furnished 
with fine bristly points embedded in the silk of the 
cocoon so as not to be accurately denned. The colour 
is darkish brown, and rather shining. 

No moth was bred from either of the above. 
(William Buckler, June, 1882; Note Book IV, 

We are so accustomed to associate in our minds 
the larvse of the Scopariae [Eudorede~\ with mosses and 
lichens, that it is quite startling to find one of them, 
like the subject of this note, feeding on Picris 


hieracioides, a phanerogamous plant. The part of the 
plant attacked is the fleshy tap-root, upon which, 
under a loose web, the larvae live either singly or 
several together, scoring and channelling the surface, 
and occasionally cutting short tunnels through it when 
the root is small and tender. 

The first larva was found on the 3rd of April, 1887, 
whilst I was examining the stems and roots of various 
plants growing in a disused limestone quarry for any- 
thing that might turn up. A month later another 
solitary one was obtained, as well as four others of 
different ages, feeding together on another root. It 
was astonishing how far beneath the surface these 
small larvse — and some of them were not more than 
three or four lines long — had managed to get. In the 
loose ballast-heaps the Picris had rooted deeply, and 
as far as the plant had penetrated, so far had the 
larva been able to follow, even to a depth of five or six 
inches. The spinning it uses to protect itself is not 
at all of the nature of a gallery, but is simply a weak 
flimsy web, probably just sufficient to keep any loose 
particles of soil from falling in ; though afterwards, 
when reared in vessels exposed to the light, they 
naturally spin more freely for the purpose of conceal- 
ment. I kept them in ordinary glasses covered with 
glass slides, with pieces of the root tied into small 
bundles that they might the more readily conceal 
themselves. They proved most easy to rear, five 
moths and an ichneumon coming out in the last week 
of June and in July. 

About this time I learned from Mr. Stainton that 
among the papers of the late Mr. Buckler was the 
description of some larvas feeding on the roots of 
Tnssilago farfara, that had been sent him by Mr. 
J. Gardner, of Hartlepool, and were supposed to be 
this species. No moth, however, was reared. That 
Mr. Buckler's larva was E. cembrse there can be little 
doubt, from the correspondence of our respective 
descriptions ; although, as might have been expected, 


his more skilful eye had detected some points that 
had escaped mine. It seemed therefore advisable 
that I should make a further and more careful exa- 
mination of the larva; besides, my notes of the 
young larva, which in one important point is quite 
different from the mature one, were altogether de- 
ficient, and here Mr. Buckler could not help me, as 
he had only seen the full-grown larva. I made vari- 
ous unsuccessful attempts to find it at the commence- 
ment of the present year, both in the Picris and the 
Tussilago, of which in one or two spots there was a 
good growth ; and it was not until the 27th of March 
that I at last succeeded in meeting with it in the 
Picris. Again there were four larvse at the same 
root, and with the same inequality in their ages — 
extended in walking the smallest measured three and 
a half lines, the biggest seven and a half lines ; the 
latter I should judge being two months in advance of 
the former. This inequality was retained throughout, 
for on the 2nd of June a moth emersred, whilst one 
larva still remained feeding. 

The two youngest larvae I have seen were of 
slender shape, and of nearly uniform width. The 
head was shining brown. The colour in the one was a 
semi-transparent greenish- white, with the spots very 
conspicuous, large, black, and prominent ; in the other 
the green tint was absent, and the spots were dark 
grey, not black. The hairs were black and bristly. 
They were between three and four lines long, and 
were probably in their second skin. 

With the next moult an apparent transformation 
occurs in the spots. To the naked eye they now 
appear small, black, and bristly ; but it is only an 
optical illusion, due to the loss of colour in the spot, 
and the consequent prominence of the insertion of 
the black bristly hairs. At this stage it begins to 
assume a glistening appearance. 

No further change takes place in the next moult, 
but in the following and last one the bristly look of 


the spots disappears, and the larva acquires a smooth 
glossy look. 

In this, its last skin, it is a long and rather slender 
larva, tapering but slightly, and more in front than 
behind. The segments are plump, with the divisions 
and the ordinary transverse wrinkle across the back 
well marked. The head is clear shining brown, with 
darker mouth. The plates are also shining, the 
thoracic one a very pale brown, the anal one pale 
ochreous. The colour is translucent white, allowing 
the food-canal to be seen, especially in the anterior 
segments, to which it communicates sometimes a black, 
sometimes a purplish hue. The black dorsal vessel 
shows at intervals. The spots, which are slightly 
tinted with ochreous, are very large and flat, covering 
a large part of the surface, and from their glossy 
character give the larva the glistening appearance. 
The hairs are dark and bristly, and the spiracles 
round and black. 

At all ages it is a very active larva, rolling into a 
ring and ejecting a black fluid when alarmed. 

The cocoon, made of particles of soil and gnawings, 
is attached to the root, and in shape is a short oval 
with blunt ends. 

The pupa has no peculiarity of form, and is pale 
red, with yellowish wing-cases. 

The general appearance of the larva is thoroughly 
that of a Pyralid, though it does not, especially in the 
later stages, quite come up to my notion of what a 
Scoparia [Eudorea] larva ought to be. The slender 
elongate form, the glistening surface, the pale and 
flat spots, and the habit of rolling into a ring seem 
as much out of order as does the selection of its food- 
plant. (John H. Wood, September, 1888; E.M.M., 
November, 1888, XXY, 126, 127.) 



Eggs from a moth I took at Edlington Wood, near 
Doncaster, on the 6th of September, 1879, were at 
first pale straw-colour, but by the 16th were changing 
to reddish ; they were oval and polished, and with a 
depression on the side. (George T. Porritt, Note 
Book, 16th September, 1879.) 


On the L8th of August, 1871, I received eggs from 
Dr. F. Buchanan White. 

The egg is rather ovate in shape, of a pale brown 
colour, changing to darker and finally to greyish-brown 
before hatching. 

The young larvse began to hatch on the 20th of 
August. They were at first very pale drab with 
brown heads and plates. (William Buckler, August, 
1871; Note Book I, 128.) 


On the 10th of August, 1883, I received a batch of 
eggs of this species from Mr. John Sang of Burton- 
on-Trent. They were laid on, and adhering to, paper 
in little groups or clusters, and were difficult to deter- 
mine as to the number in a cluster; they were so 
joined as though run together when in a liquid state. 
One or two single eggs were roundish-oval, and had a 
pearly lustre and were whitish. Some others of the 
clusters had turned of a greenish-drab colour. They 
had depressions and linear indentations, and looked 
somewhat gelatinous ; the surface Avas most minutely 
pitted and shining. On the 14th many had turned of 
a dirty olive-green, showing a blackish spot. On the 
15th a few of these began to hatch. 


The young larva is of a pale bluish-green colour, 
with darker greyish dorsal vessel, a blackish head 
and narrow plate across the second segment. 

Two or three of these, the first hatched, were placed 
on some potted moss on the 17th of August. (William 
Buckler, 17th August, 1883 ; Note Book IV, 80.) 


In the second week of August last year (1880) I 
received two batches of eggs of Scoparia truncicoleMa 
from Mr. George Jackson, of York, and Mr. J. B. 
Hodgkinson, of Preston, respectively. 

The eggs were large and glossy, at first pale in 
colour, but soon changing to very bright red. 

They hatched in about a week, but before doing so 
changed to lead-colour. 

The newly-emerged larvse were red with shining 
black head. 

I immediately placed them in a flower-pot where 
was growing a layer of the ordinary moss which grows 
so abundantly on the sides of our garden walks and in 
the bottom of our grass lawns. In this moss they 
disappeared, and 1 have no note on them until the end 
of October, when I found they were tunnelling the 
moss with silken galleries in all directions, thus 
proving they had made themselves perfectly at home. 
I then left them alone outdoors until the end of 
March, when I saw they were again feeding, and it 
became necessary several times after this to replenish 
the moss as it became eaten away. 

They were full-grown at the end of June, when I 
described them as follows : 

Length nearly three-quarters of an inch ; the head 
a very little narrower than the second segment ; it has 
the lobes rounded and the mandibles rather promi- 
nent ; both it and the frontal plate are highly polished. 
The body is of nearly uniform width throughout, 


tapering only at the anal extremity; it is rounded above 
but rather flatter ventral ly ; the segments are very 
clearly defined, the divisions being deeply cut all 
round ; the skin has a rather tough appearance ; the 
polished tubercles are large and prominent, and as 
usual there are a few short but not very noticeable 

The ground colour is a dingy dark olive-brown ; the 
head and mandibles are dark brown, the frontal plate 
nearly black. (When younger the head is pale brown, 
with the mandibles and frontal plate darker sienna- 
brown.) A dingy black pulsating vessel shows 
distinctly as the dorsal stripe ; the hairs and tubercles 
are black. The ventral surface is similar to the 
ground of the dorsal area ; the legs are black. There 
are no other perceptible lines or markings, and the 
larva altogether is a very dingy-looking creature. 

For the most part they kept to their silken galleries 
in the moss, but on damp evenings were to be seen 
crawling over the surface, and were then very lively, 
and would wriggle about like the larvse of a Tortrix ; 
they seemed much more active than the rather stouter 
larvse of Scoparia muralis [Eudorea murana]. 

They changed to pupae in the moss, and the first 
imago emerged on the 6th of August, and was 
followed during the next fortnight by about thirty 
more beautiful specimens. (George T. Porritt, 7th 
September, 1881; E.M.M., October, 1881, XVIII, 


Plate CLV, fig. 6. 

On the 14th of April last, 1885, I received from 
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, of Worthing, a box containing 
mosses, in which were feeding (living in silken 
galleries) a number of Scoparia larvae, but of what 
species Mr. Fletcher was uncertain* The mosses I 


submitted to my friend Mr. C. P. Hobkirk, who named 
them Isotheclum myurum, and Hypnum cupressiforrne 
var. datum-, and at the end of July and the beginning 
of August a beautifully marked series of Scoparia 
mercurella was produced from the larvae. 

On the 16th of April I described the larvae as 
follows : 

Length about half to five-eighths of an inch, and 
moderately stout ; head polished, with the ]obes 
rounded ; it is scarcely so wide as the frontal plate, 
and still narrower than the third segment ; the body 
cylindrical, and of almost uniform width, tapering 
only a little at the posterior extremity ; segmental 
divisions deeply cut ; skin smooth and slightly glossy ; 
the frontal and small anal plate, with the large round 
tubercles, polished. 

In adult specimens the ground colour is a dingy 
straw-colour, but in young examples it is strongly 
suffused with a darker dirty greenish tinge, which 
dark colour seems to be gradually lost as the larva 
attains maturity. Head dark brown, with frontal 
streak and mandibles still darker sienna-brown ; 
frontal plate very dark sienna-brown, almost black 
indeed; tubercles olive-brown, the anal plate with a 
slightly greener tinge. A very faint, narrow, brown, 
pulsating vessel forms the dorsal line, but there are no 
perceptible subdorsal or spiracular lines. 

The ventral surface and prolegs are the same colour 
as the ground of the dorsal area, and placed trans- 
versely on the fifth and sixth segments are three olive 
tubercles ; the legs are black, ringed with olive. 
(George T. Porritt, 15th February, 1886; E.M.M., 
April, 1886, XXII, 260.) 



On the 12th of May last, 1886, I received from Mr. 
Eustace R. Bankes a few larvse of a Scoparia, which 
proved to be this species, and which he had found 
feeding under lichens and moss growing on ash trees 
at Corfe Castle. 

Half to five-eighths of an inch in length, and of the 
usual Scoparia form ; body cylindrical, of moderate 
bulk, and attenuated slightly at the extremities. 
Head, with the frontal and anal plates, highly polished, 
and the large round tubercles also glossy ; the 
tubercles, together with the deeply cut segmental 
divisions, and a slight transverse ridge on each seg- 
ment, give to the skin a wrinkled appearance. 

The ground colour is a sort of greenish-yellow, very 
similar, indeed, to the colour of the lichens on which 
the larva feeds ; head, plates, and tubercles very dark 
bronzy-brown; the front pair of tubercles on each 
segment are larger, and closer together than the hind 
pair ; and in young specimens the front and back 
tubercles on each side appear to join, and so form 
distinct, dark bronze, oblique streaks. When the 
larva is crawling, the dark green alimentary vessel 
shows through at the segmental divisions as the 
dorsal stripe, but there are no perceptible subdorsal 
or spiracular lines. 

The ventral surface and prolegs are of the same 
colour as the ground of the dorsal area, the legs 
ringed with darker. 

I found the first imago out on the 30th of June, and 
others appeared at intervals afterwards. During the 
second week in July Mr. Bankes wrote me that my 
specimens had appeared well up to time, as the species 
was then common with him on apple trees in an 
orchard. (George T. Porritt. 3rd March, 1887; 
E.M.M., April, 1887, XXIII, 248.) 



On the 20th of May, 1869, Dr. F. Buchanan White 
kindly sent me a supply of larvae of Scoparia muralis, 
together with some of their native food-plants, Bryum 
capillare and Hypnum cupressiforme, on which they 
continued to feed till about the end of the month, 
constructing, by means of slight silken threads, little 
tunnels for themselves through the moss or the soil at 
its roots ; and when disturbed they could show con- 
siderable activity. 

The full-grown larva is five-eighths of an inch in 
length, very slender, cylindrical, and tapering a little 
behind, the head rounded, and a trifling degree 
smaller than the second segment. 

In colour it is either a dingy ochreous-brown, grey- 
ish-brown, or a turbid violet-brown, darkest on the 
back, becoming gradually paler towards the ventral 
surface; a faint indication of the dorsal vessel is 
visible as a rather darker pulsating stripe, which 
commences on the second segment, conspicuously 
dividing the dark brown plate there into two parts ; 
on the other segments are the ordinary series of 
tubercular spots, horny, dark brown, and very large 
in proportion, especially on the back, and shining like 
the head, thoracic plate, and the anal paler plate ; on 
the dorsal region of each segment the anterior pair of 
these spots are circular, and the posterior pair trans- 
versely oval, and every one is furnished with a fine 
brown hair. 

No less than fourteen of the moths appeared between 
the 27th of June and the 8th of July. (William 
Buckler, January, 1870; E.M.M., June, 1870, VII, 

During March and April, and even well into May, 
the larvae of Scoparia muralis may be collected in 
abundance by stripping off the moss on old walls in 

vol. ix. 13 


fchis district. They are found living in silken galleries 
under the moss, a piece of moss and turf two or three 
inches long often containing quite a cluster of them. 

Length about half an inch to a little over, and of 
average bulk. Head the same width, or perhaps very 
slightly narrower than the second segment ; it has the 
lobes rounded, and is — as are also the frontal and 
anal plates — very highly polished. Body cylindrical 
and of nearly uniform width, tapering only a very 
little at the extremities,. Segmental divisions well 
denned, and these, together with the large raised 
tubercles, give the body a rather wrinkled appearance. 

Ground colour dingy ochreous-brown, or in some 
specimens purplish-brown, the head and plates in- 
tensely black. A fine brown line, widening at the 
segmental divisions, extends through the centre of the 
dorsal area; a wavy brown stripe along the subdorsal, 
and another one along the spiracular region ; all these 
lines together giving a reticulated appearance on the 
paler ground colour. The tubercles are very dark 
brown, and are polished, but not so highly as the head 
and plates. Spiracles black. Ventral surface of the 
colour of the dorsal area. 

Having ceased feeding, the larva forms and lines 
with silk a cavity in the soil at the roots of the moss, 
in which it changes to a pupa. 

The pupa is nearly half an inch long, and of ordinary 
shape and proportions ; it is highly polished, and has 
the abdominal divisions, the eye-, leg-, and wing-cases 
clearly defined, though not prominent. Colour bright 
brown, the front of the thorax with an olive tinge ; 
eye-cases darker than the ground colour, and the 
abdominal divisions chocolate-brown ; these dark 
abdominal divisions, too, show clearly, even through 
the lower part of the wing-cases. 

The imagos emerge in June, and from a June moth 
I one season reared a second brood in August. 
(George T. Porritt, 9th May, 1882; Entom., June, 
1882, XV, 133.) 



Plate CLV, fig. 7. 

On the 6th of April last I received from Mr. W. H. 
B. Fletcher, of Worthing, a supply of Scojparia larvae, 
with the information that he had collected them from 
lichens, "off a paling formed of oak-planks like sleepers; 
many of the larvae live far in the wood, probably using 
holes made by larvae of Dasycera svlphurella. They 
are easy to find, as they make a slight web over the 
lichen." Two days later, on the 8th, another batch 
of larvae reached me from Mr. Fletcher, which he had 
found in abundance on lichens on hawthorn twigs. 
The specimens were smaller and evidently younger 
than those from the oak-post lichens, but on a close 
examination I felt sure they were of the same species, 
as they appeared to differ only in the broad, trans- 
verse, w T hitish-grey streaks on each segment (de- 
scribed further on), seeming closer together, forming, 
indeed, a somewhat heart-shaped mark. Both lots of 
larvae proved to be those of Scojparia lineolalis. 
Specimens of the first batch I described on the 7th 
of April, as follows : 

Length about half an inch, of moderate bulk when 
at rest, but appears rather slender when crawling ; 
head and frontal plate highly polished ; the former 
has the lobes rounded, and is narrower than the second 
segment, into which it can be partially withdrawn ; 
each segment is plump and conspicuously divided from 
its neighbours by the deeply cut divisions, and these, 
with the large raised glossy tubercles, give to the skin 
a somewhat rough appearance. 

Ground colour dark olive-green, throwing into 
rather striking relief two whitish-grey or cream- 
coloured transverse streaks on each segment, the 
front streak being broader and larger than that 
behind it. On these streaks are situate the intensely 


black tubercles, which, being as broad as the streaks, 
appear to divide them into sections ; and the streaks 
are further divided by the dark, fine, thread-like 
dorsal line; there are no perceptible subdorsal lines, 
but an irregular greyish stripe extends along the 
spiracular region, and on each segment below this line 
is a small black spot ; the head and frontal plate, like 
the tubercles, of intense glossy black ; the small 
spiracles also black. 

The ventral area and prolegs dingy dark olive-green, 
and on the outside of each of the latter a black spot ; 
anterior legs encircled with black. 

They grew very slowly, and it was not until the 
beginning of June that the last were full-grown. They 
were then nearly three-quarters of an inch long ; the 
dorsal area had the ground colour of a paler olive- 
green, but in other respects was the same as when 
described in April. Ventral surface and prolegs olive- 
green ; the fifth and sixth segments had each three 
transverse black spots, and similar spots, but smaller 
and more irregular, occurred on others of the seg- 
ments ; a black spot on the outer side of each proleg ; 
the anterior legs encircled with black. (George T. 
Porritt, 11th September, 1884; E.M.M., October, 
1884, XXI, 101, and March, 1885, XXI, 236.) 


Plate CLV, fig. 8. 

At the beginning of September, 1884, Mr. G. H. K. 
Orosland, of Huddersfield, brought to me for determi- 
nation a number of specimens of Scoparia angustea 
Curt. (= coarctalis Zell.), which he had taken during 
August on the north side of our cemetery wall. As 
this wall is within five to seven minutes' walk of my 
own residence, and as, whenever I had wanted to 
collect 8, angustea, I had found it necessary to take a 
railway journey of over seven miles, and then some- 


times not even see the insect, I was considerably 
astonished when Mr. Orosland told me he had counted 
as many as sixty specimens on the wall at one time. 
I had worked all round the locality with tolerable 
regularity for towards twenty years, and yet had never 
seen a specimen within miles of the place ! 

Consequently it was with much pleasure that on 
the 21st of July last, 1885, 1 accompanied Mr. Crosland 
to the wall, where, on stripping off the moss, we soon 
found in plenty both full-fed larvse and pupae of a 
Scoparia, which, as I saw at once did not belong to 
muralis, we had no doubt would prove to be angustea. 
This was further confirmed by our finding before we 
left the wall, even at that early date, a single fine 
imago of the species. As I passed the wall three days 
later — on the 24th — I found two more imagos, and a 
week later again I picked off twenty specimens. On 
this day — the 30th — also appeared the first specimen 
from the larvae and pupae I had collected. For a week 
or so from that date the species was in great plenty, 
but towards the middle of August seemed to be 
rapidly decreasing in numbers, though Mr. Crosland 
told me he noticed specimens on the wall well into 
September. Altogether, including a nice series bred 
from the collected larvae and pupae, I set about a 
hundred and twenty beautiful specimens. How I 
missed the species for so many years, supposing it to 
have been always there, is to me a mystery. 

After such an experience, I was a little surprised 
to receive, on the 11th of August, from Mr. W. H. B. 
Fletcher, of Worthing, a good supply of quite small 
larvae, not more, indeed, than about one-third grown, 
which Mr. Fletcher said were 8. angustea, and which, 
indeed, I at once saw were perfectly similar to my 
July larvae. Mr. C. G. Barrett had told us (E.M.M., 
XXII, 42) that on the south coast the species is 
probably double-brooded; and that would have been 
a satisfactory explanation had not Mr. Fletcher, in 
referring to Mr. Barrett's paper, written that he was 


tolerably satisfied that only one brood occurred at 
Worthing, as he could scarcely have missed an early 
brood had it been present on the spot where he found 
his larvse. The first ima^o from these larvse did not 
appear until the 10th of October, and the last on the 
27th ! It certainly is most odd that with only one 
brood in the year it should be well on the wing in our 
northern county before the end of July, and not 
appear on the south coast until October. The species 
is generally supposed to hibernate as imago, but 
whether it does so here I am unable to say. Some of 
my captured females deposited bright straw-coloured 
eggs, but it is quite possible that, had they been 
unmolested, they might have retained them until 

Length of larva, half to five-eighths of an inch, and, 
for a Scoparia, rather slender. Body cylindrical and 
of nearly uniform width, tapering very slightly at the 
anal extremity; head about the same width as the 
second segment, and is, as is also the frontal plate, 
highly polished ; the skin and the large tubercles 
smooth and glossy; the segmental divisions deeply 

Ground colour very dark smoky-grey, with an 
indistinct greenish tinge; head pale brown, the man- 
dibles darker brown ; frontal plate very dark sienna- 
brown, in some specimens as nearly black as possible ; 
tubercles of a darker shade of the ground colour, in 
some, like the frontal plate, being nearly black. 

The ventral surface is of a rather paler shade of 
the ground of the dorsal area, the legs ringed and 
tipped with black. 

Feeds in silken galleries on one of the common 

The pupa is about three-eighths of an inch long; 
bright pale yellow, the eye-cases, abdominal divisions, 
and anal tip brown. (George T. Porritt, 7th January, 
1886; E.M.M., February, 1887, XXII, 209.) 



Eggs of Scop aria alpina (paralis) were received on 
the 2nd of August, 1877, from Dr. F. Buchanan 

The egg is oval in shape, yellowish-orange in 
colour, changing to a livid grey just before hatching. 

The eggs hatched on the 26th of August. 

The young larva is of a drab colour with shining 
head, and plates slightly darker drab on the second 
and the thirteenth segments ; some faintly darker 
dots are seen along the back which emit fine hairs. 
(William Buckler, 26th August, 1877; Note Book I, 


Plate CLVI, fig. 1. 

In the autumn of 1880, Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher sent 
me a good supply of larvae of Galleria cerella (mello- 
nella) from the New Forest, with the information that 
the eggs are deposited in July and early August on 
old honeycomb in deserted beehives. The young 
larvae feed on the comb until autumn, by which time 
they are full-grown. Each larva then spins a very 
tough cocoon, which is embedded in the honeycomb, 
and in it remains without changing to pupa through 
the winter, even until the following May or June, 
when the change takes place. 

I described the full-grown larva as follows : 
Length nearly an inch, and rather stout in propor- 
tion ; body rounded above, somewhat flattened ven- 
trally ; head narrower than the second segment ; it has 
the lobes rounded, and is, along with the large frontal 
plate, slightly polished ; the skin is soft and rather 
wrinkled, witli the segmental divisions deeply cut. 


The ground colour is uniformly pale dingy brown, 
the segmental divisions apparently darker from the 
overlapping of the folds ; the head is bright sienna- 
brown, with the mandibles darker; the frontal plate 
is also sienna-brown, but divided in the centre, and 
also edged in front with yellowish ; spiracles very 
minute, dark brown. Ventral area and prolegs uni- 
formly pale yellowish-grey, the legs tipped with brown. 

During July and August, 1881, I bred a fine series 
of the moths. (George T. Porritt, Note Book, 1881.) 

The egg of Galleria mellonella in shape is roundish- 
ovate, apparently smooth and shining, of a very pale 
flesh-colour, which by slow degrees becomes of a 
greyish-pink colour. 

The newly hatched larva is a remarkably swift- 
footed creature for a lepidopteron, as it runs nimbly 
as soon as out of the egg. Its form is a little 
broadest anteriorly from the second, third, and fourth 
segments, tapering slightly from thence to the rounded 
anal extremity. The head is rather small, and light 
shining brown colour, a paler shining plate behind it ; 
the body very light whitish flesh-colour, a darker 
dorsal vessel visible through the semi-opaque skin. 

The larvae, when full-fed, spin themselves up in 
cocoons of silk thickly clustered together in a 
dense mass firmly spun together ; some are whity- 
brown, others ochreous-yellow ; each cocoon is 
of a cylindrical shape, and either rounded off at the 
ends, or else a little tapered and rounded, not regu- 
larly placed side by side, though occasionally a few 
appeared so placed, but the most seem lying obliquely 
across each other. On separating a few from the mass. 
I found them vary in length from three-quarters to an 
inch and an eighth in length, and from three-six- 
teenths to a quarter or to three-eighths of an inch in 

The pupa skin, according to sex — the females 
being the largest — varied from five-eighths to seven- 
eighths of an inch in length, of uniform moderate 


stoutness to near the last three abdominal segments, 
from whence it tapers to the abdominal tip, which has 
a blunt four-lobed tip with a hook on each lobe ; a 
fine and rough sutural dorsal ridge extends down the 
thorax and each abdominal segment, rough and very 
prominent on the last two segments ; the wing-covers 
are rather long, the antenna-cases with the tips a 
little longer and projecting free. The colour of the 
upper surface is chocolate-brown on the back, 
ochreous-brown on the wings and all beneath, the anal 
tip blackish-brown ; its hooks are only a little shining ; 
the spiracles are brown ; the surface is totally without 
any gloss. (William Buckler, October, 1876 ; Note 
Book III, 120, 115.) 

Plate CLVI, fig. 2. 

Two larvae were received on the 5th of August, 1871, 
from the Rev. Henry Williams, 'of Oroxton, part of a 
numerous colony found in a wasps' nest, and feeding 
on the papery substance of the nest. 

The larva is an inch to an inch and an eighth in 
length, tapering a little at each extremity, the head 
being smaller than the second segment ; the segmental 
divisions are rather deeply cut, as are also the sub- 
divisions, one on the back of each segment ; the sides 
are a little wrinkled and dimpled. The head is of a deep 
brownish-red, and an equally shining plate of the same 
colour is on the second segment ; the colour of the back 
is of a yellowish drab becoming gradually a little paler 
on the sides and belly, and the thoracic segments are 
darker than the rest, growing by slow degrees a little 
paler on the rest of the back ; the tubercular dots are 
shining dark brownish-red, each furnished with a fine 
hair ; the circular spiracles are dirty whitish in delicate 
black rings, the ventral legs brownish. 

This larva tunnels through the papery substance, 
forming galleries in which it travels with facility. 


When full-fed they spun some strong silken cocoons 
amongst the debris, and the moths came forth on the 
22nd of June, the 5th, 6th, and 9th of July, 1872. 
(William Buckler, 9th July, 1872; Note Book I, 

A female Melia sociella (Aphomia colonella), taken at 
Wicken, deposited eggs, oblong-oval, at first pale 
straw-colour, afterwards changing to red. They 
hatched on the 7th of August, 1878, the newly-emerged 
larvae being pale yellowish-white, with brown heads. 
(George T. Porritt, Note Book, 7th August, 1878.) 

Melissoblaptes cephalonica. 

On the 12th of October, 1874, 1 received a batch of 
eggs from Mr. Barrett, then in London, laid by a 
captured female — laid singly and in small clusters. 

The egg is rather a longish-oval in shape, its surface 
apparently minutely pitted over, slightly glistening 
and of a very pale whitish cream-colour. By the 22nd 
of October they had begun to assume a slight tint of 
brownish-yellowish, still pale when on the 25th they 
began to hatch, and continued until the [blank in 

The newly-hatched larva is of a pale creamy whitish- 
opaque colour, having a pale shining yellowish-brown 
head and plate behind it. (William Buckler, October, 
1874; Note Book II, 157.) 


Plate CLVI, fig. 3. 

I have, ou different occasions, been indebted to Mr. 
S. L. Mosley, of Huddersfield, for supplies of larvas of 
Melliphora alvearia \_Achroia grisella]. He finds them, 
full-grown, in an old beehive, generally at the begin- 
ning of May. 


Length about five-eighths of an inch, and of mode- 
rate bulk in proportion ; the head is polished, has the 
lobes rounded, and is slightly narrower than the 
second segment; the body is cylindrical, of almost 
uniform width throughout, but tapering a little 
towards the anal segment; there is a polished plate 
on the hinder part of the second segment ; the skin is 
soft and semi-translucent, the segmental divisions 
well defined. 

Ground colour, both dorsally and ventrally, greyish- 
white, through which the internal working of the 
muscles shows, of a purple shade; a dark purplish 
pulsating vessel forms the dorsal line ; the head is dark 
brown ; the frontal plate is of the same colour behind, 
but paler in front ; the spiracles are minute, very 
dark brown ; when the larva is at rest, the segmental 
divisions appear white, from the overlapping of the 
skin, but this is not observable when it is crawling. 

Those I had last year, 1878, produced imagos about 
the middle of July. (George T. Porritt, 17th May, 
1879; E.M.M., June, 1879, XVI, 21.) 

Anerastia lotella. 
Plate CLYI, fig. 4. 

1 am greatly indebted to the kindness of Mr. 
Charles G. Barrett for the opportunity of figuring 
and describing larvae of this species, as well as their 
cases and cocoons, brought back by him from his visits 
to the coast of Norfolk (see E.M.M., VII, p. 63). 

The larva of this species resides in a tubular case of 
considerable firmness, made with grains of sand spun 
together ; the specimens of cases that I had were 
irregular in form, and varying in length from If to 2f 
inches ; the anterior portion of the case is rather 
attenuated at the mouth, but increases from thence in 
diameter to one-eighth of an inch, and occupies about 
a third (in some instances half) the entire length of 


the whole ; this anterior portion is followed (sometimes 
at an abrupt angle) by the middle part of the tube, 
which is about half an inch in length and five- 
sixteenths of an inch in diameter, its hinder end 
connected with a congeries or cluster of rather 
rounded and bulb-like terminal pouches, each of 
which, is about one-eighth of an inch or little more in 
diameter ; these appendages add a length to the central 
part of the tube of from three-eighths to three-fourths 
of an inch; the pouches vary in number from three 
or four to eight or nine, and are stuffed full with frass, 
and sometimes appear in a bursting condition ; they 
are of a pale sulphur-yellow colour, palest next the 
middle part of the case, which itself is the darkest 
and brownest portion of the whole construction. 

These cases all lie more or less in a horizontal 
position, their mouths in connection with the plant 
stems of Ammophila arenaria, near the crown of the 
roots, on which part the larvae feed ; and the depth 
in the sand at which they may be found varies from 
one inch to even three or four, as the surface shifts 
according to the action of the wind ; and thus some- 
times they are quite exposed to view, and at other 
times they are buried deep by the accumulations 
blown over them. So great are the ravages made by 
these little creatures, that a plant is frequently so 
hollowed out as even to be killed. 

The larva itself is about half an inch in length when 
full-grown, moderately stout and cylindrical, but the 
fore-part of the back curves a little convexly down- 
wards to the head, and the hinder part tapers through 
the last four segments to the anal extremity; the 
head is much smaller than the second segment, within 
which it is often partially withdrawn; all the legs are 
rather small in proportion, though perfectly developed. 
In colour it is of a pale, rather subdued orange-yellow, 
the head pale reddish-brow r n ; down the back is a very 
faint reddish dorsal line, and there are two equally 
faint reddish transverse squarish bars on the back of 


each segment extending to the subdorsal region ; the 
spiracles are of the ground colour, as are also the 
polished plates on the second and anal segments; a 
few soft and very fine pale hairs issue from either 
extremity, and from the usual tubercular situations 
on the body. 

The larva, when about to pupate, leaves its abode, 
and spins near its tube, but not in any way connected 
with it (unless apparently by mere accident), a dumpy 
tubular cocoon of sand, smoothly lined with silk, half 
an inch in length, thick as a goose-quill, tapering to 
an obtuse point at one end, abruptly and rather 
irregularly truncated at the other. 

Mr. Barrett sent me the larvas on the 11th and 27th 
of June ; the moths appeared on the 29th of June, 
and 22nd to 24th of July, 1870. 

Since the foregoing was written I have had the 
pleasure to receive from Professor Zeller much addi- 
tional information regarding the habits of Anerastia 
lotella, as well as a translation by himself of his most 
able and interesting history of the insect published 
in the ' Isis ' for 1848, wherein it appears that this 
species in Germany inhabits barren sandy places and 
hills, — " the moths sitting by day very closely to 
stalks of grasses near the ground, and flying readily 
only in the evenings and mornings;" and the larva 
is found to feed commonly " on the tufts of Aira 
canescens, Festuca ovina, and probably Calamagrostis 
epigejos and other grasses." 

From the same source I learn that Anerastia lotella 
has been more recently described by Dr. Kuhn as an 
insect destructive to rye, no less than twenty acres of 
this cereal, in a sandy field at Herzberg in Saxony, 
having been nearly destroyed by it in 1869. 

All the localities mentioned by these continental 
entomologists are, of course, inland. In England, so 
far as I know at present, this species seems to be 
confined to barren sandy spots on the coast, saving the 
sandy fields more than twenty miles from the sea at 


Brandon in Suffolk, where Mr. Barrett found A. lotella 
quite at home; but then he tells us that these said 
sandy fields were, according to geologists, <c a range 
of coast sands at a recent point of the post-glacial 

Supposing these sandy localities in Germany to be 
of similar origin, A. lotella still holds its place as a 
littoral insect, though with a change of taste as to 
food-plant. (William Buckler, 11th November, 1874; 
E.M.M., January, 1875, XI, 186—188.) 

Ephkstia elutella. 
Plate CLVI, fig. 5. 

A few eggs were received from Mr. Barrett on the 
20th of October, 1874. 

The egg is a roundish oval in shape, of a pale 
cream-colour, and its surface minutely pitted, but not 

One larva hatched on the 1st of November; it was 
of a whitish cream-colour with pale brown head and 
plate on the second segment. (William Buckler, 1st 
November, 1874; Note Book II, 166.) 

After two unsuccessful attempts to rear the larva 
of this species to the perfect insect, for verification of 
my figures, I have at length been successful, thanks 
to the unwearied kindness of Mr. Evan John in 
supplying me again and again with larvae. 

Those from which the moths were bred arrived on 
the 23rd of December, 1872 ; and were feeding on 
dog-biscuit, eating out little cavities or cells, and 
masking their operations with a web covered with 
frass of the same colour as the biscuit itself. 

Two larvae of the same date were found on an old 
thick cloth coat, and the piece of blackish cloth on 
which they were was cut out and sent with them; 
however, on the 28th I noticed, on turning out these 
two larvae from the webs they had partly covered 


themselves with, that the cloth seemed to be but little 
gnawed. I therefore placed some crumbs of biscuit 
beneath the bit of cloth, so as to be in contact with 
the larvae, and in the course of the following day I 
found they were spinning fresh habitations, and 
uniting some of the biscuit to the cloth. 

The other larvse after examination remained from 
this time in their cells unmolested, and apparent^ 
content, but in the course of March, 1873, I found 
two or three wandering about the top of their cage as 
though in quest of other quarters ; not liking to 
touch the biscuit, I now twisted up some soft paper 
into little hollow cones, and put them into the cage, 
and this provision proved suitable, for I found 
eventually that all the larvae had spun up in them. 
The moths came forth from the 7th to the 11th of 

The full-grown larva is little more than three- 
eighths of an inch in length, cylindrical, not very 
stout, tapering a little from the third segment towards 
the head, and a little on the two hinder segments ; it 
is of a pale flesh-colour, without gloss, excepting on 
the head, the plate behind it, and the anal plate, which 
are shining and reddish-brown ; the tubercular dots 
are similarly coloured, and though very minute are 
yet distinct ; on the side of the third and of the 
twelfth segment is an ocellated spot of blackish- 
brown with whitish centre; the plate on the second 
segment is divided down the back by a thread of 
flesh-colour ; otherwise it is without any line. 

In the immature larva the plates are darker brown, 
and the body is almost colourless, of wax-like texture 
of skin. 

The pupa is nearly four lines in length, thickest in 
the middle, but not stout, the tail rather rounded, 
pale brown in colour, the head darker brown ; it lies 
in a whitish silken hammock, a little longer than 
itself. (William Buckler, December, 1873; E.M.M., 
February, 1874, X, 213.) 



Just opposite one of my windows (at Tarrington, 
Ledbury) stands a fine old ivy bush, and one dark 
night in September, 1886, when Nocture were coming 
freely to a light in the room, there flew in along with 
them a rather worn knot-horn, that did not quite look 
like the common Ephestia elutella ; so, instead, of 
being dropped there and then into the ammonia 
bottle, it was put on one side with the hope that, as 
it was a female, eggs might be obtained. A few were 
fortunately laid, and they soon hatched. 

The larvaB fed up the same autumn on nut-kernels, 
spun their cocoons in rolls of paper, and pupated 
some time in May, the perfect insects (2 <$ , 2 $ ) 
coming out in June. Specimens were recently sent 
to Mr. Barrett, who at once pronounced them to be 
E. semirufa. 

The larva is cylindrical, of moderate proportions, 
tapering but slightly at either extremity. It is white, 
tinged on the upper surface with pale smoky. The 
head is pale brown or amber. The thoracic plate is 
black, divided by a pale line. The anal plate is also 
black. The spots are black, small, but distinct; the 
trapezoidals arranged almost in a straight line, one 
behind the other. 

There yet remains one point deserving, perhaps, a 
few remarks. Although my larvse took very kindly 
to their nuts, it is not to be supposed that they feed 
upon them in a wild state, but probably, like many of 
their congeners, they have accommodating appetites, 
and live on almost any kind of material, animal or 
vegetable, provided only it be not living. This being 
so, it may not have been accidental that it was out of 
ivy that Dr. Jordan beat his specimens many years 
ago in Devonshire, or that in my own case the same 
plant grew close at hand, for these old ivy bushes 


are stored with refuse materials of many kinds, and 
are, therefore, as likely as not to be the home of the 
insect. Examining them in various ways, and more 
especially watching them in still summer evenings, 
when the Ephestix are in the habit of flying, may 
lead to our turning up the insect in greater numbers, 
and learning something more about it. (John H. 
Wood, February, 1888; E.M.M., April, 1888, XXIV, 

Ephestia passulella. 
Plate CLVI, fig. 6. 

On the 4th of September, 1881, Mr. Sydney Webb 
very kindly sent me a batch of eggs of this small 
species, laid loosely by the parent moth, which he had 
captured in the Oil- Cake Company's warehouse a short 
time before. 

The eggs began to hatch on the 8th of September, 
and continued to do so at intervals for two or three 
days, and the little larvae were confined with some 
pieces of the pod of the 6i locust-bean " of commerce, 
which Mr. Webb had also kindly provided for them, 
and in the course of a week they could be seen to have 
grown, and by the end of the month very much more 
grown, and by the middle of December some of them 
were as long as 6 mm. 

During the winter months I saw but little of them, 
when from time to time I found it needful to replenish 
their food, in consequence of the large accumulation of 
frass at the bottom of their residence (resembling 
coffee-grounds), they having denuded the beans by 
devouring the substance of the pod ; and, moreover, 
they had already made, and continued to make, any 
observations on my part very difficult, and of their 
moulting impracticable, by completely obscuring their 
surroundings with a dense spinning of whitish-grey 
silk; and they had lined with silk the little tunnels 
excavated amongst the refuse. 

VOL. ix. 14 


By the beginning of April, 1882, they, however, 
began again to show themselves and were grown 
considerably, and yet required a further supply of their 
food, as by this time a prodigious quantity of frass 
had been made. 

The first specimen of the perfect insect was bred on 
the last day of April ; others followed on the 12th of 
May, others again on the 1st and 4th of June, and the 
last on the 14th of July. 

The egg of Ephestia passulella is elliptical in shape, 
with bluntly rounded ends, and finely pitted surface, 
whitish at first and soon of a delicate straw-yellow ;. 
two days before hatching it assumes an ochreous 
tinge, and the next morning a light brown spot 
appears at one end, and within a few hours the larva 
is hatched. 

At first the young larva is of a whitish-ochreous 
tint, with a brown shining head and very narrow plate 
across the second segment, and when nearly a month 
old has a faint tinge of reddish, or pinkish-brown, 
with the head very dark brown and the plate still 
narrow, but at this time with very little more colour 
than the body. 

At the age of three months the body is of a light 
brownish-pink colour, with reddish-brown head, and 
a blackish-brown plate on the second segment, and 
another on the anal flap, and there is a pinkish-brown 
dorsal line showing very faintly ; the minute tubercular 
shining brown dots can be very well discerned. 

When full-grown the larva measures 10 mm. in 
length, and is of moderately slender proportions, 
cylindrical, though tapering very slightly at each end, 
the segments having a subdividing wrinkle across the 
middle of each, and the legs are much under the body ;. 
in colour the head is reddish-brown, and glossy, and 
it has a margin of pale skin in front of the shining 
black and brown neck-plate, which is dorsally divided 
with a line of the pallid ground colour of the thoracic 
segments, and beyond them this ground colour imper- 


ceptibly is changed to a faint flesh-colour, in some 
instances a very pale tint of drab ; the small dark 
brown and shining tubercular dots, each furnished 
with a fine hair, are ranged on either side of the back 
in twos, forming in line along the subdorsal region ; 
those on the front of the thirteenth segment are 
large and squarish ; the anal plate is of the same dark 
brown colour, and rather heart-shaped ; a single row 
of dark brown dots is along the side, and others are 
beneath ; on either side of the second segment is a 
largish black-brown shield-like glossy spot in front of 
the spiracles ; another, similar, occurs on the outside 
of each anal leg ; the ocellated spot on either side of 
the third and twelfth segments is black with white 
centre ; the skin generally is soft, smooth and glisten- 
ing ; some individuals show a faint purplish-brown 
dorsal line, while others have onlv a faint darkness 
sliding to and fro beneath the skin of the seventh and 
eighth segments. 

When full-fed the larva envelops itself in a pearly- 
greyish oval cocoon of silk, about 8 mm. long by 3 in 
diameter, smooth within, but thickly covered outside 
with grains of frass spun together and situated 
generally in some excavated portion of the pod it has 
fed in. 

The pupa is from 5^ to 6 mm. in length, and is of 
an ordinary form, with prominent eye-pieces and 
longish wing-covers ; the tip of the abdomen ending 
in an excessively small round thorny boss ; its colour 
darkish bronzy- brown and shining. (William Buckler, 
14th August, 1882; E.M.M., October, 1882, XIX, 104 


Along with the larvae of Plodia (Ephestia) interpunc- 
tella received from Mr. J. E. Wellman on the 21st 
of December, 1878, and described further on in this 


volume, were several of an Ephestia, from which on 
the 27th of August following a single specimen was 
bred, agreeing perfectly with an example in my 
cabinet named E. ficulella. 

Length about half an inch and of average bulk ; 
head highly polished; it has the lobes rounded, and 
the mandibles prominent ; body cylindrical, tapering 
anteriorly, the head being the narrowest segment. 
There is a distinct polished plate on the second seg- 
ment behind the head, and a small similarly polished 
space on the anal segment; skin very glossy and 
rather wrinkled. 

The ground colour is a pale pinky flesh, varying in 
depth of colour in different specimens ; head and 
mandibles dark sienna-brown ; frontal plate still 
darker brown, almost black ; dorsal, subdorsal, and 
spiracular lines all very distinct, and about equal in 
width, pink; and there is still another, but a narrower, 
of these pink lines below the spiracles ; spiracles 
minute, dark brown ; tubercles large, raised, and 
polished, very dark brown, in some specimens nearly 

Ventral surface greyish-white, with a faint pink 
tinge ; legs and prolegs tipped with brown. 

Feeds on dried figs. (George T. Porritt, 5th June, 
1880; E.M.M., July, 1880, XVII, 44.) 

Ephestia ficella. 
Plate CLVI, fig. 7. 

On the 15th of October, 1874, Mr. Barrett sent me 
a few eggs of this species, laid for the most part 
singly and in small groups of three or four together, 
and on the 20th he sent me a few more ; in both 
instances they came loose in a quill. 

The egg is broadly oval in shape, most minutely 
pitted, and slightly glistening ; in colour a pale 
whitish creamy tint, over which a few hours before 


hatching there steals a faint drab tint, or deeper 
cream tint, with a deeper drab at one end ; this last 
is caused by the head of the young larva. 

They began to hatch on the 29th and 30th of 

The young larva is at first of a pale cream-colour 
with a light brown head and a narrow plate a little 
distance behind it on the second segment. (William 
Buckler, November, 1874 ; Note Book II, 164.) 

On the 21st of May last, 1886, I received several 
larvae of Ephestia ficella from Mr. W. G. Pearce, of 

Length about three-eighths of an inch ; the head is 
small, a little narrower than the second segment, and 
is, along with the frontal and small anal plate, 
polished ; the body is obese and cylindrical, but flat- 
tened a little ventrally, and it tapers very slightly 
posteriorly, but more strongly towards the head ; the 
skin is glossy and smooth, though the segmental 
divisions and slight transverse depressions on the 
segments give to it a rather puckered appearance. 

The ground colour is greyish-white, strongly tinged 
with pink ; the head is brown ; the mandibles and 
frontal plate are darker sienna-brown ; the pulsating 
dorsal vessel shows through the skin as a dorsal stripe 
of a darker grey than the ground colour ; there are 
no perceptible subdorsal or spiracular stripes ; the 
tubercles are brown and conspicuous. The ventral 
surface, legs, and prolegs are yellowish-white. 

It feeds on dried figs, raisins, currants, etc. 

I bred two moths only, the first on the 22nd of 
July, the other not appearing until the 6th of Septem- 
ber. (George T. Porritt, 11th May, 1887 ; E.M.M., 
June, 1887, XXIV, 9.) 



Plate CLVL %. 8. 


On the 13th of July, 1872, I received from Mr. 
Barrett eggs of Plodia interpunctella laid amongst 
malt commings or malt dust, i. e. rootlets screened 
away from malt. 

The egg is oval in shape, and delicately pitted all 
over ; it is at first creamy-white, then of a dirty 
white or greyish-white colour, semi-opaque, which 
becomes when the egg is about to hatch more trans- 
parent and slightly greyer. 

The newly-hatched larvas are of the same dirty white 
colour as the eggs, having a pale brown head and 
plate on the second segment, both shining, the body 
being semi-opaque. 

By the 10th of September the larvae were about a 
quarter of an inch long, and of a reddish flesh-colour, 
eating out the interior of the malt from the husks. 

By the 6th of October they had grown to three- 
eighths of an inch in length, of the same warm flesh- 
colour, with brown heads and plates. 

On the 27th of December I noted that their heads 
were partly retracted within the second segment, and 
that the malt was much spun together with web. 
The plate, narrow at a line distance from the front of 
the second segment, was reddish -brown, and also 
the head, darker brown about the mouth. The 
spiracles were faintly outlined with brown, hardly 
discernible. No tubercular dots were visible, though 
their situation was indicated by the usual fine hairs, 
rather numerous at the thirteenth segment. 

On the 3rd of April, 1873, many of the larvae were 
active enough when disturbed, but were no bigger than 
in December. One was spun up in a whitish web or 
cocoon, three-eighths of an inch long, and fixed to the 
side of the box. 


The pupa was a little less than three-eighths of an 
inch long, of the usual form, the head and eye-pieces 
and antenna-cases rather large, the abdomen pale 
brown tinged with honey-colour. 

No moth was bred from these, but on the 18th of 
April, 1874, Mr. Barrett forwarded me six larvae of 
Plodia interpunctella, just the same as those above 
described, which he had found last summer about 
locust-bean sacks " most commonly," and in confine- 
ment they ate the beans freety. 

These larvae became from three-eighths to half an 
inch long by the end of June, and spun themselves up 
amongst the grains of malt on which they had been 

The perfect insects appeared on the 17th and 20th 
of July, and the 1st and 19th of August, 1874. 

The cocoon is formed with light brownish-grey silk, 
sometimes with particles of frass or the white interior 
of broken malt-corns, or both, adhering to its surface, 
Avhich was spun amongst a web which united a number 
of malt-corns together. The cocoon is of an irregu- 
lar elongate form, varying from half an inch to nearly 
five-eighths in length, and more than two lines in 
diameter, nearly fusiform, but more pointed at one 
end than the other, at which the head of the pupa is 

The pupa itself is three-eighths of an inch in length, 
rather smooth, of ordinary form, and tapering a little 
to the rather rounded tip, which ends in a few most 
minute bristles, only visible with a powerful lens. 
Its colour is a pale brown. (William Buckler, August, 
1874; Note Book I, 184.) 

On the 21st of December, 1878, I received from 
Mr. J. R. Well man, of London, larvae of two species, 
supposed at the time to be Ephestiae, feeding on dried 
figs; from the one described below Plodia interpunctella 
was bred. 

Length about five-eighths of an inch, cylindrical, 
and of average bulk ; the head polished, the lobes 


rounded, and the mandibles prominent ; it is slightly 
narrower than the second segment; adjoining the 
head, on the second segment, is a semicircular polished 
plate ; the skin has a flabby translucent appearance. 

Body almost uniformly a very pale straw-colour, the 
alimentary vessel showing through the skin, forming 
the darker medio-dorsal stripe ; the head and plate a 
warm sienna-brown, and the mandibles and the tips 
of the prolegs still darker brown. There are no other 
noticeable markings. 

These larvae lived on, apparently not increasing at all 
in size, and rarely feeding, until June following, when 
loose silken cocoons were formed under the edges at 
the top of their glass cylinder ; and an imago appeared 
at the end of the month following. (George T. Porritt, 
5th March, 1880; E.M.M., April, 1880, XVI, 261.) 

Ephestia artemisiella. 
Plate CLVII, fig. 1. 

My friend Mr. D'Orville has for some years culti- 
vated various plants in his garden with the sole object 
of attracting Lepidoptera, either in the imago or in 
the larva state, and with some considerable success. 
Amongst other species, Ephestia artemisiella has been 
a more or less constant visitor, inducing at last the 
belief that it was bred in the garden ; and lately Mr. 
D'Orville has been able to prove this to be the fact, 
and now desires me to put together some account of 
his investigations. 

The egg state has not been observed ; but pro- 
bably the eggs are laid low down near the ground, 
on the rough woody stalks near the roots of Artemisia 
absinthium, as it is here generally, in old plants, that 
the larvae are found to have made their entrance, and 
excavated mines or chambers for themselves while 
feeding on the central substance of the root-stalks, 
much after the manner of some of the Sesiidse. 


In such situations one might naturally suppose 
these larvae would be more than usually free from 
molestation, but experience proves this not to be the 
case, as it happens that very few larvae are so lucky 
as to escape an attack by a small prying ichneumon, 
their inveterate foe, Lissonota hortorum Grav., speci- 
mens of which have been kindly identified by the 
Rev. T. A. Marshall. 

On the 7th of December, 1871, many of the larvae 
were found to be quite small, others more than half- 
grown, while some of the ichneumons had already 
formed their cocoons in the mines of their victims ; 
indeed, towards the end of the month one female 
ichneumon was bred, and during the montli of March 
and the first week of April, 1872, Mr. D'Orville bred 
as many as seventeen of both sexes, and, had these 
been at large, no doubt they would have sought out a 
number of the remaining larvae of E. artemisiella in 
which to deposit their eggs, thus causing their 
destruction both in autumn and in spring. In fact, 
both E. artemisiella and its parasite become full-fed 
in the larva state over a period of some latitude ; 
but, while the ichneumon has also the same ran ore for 
the appearance of the imago, E. artemisiella is, in 
that respect, more restricted, all the moths we bred 
(some fourteen in number) appearing between the 
23rd of June and the 18th of July. 

That we bred any moths seemed strange, for 
although the root-stalks of wormwood were traversed 
in many directions by the mines of the larvae, yet, on 
cutting some of them open, I found but one living 
larva amongst a host of ichneumon pupae. 

As the young larva of this species differs only in 
size from the adult, it will be sufficient to describe it 
when fall -grown. 

At that time, when extended, its length is half an 
inch, very plump and fat-looking, cylindrical, and 
tapering from the third segment just a little towards 
the head, which is a trifle the smallest ; the anal seg- 


ment tapers suddenly and considerably ; all the legs 
are short ; the skin is smooth and without much 
gloss, excepting the head, the plate behind it, and one 
on the anal tip, which are very shining; the segments 
are tolerably well defined at the divisions, the sub- 
divisions much more delicately; the sides are dimpled, 
and the spiracular region is a little inflated. 

In colour it appears almost white, but in reality is 
a very pale faintly greyish flesh-colour, with the 
slightest dorsal line of pale greyish-brown ; the head 
is dark brownish -red, with the mouth blackish; the 
plate on the second segment is brownish-red in front, 
and very dark brown at the back, and is dorsally 
divided by a line of the pale flesh-colour of the body ; 
the ocellated spot on the sides of the third and of the 
twelfth segments is a ring of pale greyish-brown, with 
the whitish ground colour in the centre ; the very 
minute tubercular dots are pale grey-brown, and a 
fine pointed hair of the same colour proceeds from 
each of them ; the plate on the anal tip is of the same 
greyish -brown tint as the anterior legs, the ventral 
legs being tipped with dark brown hooks. 

The pupa is about three-eighths of an inch in 
length and somewhat slender, the wing-cases long in 
proportion; it is of a light reddish-brown colour, 
sometimes rather dark brown, and shining; it is en- 
closed in a whitish silken cocoon, and attached by 
the tail to a little pad of silk ; the cocoon is spun 
amongst gnawings and frass held together with a 
mixture of silk of a tough consistence, and quite fill- 
ing the mine above and below ; the head of the pupa 
is from a quarter to half an inch from the entrance, 
and the extent of the mine or chamber below the 
pupa is generally about five-eighths of an inch in 

The ichneumon case or cocoon is found in a part of 
the excavation not far from the entrance, where it 
seems exactly to fit the hollow in which it reposes ; it 
is five lines long, slender and cylindrical, and rounded 


at each end. Soon after its formation it is of a pale 
mahogany-brown colour, highly polished and semi- 
transparent, so that the unchanged whitish grub 
within can be partially seen through ; but after a few 
days its occupant becomes invisible, as the case either 
loses its transparency, or the colour of the pupa tben 
assimilates with the case, which retains its colour to 
the last; the perfect ichneumon makes a circular hole 
in the side of the case, near the top, for its exit. 
(William Buckler, September, 1872; E.M.M., Novem- 
ber, 1872, IX, 143.) 


Plate CLVII, fig. 2. 

On the 18fch of August, 1882, I received a supply 
of withered flower-heads of thistle (Carduus), contain- 
ing larvae of Homoeosoma nebulella, from the Rev. H. 
Williams, of Croxton, near Thetford. 

Length five-eighths of an inch and stout, cylin- 
drical, tapering a little at both extremities. Head 
small, narrower than the second, and still narrower 
than the third segment; segmental divisions deeply 
cut, and there is also a transverse depression, but not 
so deep, on each segment. 

Ground colour dingy greenish-yellow ; head brown, 
with darker sienna-brown mandibles, and a few 
freckles of the same colour above the mandibles ; 
frontal plate sea-green, edged behind with smoke- 
colour. Dorsal stripe broad, dingy purple ; sub- 
dorsal stripes of the same colour, but still broader; 
and there is an equally broad stripe of the same 
colour along the spiracular region, but this stripe is 
interrupted at the segmental divisions, and has also 
running through it a waved line of the ground colour. 
The purple stripes form the prevailing colour of the 
dorsal area, and might almost be taken as the ground 
colour; the spiracles are black; the ventral surface is 


dingy greenish-yellow, variegated with purple marks, 
the legs barred with black. 

I bred no imagos the following year, but specimens 
of a pretty Chalcid, Monodontomerus sevens, two species 
of Diptera, Trypeta serrahdx and T. solititialis, 
and about a dozen specimens of a small Hemipteron 
emerged from the thistle-heads. (George T. Porritt, 
12th May, 1884; Entom., June, 1884, XVII, 143.) 


Plate CLVII, fig. 3. 

On the 14th of September, 1869, I received from 
the Rev. John Hellins six larvae of this species, feeding 
on seeds of ragwort. They were short and thick, 
about three-eighths of an inch in length, tapering 
towards the head and very little on the three hinder 
segments ; each segment was subdivided by oue 
transverse wrinkle towards the end. 

Ground colour pale canary-yellow, or in some 
examples pale dirty greenish- white ; a broad dorsal 
stripe of dark dull purplish red or brown, and a broad 
band along the side of the same colour, through which 
runs an interrupted line of pale ground colour ; 
then in a stripe of the ground colour are the black 
spiracles ; a little below them is a blotch of purplish 
brown under each, and lower down is a line of the 
same colour ; the belly and legs are of the pale ground 
colour ; the head is olive-green or brown, and a 
shining plate is on the second segment of pale olive- 
brown or green, and broadly bordered behind with 
black ; this semilunar black border is, however, 
dorsally divided by a thread of the olive ; the front 
edge of this segment is pale whitish-yellow. 

These larvae spun little webs and hibernated in them 
until spring, when after some time they pupated, and 
the moths appeared from the 4th to the 14th of 


August, 1870. (William Buckler, August, 1870; 
Note Book II, 59.) 

On the 16th of August, 1887, I found larva3 of 
Homonosoma nimbella feeding commonly in wild 
chamomile flowers on the rocks near Douglas, Isle 
of Man ; and on the 27th of the same month I 
described them as follows : 

Length about one-third of an inch, obese in pro- 
portion ; the head is small, and together with the 
frontal plate is highly polished ; it has the lobes 
rounded, and is considerably narrower than the second 
segment; the body is cylindrical, almost uniform in 
width, tapering a very little at the extremities. 

The ground colour is yellowish-green, varying in 
-depth of shade in different specimens ; the head is 
dark brown, but darkest on the upper part of the 
lobes ; the frontlet is yellower brown, with distinct in- 
tensely black border behind. The markings are all 
purple, and conspicuously defined; the medio-dorsal 
stripe appears rather irregular in outline, caused by 
slight interruptions made by the segmental divisions, 
and by a slight transverse depression on each segment ; 
subdorsally is a pretty series of large round marks, 
one on each segment, the centre of each in some 
specimens being of tbe pale ground colour, and so 
forming a ring-like mark, though in other specimens 
the " ring ' appears to be almost filled up; below 
these, along the spiracular region, are other marks, 
usually three on each segment, one situate over two 
•others, so that if extended to each other they would 
form a triangle. The ventral surface and prolegs are 
very pale green, the anterior legs black and glossy. 

The first imago appeared on the 24th of June, 
1888, following. (George T. Porritt, 11th March, 
1889; E.M.M., April, 1889, XXV, 245.) 

It was evidently from moths bred from this chamo- 
mile-feeding form of the larva that Mr. Howard 
Vaughan described a supposed new species under the 
name of Homoeosoma saxicola. — G. T. P. 



Plate CLVII, fig. 4. 

On the 20th of August, 1875, I received from Mr. 
C. G. Barrett, then at Pembroke, two larvae he had 
found in flower-heads of Gar dims tenuiflorus and 
C. lanceolatus. 

The full-grown larva is half an inch in length,, 
plump in character, tapering from the third segment 
to the head, and still more behind from the tenth to 
the anal tip. The legs are small, and all are placed 
much beneath the body. The divisions of the seg- 
ments, and transverse wrinkle on each of them on the 
back, with others on the sides, are all deeply cut. The 
head is reddish -brown and shining. The second seg- 
ment bears a shining reddish-brown plate, with a pale 
central line and blackish spots on either side. The 
anal segment has a shining brown plate on the anal 
tip, and a similar transverse patch in front of it. The 
ground colour of the rest of the back and sides is a 
whitish flesh tint, that of the belly bluish greenish 
white : the dorsal stripe is pink ; a broad pink band is 
on the side ; beneath this on the pale ground are the 
black spiracles, and beneath each of them is a small 
pink dasli ; the minute brown tubercular dots on the 
whitish back are in line with each other and close 
to the side stripe or band, each with a fine hair; 
these dots are scattered about the larva in the usual 
situations. The skin is smooth without gloss ; in the 
full-fed example the ground of the anterior segments 
is tinged with a bluish-green tint like the belly, the 
pink stripes are more of a purplish pink, the brown 
plates darker brown. 

One of these died, the other spun itself up in a tough 
greyish-brown cocoon three-eighths of an inch long> 
three-sixteenths wide, to the side of its cage, and 
finding the moth did not emerge I tore the cocoon 


open, and then saw that the larva had died without 
having changed to a pupa. But Mr. Barrett suc- 
ceeded in breeding from the larvas he had kept for 
himself several specimens of Homoeosoma binsevella = 

On the 24th of August, 1878, Mr. Barrett sent me 
three more larvae in heads of Garduus lanceolatus, of 
which I took my figure 30 of 1878. It tunnels out 
quite a large hole from the base of the head into the 
top of the stem. (William Buckler, 24th August, 
1878; Note Book III, 24.) 

The larva of Homoeosoma binsevella is to be found in 
the middle of August in the flower- and seed-heads of 
Garduus lanceolatus, eating the young seeds and 
excavating a large cavity in the solid substance at the 
base of the flower-head, in which cavity it lives. 
When full-fed it leaves the head and spins a tough 
brown cocoon among rubbish, in which (like the 
allied species) it remains unchanged through the 
winter and spring. Several of the moths emerged in 
the third week in July. 

This larva is stout, more particularly at the poste- 
rior extremity, very pretty, pale green, paler beneath, 
with pink dorsal and subdorsal stripes, the spiracular 
stripe also pink but interrupted, each segment deeply 
wrinkled below the spiracles. The head is bright 
chestnut, the dorsal plate greenish in front, pale 
brown behind, and the anal plate blackish. 

But here, again, is a discrepancy. 

Hofmann quotes Von Hornig's description of the 
larva of binasvella H.-S. : — " Dirty reddish-grey, with 
dark brown dorsal stripe, two small black dots on 
each segment, and interrupted dark brown longi- 
tudinal stripes. Head dark brown, the dorsal plate 
somewhat darker, divided by a paler line. In May 
and June, in the heads of Garduus acanthoides." 

Clearly we have more to learn about this species ! 
(C. G. Barrett, 8th October, 1878; E.M.M., January, 
1879, XV, 181.) 



Plate CLVII, fig. 5. 

I received on the 19th of June, 1870, from Mr. 
Howard Vaughan, three larvse mining in stems of 
ragwort (Senecio jacobsea), and pushing out little 
heaps of frass, which are agglomerated together by 

Mr. Vaughan informs me that these larvae were 
•captured by himself in Essex, in June. 

When full-grown the larva is half an inch long, 
plump, tapering towards the head, which is a little 
smaller than the second segment. The segments are 
well defined, and each (excepting the thoracic) sub- 
divided by only one deep wrinkle. The spiracular 
region is a little puffed. 

In colour it is of a deep purplish-brown, the 
ventral surface slightly tinged with olive; the head 
and the plate on the second segment deep blackish- 
brown and brilliantly polished, the rest of the body 
rather shining, with a faint violet gloss. The others, 
not quite so mature, were of an olive-greyish tint, 
with shining black heads and plates, a pinkish gloss 
being on the back and sides. (William Buckler, July, 
1870; Note Book I, 42, and E.M.M., November, 1870, 
VII, 131.) 

On the 29th of August last, 1885, I received a 
supply of larvae of Homoeosoma senecionis from Mr. F. 
D. Wheeler, who had found the species freely two 
days previously at Cromer. 

The larvas were about three-eighths of an inch in 
length, and obese in proportion. The head is small, 
and narrower than the second segment, and both it 
and the frontal plate are highly polished. When the 
larva is crawling the body appears to be cylindrical 
and fairly uniform in width, tapering only slightly at 
the extremities ; but when at rest it seems to taper 


much more abruptly from the eleventh segment 
forward to tbe head. The skin is smooth, but each 
segment has four depressions, two transverse in the 
centre, and one on each side, which, together with the 
clearly defined segmental divisions, give it a somewhat 
puckered appearance. 

The ground colour is dark olive-green, with a faint 
purple tinge on the dorsal area; the head, frontal, and 
anal plates black, in some specimens dark sienna- 
brown; the alimentary canal, of a darker shade than 
the ground colour, shows through as the dorsal line ; 
but there are no perceptible subdorsal or spiracular 
lines ; the spiracles are black. The ventral surface is 
uniformly olive-green, some specimens showing a more 
decidedly green tinge than others. The anterior legs 
are of the same colour as the head, but very indis- 
tinctly ringed with white. 

It feeds in the flower-heads of ragwort, drawing 
together the clusters of flowers with silken webs; and 
when full-fed forms a toughish silken cocoon. (George 
T. Porritt, 6th July, 1886; Entom., August, 1886, 
XIX, 211.) 


Plate CLYII, fig. 6. 

Towards the end of July, 1879, Mr. W. E. Jeffrey 
sent me five eggs in a cluster. 

The egg is of a long oval shape, apparently smooth, 
of yellowish-white colour, and turns rather dirty a 
little before hatching. 

They hatched on the 1st of August, and were 
placed on the lower part of stems just above the root 
•of Plantago lanceolata. 

These larvae were of a pale tint of drab, slightly 
inclining to ochreous, having a dark brownish-black 
head and plate on the second segment. 

VOL. ix. 15 


On the 6th of September, 1878, 1 received from Mr. 
C k G. Barrett, who had taken them on the 4th, at 
Tenby, Pembrokeshire, several root-stocks of Plantago 
lanceolata containing some larvae of this species, 
together with instructions to plant the roots in a pot 
and to keep them growing or alive through the winter 
and spring, and to expect the moths to emerge in the 
following July. The two roots I tore open contained 
each a larva, one full-grown or nearly so, the other 

The full-srrown larva when extended is about half 
an inch long, very stout and plump in figure, tapering 
from the fifth segment to the head, and also more 
from the tenth to the thirteenth ; the segments are 
deeply cut and have a deepish transverse wrinkle 
beyond the middle ; the thoracic subdivisions are also 
deep, the sides dimpled, and with an inflated puckered 
ridge beneath the spiracles. The ventral and anal 
legs are all short and quite well beneath the body. 
Dimples also occur on the back. 

In colour the head is shining reddish-brown, 
blackish at the mouth ; the plate on the second 
segment is also reddish-brown at its hind margin, but 
pinkish-brown in the middle and in front, and shining ;. 
a small shining reddish-brown plate is on the anal 
flap; the thoracic segments are tinged with a delicate 
pinkish -grey, melting from them gradually into the 
yellowish-white of the back, soft and smooth like a 
white kid glove, but without gloss ; the tubercular 
most minute dots are dark grey, each with a blackish 
hair ; the round spiracles are brown ; in the deep seg- 
mental divisions occurs a transverse streak of rather 
shining grey on either side of the unmarked dorsal 
region ; the wrinkles on the thoracic segments are 
dark violet-grey ; the anterior legs are shining brown. 
(William Buckler, August, 1879; Note Book III, 

In the summer of 1877 I casually noticed that 
some very tall plants of ribwort-plantain {Plantago 


lanceolata) were much frequented by Homoeosoma 
sinuella, specimens of which were running up the 
long flower-stalks to take flight ; but as this only led 
me to examine the seed-heads of the plantain, no 
results followed. However in February last, 1878, 
when searching for Dtcrorampha larvae along the 
undercliffs (Pembrokeshire), I came upon these large 
plants of ribwort-plantain, and determined to give 
them a thorough examination, and in the solid root- 
stocks (from which proceed the fibrous roots) I found 
larvae, which from their appearance I was disposed 
at the time to refer to some Tortrix, but which soon 
began to spin themselves tough, soft, silken cocoons, 
which became in time of a sooty black, within the 
cavities in which the larvae had lived, and they 
remained unchanged for at least four months. Other 
larvae continued, apparently, to feed much longer, 
but at the end of March most of them were in 
cocoon, and early in June they began to assume the 
pupa state. The first moth emerged from these on 
the 17th of June, and they continued to come out all 
through July; but in their favourite haunts on the 
warm slopes of the cliffs specimens were flying at the 
beginning of June. When examining the plants in 
March and April I was surprised to find how small 
and stunted a root-stock would serve to contain 
a larva, and in the larger roots to find two or three 
cocoons in one cavity. At the same time, although 
portions of the plants were killed, fresh vigorous 
shoots were growing from the sides, and these 
became after a while so luxuriant that it was 
difficult to find the pieces of old root-stock in which 
the larvae had fed, and were then in pupa. 

On the 4th of September I again examined the 
plantains, and found young larvae at work, some of 
them, indeed, being well grown and actually larger than 
those I had found in the winter, and that they now 
bore much more the appearance of Homoeosoma larvae. 
At this time, in what may be called its active state of 


existence, the larva is, when at rest, short and very 
thick, but it nearly doubles its length when crawling, 
though the hinder part is still thick, and sometimes 
very "baggy." Segments rather deeply divided, and 
having transverse folds on the skin, the third and 
fourth segments having each tivo of these folds, which 
nearly meet at the back, and look like cross diagonal 
lines, while the remaining body-segments have each 
one fold in the middle. 

The colour is dull porcelain-white, with a faint 
bluish tinge when full-grown, darker between the 
segments ; the subdorsal lines and spiracles are indi- 
cated by depressed dots. The head is deeply lobed, 
light chestnut, the jaws brown, the dorsal plate pale 
brown, dotted along its posterior margin with black, 
the anal plate pale brown, the anterior feet black. 

Eating the inner substance of the root-stock of 
Plantago lanceolata, living entirely in the cavity thus 
formed, its presence is only slightly indicated by 
the drooping heart leaves. By the winter, however, 
although it seems still to eat a little from the walls of 
its cavity, it has shrunk considerably, the obesity of 
the posterior portion having quite disappeared. 

It is now short, thick, and very sluggish; dull white, 
the third to the fifth segments rather more trans- 
parent, the dorsal vessel visible, the head and dorsal 
plate light brown, darker at the edges, the anal plate 
and legs as before, and while in cocoon it only becomes 
slightly yellowish. 

It varies excessively in the time of spinning this 
cocoon — from September to March apparently, — and 
the cocoon is not black at first, but from whitish 
becomes brown, and finally sooty. 

The pupa is light chestnut, the dorsal region 

Dr. Hofmann, in his c Kleinschmetterlingsraupen,' 
describes the larva of H. sinuella (from Treitschke 
and Hiibner) thus : — " Light bark-brown, with white 
longitudinal stripes ; head brown spotted with black ; 


dorsal plate black. In September, on Chenop odium." 
Clearly this description does not refer to our insect. 
(C. G. Barrett, 8th October, 1878; E.M.M., January, 
1879, XV, 180.) 


Plate CLVIII, fig. 4. 

Several larvce in twisted-up leaves of oak spun 
together, the leaves having the green cuticle dissected 
away, and quantities of frass spun up with them, 
were found by the Rev. H. Shean at Watergate 
Hanger, on the 3rd of June, 1870. 

The full-grown larva is about five-eighths of an 
inch long, and rather slender; there is only one 
subdividing wrinkle across each segment; the head 
and the plate on the second segment pale brown, with 
a black dot in front of each lobe of the head; the 
ground colour is greenish-grey ; a smoky olive dorsal 
stripe, and a subdorsal one also ; this last is followed 
by a stripe apparently paler than the ground colour, 
but in reality the same tint and with a smoky olive 
stripe below it, with the black spiracles on its lower 
edge ; the segments and subdividing folds are deeply 
cut; the anterior pair of dots only are seen and are 
of a dark smoky olive. (William Buckler, June, 1870; 
Note Book I, 1.) 

In the middle of June last, 1878, Mr. Hodgkinson 
sent me a few larvas of Bliodophdea consociella, found 
by him at Arnside. 

They were not active ; they w 7 ere cylindrical, with 
rather long delicate bristles, very pale greenish-grey, 
with dark green-grey dorsal and two subdorsal 
stripes. The head and dorsal plate are large, pale 
yellowish-brown with grey dots, the plate being semi- 
circular in form ; the anal plate is hardly distinguish- 


Drawing together leaves of oak, it gnaws away the 
under surface and makes a dense web among them. 

The pupa is light brown, in a silken cocoon, covered 
with frass, and fixed to the surface of a leaf or to the 

I remember similar larvas in the South of England, 
and, as they have been before described and are well 
known, I am only induced to note these particulars 
because Professor Zeller has described the larva, in 
the ' Isis,' as " sulphur-yelloiv, with fine brown longi- 
tudinal lines and small black raised dots." The other 
particulars agree so well that I think the larva of this 
species must vary considerably in colour. (C. G. 
Barrett, 8th October, 1878; EJLM., January, 1879, 
XV, 182.) 


Plate CLVIII, fig. 1. 

On the 30th of September, 1868, Mr. Machin kindly 
sent me two larvse of Nephopteryx angustella feeding 
on the fruit of Etwnymus europzms, and from them I 
have drawn up the following description : 

The full-grown larva is five-eighths of an inch in 
length, cylindrical, and moderately plump, the two 
hinder segments rapidly tapering almost to a point, 
the second tapering a little to the head, which is small 
and flattened ; the segmental divisions are rather 
deeply defined. 

The ground colour of the body and legs is a flesh 
tint, having the slightest suspicion of yellowish-green 
in it; on the upper surface there are five longitudinal 
series of dull red-brown markings, extending on each 
segment from its commencement to about two-thirds 
of its length backwards, and leaving the remaining 
third of the segment in appearance like a pale band. 
On each segment from the second to the eleventh the 
markings are to be seen as follows : — The dorsal, com- 


mencing broad, becomes narrower, and finishes behind 
in a fine point; the subdorsal markings, on the contrary, 
commence with the point of a wedge shape, growing 
irregularly wider backwards, and intersected near their 
base by transverse lines of the ground colour; on the 
twelfth segment these subdorsal marks unite behind, 
and on the thirteenth are darker in colour; below the 
subdorsal series comes another, very similar in shape, 
but arranged with the broad part at the beginning, 
and of the same colour. The head is dark brown, and 
there is a broad brown plate on the second segment 
with a black oval spot on each side of it behind. 

The tubercular dots are not conspicuous, being of 
the same colour as the brown markings in which they 
are placed ; but each of them is furnished with a minute 
flesh-coloured hair. The spiracles are exceedingly 
small, of a pale purplish-brown, invisible without a 

The larvae spun up within rotten wood, and the 
perfect insects appeared on the 18th and 26th of July, 
1869. (William Buckler, October, 1869; E.M.M., 
November, 1869, VI, 143.) 

On the 22nd of October last, 1878, I received a box 
•of larvae of Nephopteri/x ancfustella from Mr. J. P. 
Barrett, of Peckham. He had collected them about a 
fortnight before from the red seed-berries of the 
spindle, and at that time they were very small, 
though there were evident traces of an earlier brood 
in some of the berries, apparently of full-fed larvae. 
They were plentiful wherever a bush could be found 
with berries on it, but in exposed situations there were 
very few bushes. Those found grew rapidly, and 
when I received them many were apparently full- 

Length about half an inch or a little over, and of 
moderate bulk in proportion ; the head is highly 
polished, has the lobes rounded, is slightly narrower 
than the second, and clearly narrower than the third 
segment. Body cylindrical and nearly uniform, 


tapering a little posteriorly ; the frontal plate polished, 
the anal one not so conspicuous ; the segments 
tolerably well-defined ; the skin soft, and sparingly 
clothed with very short hairs. 

There are two forms. 

Var. 1 has the ground colour dull dingy green ; the 
head is brown, marked with still darker brown ; a dark 
green pulsating vessel forms the dorsal stripe; on each 
side, and on each segment, between the dorsal stripe 
and the spiracular region is a large rust-coloured mark, 
in some specimens a double mark, as it is divided 
transversely in the middle ; there is also a less con- 
spicuous series of rust-coloured marks on the spiracular 
region. The frontal plate corresponds with the ground 
colour, but has a smoky mark in the centre behind, 
divided by the dorsal stripe, which is there distinctly 
paler; on each side of this plate is a rather large 
intensely black spot; the anal plate is darker than the 
ground colour ; the spiracles are black, and are very 
minute, except those on the second and third segments, 
which are larger. The ventral surface is uniformly 
pale green. 

Var. 2 has the ground colour ochreous-yellow ; the 
head is wainscot-brown, the mandibles darker; the 
dorsal stripe is brown, and the large marks between it 
and the spiracular region are rather bright reddish- 
purple; the frontal plate is wainscot-brown, divided by 
a pale mark as in var. 1, and on each side of it is also 
the large intensely black spot ; the spiracles are black. 
The ventral surface is uniformly very pale greyish- 

When first hatched the young larva evidently eats 
its way into the seed-berry, and feeds on the inside, 
and even the full-grown one is entirely hid in the 
interior, though its presence is readily detected by a 
neat circular hole in the side of the berry, through 
which the frass is extruded. Some of the larvae came 
outside to pupate, but I am not sure that all did. 

The first moth emerged on the 27th of June last, 


1879. (George T. Porritt, 10th July, 1879; E.M.M., 
August, 1879, XYI, 65.) 

Cryptoblabus B1ST1UGA. 
Plate CLYIII, fig. 2. 

For this larva, hitherto, I believe, unknown, I am 
indebted to the Rev. Bernard Smith, of Marlow, who 
kindly sent me, on the 12th of September, 1875, an 
example, then no more than a quarter of an inch long, 
within a folded oak- leaf; the leaf was, for a great 
portion of it, quite skeletonized, and the larva after- 
wards reduced other oak leaves to a similar condition 
by eating holes through the substance between the 
veins, always keeping the sides of the leaf folded to 
within a quarter of an inch of each other by means of 
a quantity of lightly-spun web ; I noticed that it was 
the upper surface that was generally thus folded 
together, though once the under surface was similarly 
treated for a residence. 

The movement of the larva when walking is a short 
and jerky advance, with a slight pause after every 

On the 23rd of September it appeared to be full- 
fed — when I secured. a figure of it, and the description 
which follows, — and towards the end of the month it 
spun itself up in a brownish web, half an inch long, at 
the bottom of its cage, and the moth appeared in the 
evening of the 4th of June, 1876. 

The full-grown larva is nearly five-eighths of an 
inch in length, moderately slender and cylindrical, 
though tapering a little from the third segment to the 
head, and a little more from the eleventh to the small 
anal tip ; the segments well divided and subdivided by 
a transverse wrinkle on each ; the spiracular region 
much puckered; the ventral and anal legs fairly deve- 
loped, but placed well beneath the body. 

In colour the head and back are lightish brown, 


marbled with rather a deeper tint of brown ; the dorsal 
line yet deeper ; the subdorsal line blackish-brown, 
followed by a line of the light brown colour, then by 
a broadish stripe of blackish-brown, and beneath this 
a broad band of cream-colour having a brown line 
running through the middle of it; the belly and legs 
drab, which deepens under the thoracic segments to 
blackish-brown ; the spiracles are light brown and not 
easily seen ; the small tubercular dots are black, each 
bearing a fine hair; an ocellated spot of brown, with 
a black centre and a long hair, is on either side of the 
third and the twelfth segments. 

The pupa, nearly four lines in length, is rather 
slender and of the usual shape, the surface of the 
abdomen slightly punctated, though smooth at the 
divisions, the tip ending with two curled-topped 
spines ; the minute spiracles rather prominent and 
black, all the rest being of a dark reddish-brown, 
and shining. (William Buckler, 1st August, 1876; 
E.M.M., October, 1876, XIII, 111.) 

Nyctegretes achatinella. 

In July, 18S3, Mr. Sydney "Webb, of Dover, sent me 
eggs of Nyctegretes achatinella. They were round, 
without polish, but of a bright red colour. By the 
4th of August they were hatched, the newly-emerged 
larvse being pinkish-yellow, with a conspicuous red 
mark on the dorsal area, and the head brown. 
(George T. Porritt, Note Book, 1883.) 

My i<: lois gribrum. 

Plate CLVIII, fig. 3. 

On the 26th of April last, 1878, I received, through 
the kindness of Mr. John Wilson, of Bermondsey, a 
few larvae of tins species. Some of them were appa- 

MY 111 LOIS OKI BRUM. 235 

rently almost full-grown, so I described them at once 
as follows : 

Length when at rest about three-quarters of an 
inch, and when crawling quite an inch ; rather 
plump, and of nearly uniform width throughout; head 
highly polished, considerably narrower than the second 
segment; body cylindrical, tapering very slightly 
towards the anal segment ; the segmental divisions 
well marked ; there is a polished plate on the second, 
and a smaller one on the anal segment; skin rather 
soft, with a semi-translucent appearance ; a short hair 
springs from each tubercle. 

The ground colour is a very pale olive-green, 
inclining to drab ; the head and frontal plate are 
intensely black, the small anal plate not so conspi- 
cuously dark. A darker shade of the ground colour, 
broadly bordered on each side with dull whitish 
stripes, forms the dorsal band ; the subdorsal stripes 
are white, but there are no spiracular lines ; the 
spiracles are round, and they, and also the tubercles 
and hairs, are black. The ventral surface and prolegs 
are very pale dingy greyish -green ; the legs black and 

It feeds in the dried stems of thistle, eating neat 
circular holes through to enter a fresh stem, or to 
quit an old one. When full-grown it spins a net-like 
cocoon of white threads in the cavity formed by having 
eaten away the pith in the stem, and in this it changes 
to a pupa. 

The pupa is about five-eighths of an inch long, 
slender, and of the ordinary shape; the eye-, leg-, 
and antenna-cases are prominent, the last especially 
so, being raised quite on the top of the thorax, and 
extending from the head to the base of the wings ; 
there are also two slight prominences extending over 
the base of the wings in front. The ground colour is 
almost uniformly bright glossy pale brown, the upper 
side of the thorax, segmental divisions, and side 
tubercles rather darker brown. 


The imagos began to appear on the 6th of July. 
(Georcre T. Porritt, 5th March, 1879; E.M.M., April, 
1879 5 XV, 258.) 

Myelois suavella. 
Plate CLVIII, fig. 5. 

On the 27th of May, 1874, I had the pleasure to 
receive several larva), which proved to be Bhodophma 
saavella, found in Herefordshire by Dr. J. H. Wood, 
who also most kindly furnished me with many inter- 
esting particulars of their habits. 

The young larva3 were detected on stunted sloe 
bushes, at first feeding on the leaves under a whitish 
web, and on becoming larger they constructed along 
the branches silken galleries more or less covered with 
their long narrow pellets of frass, neatly arranged 
side by side. 

As they occurred on a sheep-walk, wool was found 
adhering to the bushes and sometimes to the webs of 
the larvae, thus forming a rather tangled mass, faded 
remnants of leaves, silk, and wool being matted 
together, and amongst all this their galleries lay, 
making it difficult to trace them; not that the 
presence of wool seemed to be necessary, but was only 
worked through when the larvae found it in their way, 
many of the galleries being quite free from wool. 

The full-grown larva, when stretched out, varies 
from a little over five-eighths to nearly six-eighths of 
an inch in length, cylindrical, slender, tapering but 
very little in front, though the head is a trifle less 
than the second segment, Avhile from the eleventh 
to the anal extremity it tapers gradually ; the head in 
outline is full and rounded, and its surface roughened; 
each segment beyond the fourth is subdivided across 
the back by a deep wrinkle into two portions, the 
greater portion being in front ; another wrinkle sub- 
divides the hinder portion, but only on the sides of 


the segments ; the spiracular region is inflated and 
puckered ; the ventral legs are much beneath the 

The colour of the roughened head is dark brown, 
with the base of the papillae and a transverse streak 
above the mouth brownish-grey, the surface glisten- 
ing ; the plate on the second segment and that on the 
anal tip are both black and shining; the rest in the 
young stage rather olive-brown, afterwards becoming 
deep chocolate-brown ; the skin smooth but without 
gloss; the ventral legs semi-transparent; the anterior 
legs spotted with black ; the ocellated spot on the 
side of the third and twelfth segments is brownish- 
grey with a black centre, the hair from it being longer 
than that Avhich proceeds from each of the usual 
tubercular situations, but all the hairs are alike in 
being dark brown, fine, and pointed ; the small 
circular spiracles are of the ground colour. 

By the 19th of June the larvae had spun themselves 
up amongst the twigs of sloe in greyish silken cocoons, 
one of which, on the 22nd of the month, I cut open, 
and found the pupa to be three-eighths of an inch in 
length, of moderate plumpness, thickest in the middle ; 
the wing-cases are long, the abdomen bluntly tipped, 
and terminating with seven most minute bristles, 
curved at their extremities ; in colour it was a deep 
mahogany-brown, the abdominal divisions darker 
brown, the whole surface very glossy. 

Four moths were bred on the 19th and 20th of 

Another fact in the economy of Bhodophcea suavella 
remains to be mentioned, that it is not confined to 
sloe, but is also found on hawthorn bushes, Dr. Wood 
having taken some larvae from them on a common, 
which were kept separate, and finally produced this 
species. He also noticed in the instance of two or 
three larvae that had been disappointed in pupating, 
and were wandering about amongst the twigs of sloe, 
that they had become tinged with greenish, and 


wanted earth to make up in. (William Buckler, 13th 
May, 1875 ; B.M.M., June, 1875, XII, 13.) 

Myelois advenella. 

On the 6th of June, 1878, I beat an exceedingly 
pretty larva from hawthorn. 

It was cylindrical, moderately stout, light pea-green, 
with bright purplish-pink subdorsal stripes ; the head 
pale brown, eyes darker, plates green, the purple-pink 
stripes being continued upon the dorsal plate. 

It spun a tough silken cocoon attached to a dead 
leaf, in which it became a chestnut-brown pupa, and 
after lying in pupa for about a month the moth 
(Rhodoplixa advenella) emerged on the 15th of July. 

The description of this larva, quoted by Dr. Hof- 
mann from Zincken and Treitschke, is : — " Naked, 
spindle-shaped, of a beautiful green, with red-brown 
lateral lines ; head red-brown. In May and June, in 
the flowers of hawthorn. Pupating in the earth in 
a slight web." (C. G. Barrett, 8th October, 1878; 
E.M.M., January, 1879, XV, 182.) 

Myelois ma km ore a. 
Plate CLYIII, fig. 6. 

On the 23rd of May, 1873, Mr. J. B. Hodgkinson, 
of Preston, kindly sent me a larva of Bhodophsea 
marmorea, which, with more than a dozen others, he 
had obtained by beating from dwarfed and stunted 
miserable-looking sloe bushes scattered over the side 
of Whitbarrow, in Westmorland. 

Mr. Hodgkinson informs me that he can always tell 
at a glance whether this larva is on a bush, and that 
he finds invariably the principal indications of its 
presence to be the stunted appearance, combined with 


the circumstance of sheep's wool sticking in the 

The individual sent to me arrived in a loosely-spun 
web on the stem of a twig of dwarf sloe, and I noticed 
that each time I changed its food it spun for itself a 
fresh web, uniting some of the leaves together ; when 
disturbed it was nimble and eager to escape, but in- 
variably spun a thread Avhile walking, as a measure of 
security for regaining its place on a stem. It fed on 
the sloe leaves, though somewhat sparingly, and on 
the 1st of June I found it had spun, during the pre- 
vious night, a cocoon of brownish-grey silk, attached 
to the end of the hammock-like web in which it had 
been living, and to the stem and two or three leaves of 
its food, the outside of it covered with leaf-gnawings 
and frass ; it did not become a pupa till the 6th, and 
the moth came forth on the 7th of July. 

This larva was five-eighths of an inch in leng-th, 
moderately slender, nearly of equal size throughout, 
the last two segments being a little tapered, and the 
head, though full and with rounded lobes, rather less 
than the second segment ; the ventral legs moderately 
developed, but placed much beneath the body ; each 
segment beyond the fourth is subdivided by one trans- 
verse wrinkle, which, though slight on the back, was 
deep on the side, unless when the head and front seg- 
ments were thrown back, forming a concave line 
above, when these wrinkles would appear deeply 
indented, as well as the segmental divisions ; but when 
the body was bent downwards, giving a convex out- 
line to the back, these wrinkles disappeared ; the sides 
were deeply wrinkled and dimpled, with an inflated 
subspiracular ridge almost linear in its course. 

The colour was a very dark chocolate-brown, the 
skin being without any gloss ; the head and the plate 
behind it were of a dingy rusty red colour, the former 
marked with a thick crescent of black on the crown of 
each lobe, the latter blotched with black, and both 
shining ; the tubercular dots were also polished, most 


of them being very small, each bearing a fine hair; 
in the subdorsal region of the third and again of the 
twelfth segments was an ocellated spot of flesh-colour, 
with minute black centre bearing a hair ; the tip of 
the anal segment a little paler than the rest of the 
colouring, and rather shining ; the spiracles were 
small, circular, and flesh-coloured; the anterior legs 
were marked with black ; the ventral legs were dingy 
flesh-colour, tipped with dark brown books. 

The deep reddish-brown pupa, three and a quarter 
lines in length, was of moderate stoutness and of the 
usual contour, bat with the abdomen terminating in a 
knob, furnished with three extremely minute, curved- 
tipped bristles. (William Buckler, December, 1873 ; 
E.M.M., February, 1874, X, 214.) 

Myelois pinguts. 
Plate CLVI, fig. 9. 

In Stainton's 'Manual' the undescribed larva of this 
species is said to feed in decayed ash-trunks ; and 
Hofmann, in his work of 1875, gives no description 
of it, but merely says, - fi In spring, under the bark of 
ash ;" neither is any description of it afforded in the 
interesting records of capture of the perfect insects 
to be met with in the ' Entomologist's Weekly Intelli- 
gencer ' (see vol. vi, p. 164, and vol. viii, pp. 131 — 133, 
179), although the finding of the larva is mentioned, 
together with good hints for collectors; I therefore 
hope now to throw some light on the larva and a 
little on its habits, so far as they have been ascer- 
tained with much perseverance by Dr. Wood, of 
Tarrington, who kindly provided me with examples 
of the larva and pupa in situ to figure. 

This larva inhabits the living bark of ash, frequently 
pollard trees, never affecting any dead or decayed 
portions of a tree, nor penetrating to the wood ; nor 
-does it eat far into the bark, however thick, but 


generally less than an inch, and mines more of a 
chamber than a gallery; as it grows it enlarges its 
original small round hole of entrance, which even- 
tually becomes of a size sufficient for the escape of 
the moth ; but there are always a few long black 
grains of frass blocking the entrance. This frass is 
characteristic, and should be looked for when search- 
ing a tree, on any projecting bosses as well as on the 
spreading foot, upon which it sometimes falls and 
lodges; for stray grains of frass detected below afford 
a good clue to the situation of the mine above. 

Of three larvse I received on the 13th of July, 
1877, two were quite small and feeding slowly, while 
one was full-fed ; and this, when safely extracted from 
the piece of bark for the purpose of depicting, was 
soon afterwards induced to enter a goose-quill, where 
it chose to remain and spin its cocoon, enabling me to 
watch its progress through the transparent medium 
during a day and a half, when it became quite 

On the 22nd of July other pieces of ash bark, con- 
taining a pupa and a larva not quite half-grown, 
arrived from the same kind friend, and this larva 
lived on as long as I could keep the bark fresh and 
edible ; but it died during the autumn, having made 
scarcely any additional growth while in my keeping, 
although after the first inspection I did not again 
disturb it, for at that time, after clearing away the 
frass to ascertain the exact direction of the mine, I 
noticed that in a few minutes afterwards the entrance 
was again blocked up with more frass by the larva 

In 1876 Dr. Wood found a full-fed larva at the end 
of May, and bred the moth on the 8th of July follow- 
ing ; and in 1877, on the 19th of July, he found a 
pupa and three young larvas not half grown. Of the 
two moths I bred myself, the first was a female from 
the pupa within the before-mentioned quill on the 2nd 

VOL. IX. 16 


of August, and on the 15th a male from the pupa 
within the bark. 

It appears that some of the larvae are feeding the 
whole summer through, but whether they are more 
than one year in feeding up is at present a doubtful 
point, the evidence being rather conflicting, although 
it justifies Dr. Wood's opinion that some portion of a 
brood passes two seasons in the larval state. 

The larva when young is very pale, of a dirty 
whitish or greyish colour, having a blackish-brown 
head and plate at each end of the body, and showing 
partially an internal dorsal vessel of dark greyish ; 
but when full-grown it measures about three-quarters 
of an inch in length and is tolerably stout in propor- 
tion, tapering a little from the third segment to the 
head, which is flattened and less than the second in 
width ; it tapers also a little from the eleventh to the 
anal tip; beyond the thoracic the other segments on 
the back have each one subdividing deepish wrinkle, 
followed by one or two more or less distinct though 
they are deeper on the sides, and the region beneath 
the spiracles is puckered ; the anal legs are close 
together, and well beneath the end of the body ; the 
colour of the head is chestnut-brown, marked with 
blackish-brown ; the plate on the second segment is 
much paler in front, but broadly blotched at its hind 
margin with the darker brown where it is dorsally 
divided ; the anal plate is chestnut-brown ; the ground 
colour of the back and sides is a deepish flesh-tint, 
gradually becoming paler and rather ochreous on the 
belly ; an interrupted dorsal line of much darker flesh- 
colour shows plainly on the front of each segment just 
as far only as the transverse wrinkle ; the tubercular 
dots and the brown hair emitted by each are so minute 
as to be visible only through a lens ; the characteristic 
ocellated spot on each side of the third and twelfth 
segments is ringed with chestnut-brown, having a 
flesh-coloured centre with a longish hair; the small 
round spiracles are of the ground colour ringed with 


brown; the anterior legs are chestnut-brown, and 
these, the head, the plates, and the ocellated spots 
are highly lustrous, while all the rest of the body 
appears soft and smooth, but without gloss. 

The pupa, while occupying the mine in the bark, is 
closely enveloped with a coating of whitish silk, as a 
cocoon so thin and clear that its form, and even a 
little of its colour, can be rather plainly seen through 
the silk, the head lying very near the entrance of the 
mine, which is lightly blocked with frass, of which a 
great quantity lies around and behind the cocoon. 

The pupa itself, according to sex, measures nearly 
or quite half an inch in length, and one-eighth in 
diameter at the end of the wing-covers ; the general 
appearance is rather slender and of usual form, but 
with the abdomen tapering off gradually to a rounded 
tip without any projections ; its colour is light 
brownish-ochreous or light reddish-brown on the 
wing-covers, rather darker on the thorax and abdomen, 
and with the surface glossy. (William Buckler, 23rd 
August, 1878 ; E.M.M., December, 1878, XV, 162— 

Hypochalcia ahenella. 

On the 7th of July, 1883, Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher sent 
me from the New Forest eighteen eggs laid on leaves 
of Thymus serjpyllum and on bits of white leno. 

The shape of the egg is roundish-ovate, laid singly, 
or overlapping one another a little, or in a cluster, 
generally having a depression on some part of the 
upper surface when laid on a leaf; the surface is 
pitted finely all over. The colour is the slightest 
remove from white, so faint is its tint of yellowish- 
green, and glistening in a faint degree. 

On the 12th a greenish tinge became quite pro- 
nounced though pale, and the eggs became filled out, 
and on the 13th a rather large dark blackish-grey 


spot appeared at one end of most of the eggs. Next 
morning, the 14th, six were hatched, three more by 
midday, another later, one on the 15th, and two on 
the 16th. 

The newly-hatched larva has a blackish-brown head 
and plate on the second segment, and light greenish- 
grey body ; and it at once evinces a habit of hiding 
itself by spinning any leaf or object to some surface 
as a retreat for security. I put them with Thymus 
serjoyllum and Lotus corniculatus, but in three days 
they had all escaped. (William Buckler, 20th July, 
1883 ; Note Book IV, 205.) 


Plate CLVIII, fig. 7. 

On the 16th of September, 1869, I was on the sea- 
shore close to the spit of sand at the inner mouth of 
Emsworth harbour during a gale of wind, and chancing 
to look at a shoot of Salsola kali, which still protruded 
an inch or two above the rapidly accumulating sand, 
I saw a small larva blown off from it ; this I imme- 
diately picked up, but my attempts to look for another 
were at that time entirely frustrated by the blinding 

However, my solitary captive was contented to feed 
up on the little piece of Salsola which I brought home 
with it, and in a few days became a pupa; the perfect 
insect appeared in July, 1870, and was named for me 
by Mr. H. Doubleday with his usual kindness ; and as 
he at the same time told me that the species was not 
as yet common in British collections, I thought that 
some account of its larval state might not be unac- 
ceptable, and for this purpose have now put together 
the results of my investigations carried on during the 
present year, 1871. 

On the 31st of August, 1871, at East Hayling, near 


the bend opposite West Wittering Point, and close to 
the shore but not on it, there are some sandy patches 
with a few plants of Salsola halt. On these Mr. 
Henry Terry found a larva, and on a piece of the 
plant brought home for food there chanced to be 
another and smaller larva of the same species. On 
the 11th of September Mr. Thomson accompanied me 
to East Hayling to the exact spot just mentioned, and 
there, on the plants of Salsola kali, within a few yards 
we collected 150 of these larvae. Their little webs, 
which would ordinarily escape observation, now became 
the means of our finding them to a certainty, owing to 
the weather of the day or two previous. Heavy rain 
had fallen and high wind succeeded, and the wind had 
blown the sand into their webs, which remained to 
show us whereabouts the larvse were. 

The egg state I have not yet observed, and I will 
not obtrude any guess as to when or where the egg is 

The young larva, when less than one quarter of its 
full growth, mines within the stem of Salsola hali, 
generally in the side shoots ; but when it has reached 
half-growth it seems to change its abode and to go 
outside and attack the unripe seeds, and then setting 
out from the cavity thus made, to burrow into the 
main stem, where it continues to feed in concealment 
until nearly fully grown ; during this period of its 
existence its presence may be detected in the following 
manner ; it protects the entrance hole of its burrow 
with a few exceedingly fine silk threads, and should a 
rainy day be succeeded by a high wind these threads 
will retain many particles of sand blown over them 
whilst yet damp, and will thus become much more 
conspicuous than when in their more usual condition. 

When the larva is near its full growth it ceases to 
mine, and coming outside weaves for itself a delicate 
cylindrical web in which it lies, often, however, chang- 
ing its position, and sometimes trusting for protection 
only to its resemblance in colour to the stem on which 


it lies stretched out ; when once in its web it is not 
easily dislodged, and if driven out still hangs on by a 
short thread, and soon returns again if not further 
disturbed. When full-grown it enters the sand and 
there constructs a cocoon of the surrounding particles, 
sometimes attaching it to a stone. 

The youngest example of the larva that I found 
was less than a quarter of an inch long, of a pale 
semi-transparent glaucous-green colour, with a black 
head and plate behind it. With growth the colour 
changes to an opaque ochreous-green, or to an olive- 
green, sometimes to a reddish-grey, the black head 
and plate continuing as long as the larva mines within 
the plant. 

The full-grown larva is five-eighths of an inch in 
length, slender, tapering from the back of the second 
segment to the head, which is partly retracted within 
it ; the second segment is quite as long as any of the 
others ; the body tapers also a little gradually from 
the tenth to the anal tip ; on the thoracic segments 
there are deeply defined wrinkles, but on the others 
there is only one deep subdividing wrinkle, and 
another very slight one near the segmental division ; 
all the legs are small and well under the body, which 
is cylindrical though just a trifle flattened on the back 
and belly. 

In colour the head is pale brownish-ochreous, 
marked on each lobe more or less with blackish-brown ; 
the plate on the second segment is shining, and often 
faintly edged at the side with a slight streak of blackish, 
and is generally rather more inclining to ochreous, 
but is otherwise similar to the rest of the body in 
markings ; the ground colour is generally of a glaucous- 
green tint, deeper on the back and sides, and paler on 
the belly and legs; the dorsal line is a deep pink, or 
dark green, very faintly edged with a fine line of 
paler green than the ground colour; the subdorsal 
line is distinctly paler whitish -green, the line just 
above the spiracles is similar, and the space between 


them is a broad stripe of glaucous-green, darker than 
the ground ; just beneath the subdorsal line on the 
third and twelfth segments is an ocellated spot of pale 
flesh-colour encircled with black ; the minute spiracles 
are of the ground colour, delicately outlined with 
brown ; the tubercular dots are brown, but are scarcely 
visible without the help of a lens, nor are the fine 
longish hairs which grow from them, and which seem 
to be more numerous at each end of the body. 

Varieties occur, in which the whole of the back has 
a slight pinkish tinge; others are darker, and of a 
reddish-grey colour ; but when mature, all assume 
rather a pale ochreous-green tint. 

The cocoon when free in the sand is half an inch in 
length, ovate in shape, dumpy, irregularly rounded 
at one end and a little pointed at the other; it is 
composed of grains of sand spun together, and is 
smoothly lined inside with silk ; when the cocoon is 
attached to a stone it is about five-eighths of an inch 
or a little more in length, but the ends are rounded 
and of uniform size tapered off close to the surface of 
the stone. 

The pupa is about three-eighths of an inch in 
length, rather slender and smooth, but with no 
peculiarity of form, save that the tip of the abdomen 
is rounded off and the wing-cases rather long ; it is of 
a pale greenish-ochreous tint, the wing-covers green, 
and the whole surface rather shining. (William 
Buckler, 18th September, 1871 ; E.M.M., December, 
1871, VIII, 163—165, with additions from Note Book 
I, 131 and 139.) 

For the opportunity of studying this interesting 
species I have on two occasions been indebted to the 
Rev. B. N. Bloomfield, M.A., of Guestling Rectory, 
near Hastings. In December, 1881, he kindly sent 
me several pupse, from which I bred imagos the fol- 
lowing year ; and on the 13th of September, 1882, I 
further received from him a supply of larvae which he 
had collected from Salsola kali growing on " blowing 


sand by the sea-shore at Camber, near Rye, East 

They were of various stages of growth, those ap- 
parently full-grown being about three-quarters of an 
inch long, rather attenuated when crawling, but of 
fair proportions when at rest. The head has the 
lobes rounded, is slightly narrower than the second, 
and still narrower than the third segment ; the body 
is cylindrical and of almost uniform width, tapering 
only a little at the posterior extremity ; the skin is 
smooth, but not at all glossy, except on the anal 
segment, whereas the head and the frontal plate are 
highly polished ; the segmental divisions are well- 
defined ; there is also a slight transverse depression 
on each segment, and a puckered ridge along the 
spiracular region. 

The ground colour of the dorsal area varies from 
pale pea-green to dark green ; the head is grey, more 
or less marked with intense black, some of the darker 
larvae indeed having the cheeks and part of the face 
perfectly black. The dorsal stripe is clearly defined, 
either of a darker shade of the ground colour of what- 
ever shade of green, or in some specimens purplish- 
brown ; the subdorsal lines are only faintly discernible, 
greyish ; there are no perceptible spiracular lines ; the 
usual dots are very minute, black, except those on the 
third and the twelfth segments, which are larger, and 
white, encircled with black ; the spiracles also are very 
minute, brown. The ventral surface is uniformly of a 
paler shade of the ground colour. 

Another variety, which is evidently much less com- 
mon than the preceding, has the ground colour dark 
olive, the dorsal line purple, and between it and the 
grey subdorsal lines another faint line of a paler 
purple ; whilst along the spiracular region is a broad 
irregular stripe, brownish-yellow in the centre, but 
edged above and below with grey ; this stripe is really 
composed of a series of blunt wedge-shaped marks 
laid longitudinally, and the base of each mark adjoin- 


ing the apex of the one following it. This variety, 
too, has the head black, and the mandibles dark sienna- 
brown. The ventral surface is dingy olive-green. 

The larva spins small silken webs about the tops of 
its food-plant, Salsola kali ; and when full-fed descends 
below the surface of the sand and forms a small 
oval cocoon composed of grains of sand completely 
woven together with silk. 

The pupa is of very ordinary shape, about two-fifths 
of an inch long, evenly rounded, broadest at the 
thorax, and tapering gradually to the anal point. 
The whole surface is semi-translucent and polished, 
and all the parts are well defined. The eye-, leg-, and 
wing-cases are bright green, the thorax and abdominal 
segments yellow, the abdominal divisions brown, and 
a distinct green line which shows through the trans- 
lucent covering extends through the dorsal area. 

The imagos emerged at the end of July and the 
beginning of August. (George T. Porritt, 3rd April, 
1884; Entom., May, 1884, XVII, 111—113.) 

Nephopteryx ABIETELLA. 

Plate CLVIII, fig. 8. 

On the 16th of August, 1874, I received from Mr. 
John H. "Wood a spruce fir-cone containing a larva, 
whose ravages were plainly perceptible by the ex- 
truded particles of light fawn-coloured frass from 
some of the scales, which still adhered by a thread or 
two of silk to the cone. It was not till the 26th that 
I was able to secure this individual to figure and de- 
scribe, although on two previous occasions I obtained 
a transient glimpse of it as it left one part of the cone 
and entered another part ; but on this occasion I 
caught it on the calico cover of the glass vessel that 
contained the cone, and then took the following de- 
scription : 


The larva when stretched out is just half an inch 
in length, rather slender in proportion, stoutest at the 
thoracic segments, the others a little less but tolerably 
uniform in width to the twelfth, whence it tapered a 
little to the extremity of the thirteenth, which was 
rounded ; the head is a little flattened, rather broad, 
but not so broad as the second segment, which is 
equal in length and breadth to the third and fourth, 
the transverse wrinkles on these being rather deep, 
while on the others, one moderately deep, followed by 
a fainter one, subdivides each of them at about two- 
thirds from the beginning ; the anterior legs are well 
developed, the ventral and anal ones moderately and 
much under the body. 

The head is shining and of a pitchy blackness, above 
paler on the top of the lobes and brown beneath ; a 
broad, black, shining, semicircular plate is on the 
second segment, the skin of the body is without gloss, 
and of a rich reddish- (rather chocolate-) brown colour 
above on the back and sides, becoming a little paler on 
the belly; on the sides at the segmental divisions the 
skin appears paler, of a greyish glistening tint, seen 
only when the larva is fully stretched out; the tuber- 
cular dots are small, black, and shining, each emitting 
a fine longish hair ; the spiracles are round, very 
minute, of the ground colour, faintly outlined with 
black ; a pale faint patch of ochreous is on the back 
of the twelfth segment, and on the thirteenth it is 
paler still, and has there a dark brown subdorsal 
stripe, and the surface is shining. 

In the subdorsal regions of the third and the twelfth 
segments is an ocellated spot of greyish or whitish- 
grey, with black centre, bearing a hair. 

Another larva left its cone full-fed on the 22nd of 
September. The length when stretched out was three- 
quarters of an inch, its body one-eighth of an inch in 
diameter. Its colour on the back and sides is rather 
a bronzy-brown, the belly and the lower part of the 
sides rather paler pinkish-brown; a very fine line or 


thread of the ground colour divides the pitchy-blackish 
plate on the second segment, which is margined in 
front by a portion of the brown skin next the head. 

Mr. Wood having kindly given me the result of his 
careful experience with these larvse, I here quote from 
his advice : 

" I think they do best when the cone is kept on its 
side, and not standing on end. I have found them 
so far not difficult to rear. The only time when they 
want a little management is just after they have shed 
the last skin, or the last but one ; should they at that 
time be out of their burrow it is useless then to put 
them on an ordinary cone, as they will not make any 
attempt to eat into it, but wander about and would 
ultimately die. The plan is to get a dry cone and 
break off some of the scales, so as to leave a rough 
surface ; as soon as the larva is put upon this all 
tendency to wander vanishes ; it soon sets about 
spinning a hiding-place, making it very secure, and 
taking plenty of time over it, for it is sometimes as 
much as thirty-six hours before it runs out a little 
covered way to the fresh cone that has been placed by 
the side of the other. 

" It seems to be very impatient of exposure, more 
particularly when left feeble from the process of 
moulting, for it has been only at this particular time 
that this care has been required. At an earlier age it 
is able to creep under a scale, and a few threads 
will complete the concealment." 

I found the first larva when it left the cone wander 
about until it died, refusing to attack the fresh cone 
supplied to it. Mr. Wood then kindly sent me a cone 
containing two larvse approaching maturity on the 
12th of September, intimating that I might expect to 
see one of them out of the cone in about ten days' 
time in search of a place for spinning up. This was 
a most exact prognostication, for though I looked 
daily into the pot after it, and noted with satisfaction 
the increasing heap of brown frass that steadily 


accumulated at the bottom, yet no larva made its 
appearance till the afternoon of the 22nd, when I 
beheld it hanging down from the cone apparently 
examining the smooth surface of the jam pot. 

After taking the note of its size and appearance 
before recorded and securing its portrait, I put it into 
a pot prepared with earth at the bottom, on which 
were placed a fresh cone and an old brown one, with 
some pieces of touchwood, and after it was placed on 
the old cone it examined the surface of the fresh one 
for a moment or two, and returning to the old one 
descended to the peaty earth, over which it crept to 
the touchwood, amongst which it speedily disap- 

The second inhabitant of the cone (now on the- 
28th) continued to feed, as was evidenced by grains 
of frass continuing to accumulate at the bottom of the 
pot beneath the hole by which its co-tenant had pre- 
viously left it. 

Mr. Wood tells me " that several larvse will often 
agree together in a single cone, when probably they 
take care not to encroach on each other. I had no 
less than six in one cone ; for some reason or other 
they had preferred it to others that were alongside. 
They will, however, fight sometimes. A full-fed fellow 
emerged one day, and as it was smaller than any of 
the others had been I thought it might not have done 
feeding, and introduced it into an opening that was 
apparently tenantless ; the animal went in readily 
enough to half its length and then began to back out, 
which I tried to prevent, but it would not do, and the 
next moment the larva wriggled out and lay for an 
appreciable time twisting on the cone, held bull-dog 
fashion by the neck by another larva. Blood was 

Fig. 23, 1877. In this year, on the 7th of Septem- 
ber, I received from Dr. Wood a spruce fir-cone con- 
taining a much finer larva than either I had seen pre- 
viously ; it measured rather more than seven-eighths 


of an inch long, of rather stout figure, uniform in 
size, except that it tapered slightly from the third 
segment forward to the head the smallest, the thir- 
teenth segment very slightly tapering. 

In colour the head is black-brown, the plate on the 
second segment also with wide dorsal division of the 
same colour as the back of the larva, a rather reddish- 
brown ; beneath the spiracles this colour is abruptly 
separated from the rather paler colour of the belly, 
most defined posteriorly ; the dorsal line is rather 
darker brown, but on the thirteenth segment becomes 
obliterated by a broad pale stripe, relieved by a dark 
blackish-brown stripe on either side ; on the back the 
tubercular dots are black, reddish-brown on the 
belly; an ocellated spot of whitish, with black centre, 
on the side of the third and the twelfth segments, 
with extra long hair and a fine brown hair from each 

This iarva was observed out of the cone on the 
14th of September, when I figured it; it was after- 
wards placed with the cone in a jam pot containing 
small fragments of rotten wood, and the moth emerged 
on the 14th of June, 1878. 

On looking afterwards for the empty cocoon I 
found it at just the distance of one-fourth from the 
bottom, just inside the scales, at a part where they 
had been much ravaged or broken away ; it was oval 
in form, five-eighths of an inch long, composed of 
whitish silk, but all (except the part attached to the 
cone) was entirely covered with brown frass. 

The pupa skin (damaged by extraction) seemed 
to have been about from a quarter to three-eighths 
of an inch in length, and of light reddish-brown 
shining colour. 

On the 8th of October, 1879, I received an infested 
cone of spruce fir from Dr. Wood, drawing my atten- 
tion to a singular feature in the economy of this 
species. Pinned to the cone I found a round flattish 
cocoon of white silk, partly covered with frass, con- 


taining a living larva of last year (1878) lying curled 
in a ring. This cocoon he tells me is a false or 
temporary cocoon, or hibernaculum, constructed 
simply for hibernation ; and that when the larva 
intends to pupate, it will come out and form another, 
the true cocoon, of the usual oval shape. Dr. Wood 
affirms it to be the ordinary habit of this larva to 
form these two kinds of cocoons, although occasionally 
an individual is met with that dispenses with the 
round temporary one, and acts like the one I had in 
1877, which produced the moth in June, 1878. 

Last autumn (1878) Dr. Wood found an infested 
cone ; it was put in a tin. On opening this in May,, 
1879, a larva was disturbed whilst making its pupating 
cocoon, and though this contretemps happened twice,, 
it would not be baulked of its intention, and in good 
time produced the moth. On the 7th of October, 
when cleaning out this tin for something else, Dr. 
Wood found in one of the corners under a few loose 
scales three of the round flattish cocoons ; one was 
empty, and had previously contained the larva whose 
history had just been given ; another held a dead 
larva ; and the third Dr. Wood kindly enclosed to me, 
which I received (together with an infested cone) on 
the 8th of October, 1879. 

This round flattish case, containing a larva, I figured 
on the 23rd of October, and kept apart with a bit of 
an old cone quite dry of the year 1877. 

The infested cone that came with it I also kept 
separate. In writing to Dr. Wood I expressed an 
opinion that I had held for some time, that the small 
iarvse I had received from him late in autumn in 
former years could not be full-grown, as they did not 
produce a moth, though I had kept them over two 
years ; but that when a larva came from him to me 
much larger than any I had before seen, more than 
double the size of the others, that larva produced the 
moth — a fact which seemed to point to the larval 
life extending over two seasons. 


To this Dr. Wood replied as follows on the 11th of 
October, 1879 : 

" It seems to me the question you have raised as to 
the length of the larval life of Phycis abiefella is a very 
difficult matter. I told you all the larvse do not form 
the round cocoons, and I think it is more especially 
the earlier and better fed ones that do not. This is 
in favour of your views, but again&t it is the unques- 
tionable fact that the fall-fed larvae construct them. 
Then, again, the insect I bred this summer occupied 
just such another cocoon ; it deserted it in May, 
showed no desire to eat, but at once began to construct 
an ordinary shaped one in which to pupate. 

" The impression conveyed to my mind by these 
facts has been, that at a comparatively recent time in 
the history of the insect it was a two-years feeder, 
making use of these round cocoons in the first year 
as hibernacula; but that, although it has now become 
a one-year feeder, the memory of the old habit is not 
altogether lost, and is called into action perhaps by 
the lateness of the season or want of nutritiousness in 
the food, causing the larva to be somewhat imperfectly 
fed. But it is an intricate question." (William 
Buckler, October, 1879; Note Book II, 105, 130, 
142, 146, 151, 157; and E.M.M., May, 1888, XXIY, 

Nephopteryx roborella. 
Plate CLYIII, fig. 9. 

On the 22nd of May, 1882, I figured a larva beaten 
from oak by the Rev. John Hellins on the 19th. 

It measured about 10 lines long, and was a trifle 
stoutest in the middle of the body, and tapered a 
little behind ; the back was rather flattened. The 
head was of a roundish character, just fitting within 
the second segment; the third and fourth segments 
have deep wrinkles, and beyond them each of the 


others bad a deep transverse wrinkle beyond the 

In colour the head was cinnamon-brown, marked 
on the crown and cheeks with several short streaks of 
black; the back is broadly of the same brown, finely 
and much freckled with a pale tint of the same, and 
two lines of these freckles enclose the dorsal line, 
which is a little darker than the ground ; after an 
interval another line of pale freckles is followed by a 
broadish stripe of darker brown traversed through 
the middle with a broken line of pale freckles. Below, 
the ground colouring is lighter than that of the back, 
and freckled with cream-colour, thickly along the 
oontact with the dark brown stripe just mentioned, 
and particularly on the thoracic segments; the second 
segment has three central length lines of dark freckles 
and some few paler ones, but otherwise is very similar 
to the head, as it glistens slightly in the same degree, 
while all the rest of the body is dull without gloss ; 
the flattened belly has very few pale freckles ; quite 
a blotch is formed by those surrounding each spiracle, 
which is of the ground colour delicately outlined with 
black ; the ocellated spots on the third and the twelfth 
segments are pale cream ringed with black; the tuber- 
cular dots are black but very small ; on the back in a 
halo of pale freckle colour a row of single larger black 
dots occurs at the lower edge of the dark brown side- 
stripe, and from each of these larger dots the fine 
hair is longer than the others ; the front legs are cin- 
namon, tipped and jointed with black. The colouring 
altogether is rather paler on the last three segments. 

This larva went into earth on the 2nd of June. 

The moth, Phycis roborella, was bred on the 4th of 
August, and was a lighter and less well-marked speci- 
men than those bred from fig. 13, 1882, the subject 
of the next description. 

On the 25th of May, 1882, I received ten larvae 
from Mr. Hellins, beaten the day before from oak, 
which were the subject of my fig. 13 of 1882. 


These larvae live under a covering of silk web 
which they spin for themselves, but they are by no 
means gregarious, as I soon found by the death of 
three bitten by their companions. 

The larva when full-grown measures one inch in 
length ; the back and sides are dark purplish-brown ; 
the fine dorsal line is of the same colour running 
between two lines of pale freckles, that is to say of a 
very light tint of the same colour ; three other still 
finer lines of pale freckles follow on either side; the 
lowest of these is distinct throughout, but the two 
above are much less distinct after passing the sixth 
or eighth segment, but can here and there be just 
traced on the other segments ; the dark parts of the 
two last segments are lighter towards the back. The 
pale freckles on the back are in several instances 
dirty pinkish. The dorsal line as above described 
begins on the plate of the second segment, which is 
slightly glistening, as is the head, but all the rest of 
the body is very dull ; the plate is dark purplish-brown 
with rather paler front margin ; the head is dark 
purplish-brown with a paler streak across the upper 
lip ; the papillae are pale with dark purplish-brown 
tips ; the anterior legs are dark purplish-brown and 
glistening ; beneath the dark colouring the spiracular 
region and all the belly is light pinkish-brown ; a row 
or line of very much paler freckles than any on the 
back edges the dark colour of the side ; then come 
the spiracles, and then another line of the paler 
freckles (the whole lower surface is freckled with 
paler) ; the spiracles are of the light ground finely 
outlined with dark or blackish ; the ocellated spot on 
the third and the twelfth segments is ringed with 
black having a dirty whitish [? centre — word missing 
in original] ; the very palest freckles are cream-colour ; 
the tubercular dots are blackish, too small to be 
noticeable except the single row (over the spiracles) 
at the lower edge of the dark colouring. The tuber- 
cular dots are a little surrounded with paler. 
VOL. ix. 17 


The larvae spun themselves up in earthen-covered 
cocoons from 6 to 7 lines long, of an oval shape, 
smoothly lined with grey silk. 

The pupa measures 5 lines or 10^ mm. in length, 
and is of moderate substance, without any peculiarity 
in form ; the head, prothorax and thorax are most 
distinctly defined ; the wing-covers are long and the 
moveable segments of the abdomen taper a little to 
the rounded-off extremity, which is furnished with 
several extremely minute curly-topped bristles which 
are held fast by the silken lining of the cocoon. In 
colour it is of a dark mahogany brown, rather paler 
at the last four segmental divisions of the abdomen, 
and rather shining on all but the wing-covers, which 
are dull. 

The moths from these larvae were bred from the 
4th to the 7th of August, 1882. (William Buckler, 
August, 1882 ; Note Book 1Y, 118, 120.) 

Pempelia oarnella. 
Plate CLIX, fig. 1. 

For the opportunity of working out the history, 
hitherto unknown, of this pretty species, I am greatly 
indebted to my friend Mr. William R. Jeffrey, whose 
kind exertions in obtaining eggs for the purpose, 
during two seasons, I here most gratefully acknow- 

On the first occasion eggs were laid by a female 
captured on the 5th of August, and received by me on 
the 11th, 1877, some adhering to the inner surface of 
a pill-box, others to a leaf of violet, a few on marjoram 
and leaves of other plants, the parent moth seeming 
not at all particular on what they were deposited. 

To discover the food-plant, Mr. Jeffrey kindly sent 
me, for potting, three large pieces of turf containing 
a number of plants, dug from the spot where the 


insects occurred, which was at White Hill, on the 
race-course at Wye. The plants included Hippocrepis 
eomosa, Lotus coruiculatus, Echium vulgar e, Thymus 
serpyllum, Origanum vulgare, Olinopodium vulgare, 
Calamintha officinalis, Euphrasia officinalis, Poterium 
sanguisorba, Gentiana amarella, Helianthemum vulgare, 
and Brachy podium pinnatum. 

The eggs hatched from the 19th to the 21st of the 
month, and the little larvse were distributed over the 
potted plants, except two that were confined with a 
few leaves for a couple of days as an experiment ; I 
found one of these had taken possession of Helian- 
themum, and the other of Lotus ; in each instance the 
stem and leaves were spun together with white silk, 
whereon minute specks of frass were visible ; they 
were then transferred to similar plants in the pots, 
where, through September and October, I was inte- 
rested in watching them and some of the others that 
<?ould be detected, but only on those plants, among 
various surrounding growths ; the tiny creatures 
extended their webs higher and higher on the small 
shoots of their chosen sprays, and quantities of frass 
lay about the earlier portions of web, until the 
approach of winter, when I saw them no more, for in 
the following spring their plants could not be found, 
probably killed by the larval ravages, and the coarser 
vigorous plants choking them. I found Mr. Jeffrey's 
experience with a few he had kept for himself corre- 
sponded exactly with mine. 

Again, in 1878, towards the end of July, Mr. Jeffrey 
imprisoned some female P. carnella, and their eggs 
were laid on leaves of Helianthemum and Origanum, 
and a single egg on a blade of grass ; they began to 
hatch on the 7th of August, and most of them were 
placed on good growing plants of Lotus comic ulatus, 
while four or five were put in another pot on a plant 
of Helianthemum vulgare ; signs of the larvae were soon 
seen on the plants by leaflets spun together, and 
minute specks of frass on the threads, becoming 


plainer through September and October, when some 
of the leaves and stems were spun to bits of stick, 
placed there to keep the sprays upright, and prevent 
their straggling over the margins of the pots. 

The plants became very dry, and so remained 
through an unusually severe winter and spring, until 
April, 1879, when a few fresh green shoots of the 
Lotus, and, by chance, a few of Medico go lupdina and 
Trifolium repens appeared round the outside of the old 
dry portions of the former plants ; but it was as late 
as the 15th of May when I first found a larva had 
moved from its winter quarters, in the pot of Helian- 
themum, where there also chanced to be growing a 
young clover plant, of whose few leaves an unopened 
one arrested my attention to two minute holes near 
the top. On examination, a young P. carnella larva 
was within a web which had held the leaf folded 
together ; soon after this another larva was found 
feeding on one of the leaves spun against the Helian- 
themum, — facts pointing to a leguminous plant as the 
proper food. On the same day Mr. Jeffrey examined 
two or three dry old leaflets spun together, which I 
had cut from the Lotus and sent to him, and within 
them he found enclosed, in a tough white silken fusi- 
form hibernaculum, a larva of P. Cornelia, alive, 
though accidentally killed during the investigation. 

During a gleam of sunshine on the 19th of May, I 
had great satisfaction in seeing that the small family 
on the Lotus corniculatus had awaked from their six 
months' sleep, as evidenced by five separate spinnings 
of excessively fine glittering silk threads, one on an 
entirely new stem with leaflets drawn over, hiding the 
little tenant in possession, the others holding fresh 
leaflets to old dry stems, with minute specks of fresh 
frass clinsfino- to them. 

In the centre of the pot, old dead stems and leaves 
were numerous, and amongst them silk threads began 
to accumulate, and extend to many little new sprays of 
the plants, so that by the 22nd there were two rather 


opaque webs thickly besprinkled with grains of frass ; 
just dimly visible through a portion of the upper web, 
was a larva evidently about to moult; it remained 
there motionless until the 27th, when it was no longer 
in view, but reappeared occasionally, perceptibly 
grown ; another larva soon after became visible in the 
web lower down amongst the same stems. 

By the 8th of June the webs were easier to detect ; 
I then happened to notice a small one near the earth, 
at the moment the larva in residence came forth to 
commence an extension for joining a fresh spray to 
the despoiled one; as it crept cautiously along the 
lower horizontal part of the stem, it enabled me to see 
distinctly the details of its naked form before many 
new threads intervened. 

From the middle of June, during five days I saw 
about as many of the larva3 similarly engaged, and 
afterwards taking up their varied positions between 
new leaflets, lying more or less one over the other, 
often feeding on the lowest while covered by the 
uppermost; their webs continued to increase in size, 
•density, and whiteness, and had so many old stems 
and partly-consumed leaves blotched with white incor- 
porated with them, as to be rather conspicuous ; soon, 
too, the threads from one web began to encroach on 
another above, and they got in some places quite 
joined together ; at this time the larvae were remark- 
ably shy and timid, for on the least disturbance of 
any part of the plant, or even a breath passing 
over, they rapidly drew back into the recesses of their 

I cut off one of these webs on the 1st of July to 
figure the occupant, and was not a little surprised to 
find three larvae inside, the largest being three-eighths 
of an inch long, the next rather less, and the smallest 
no more than two-eighths ; on the 11th I found one 
half an inch long, and sent it to Mr. Jeffrey, thinking 
the usual time for maturity had arrived for some of 


The Lotus soon became ravaged and smothered 
with web, while the Medico go and Trifolium had 
scarcely been eaten, and not much worked up with 
threads ; I therefore cut away all the tenanted webs 
and laid them on another fine vigorous plant of Lotus 
comiculatus, kept in reserve from the previous year 
until now ; on this they began at once to spin threads 
in union with their webs, and, on the 25th, seeing a 
larva full five-eighths of an inch long, I removed it to 
figure and keep apart on gathered food ; amongst this 
it soon spun itself up in a close hammock within a 
quantity of more open threads, which bound the 
leaves together, and I thought it was about to 
pupate, but 1 was deceived, for it moulted on the 
28th, and assumed a coat so different, that henceforth 
it was easy to judge of the relative progress of the 

This individual was restored to the growing plant 
on the 29th, and made its way to the topmost spray, 
which was supported by a bit of stick ; here it spun 
some stout threads, securing the spray to the stick, 
and then lay stretched out along the stem basking in 
the sun ; next morning there was a great increase in 
the number of silk threads, like the outlines of a long 
hammock, and in the evening I observed the larva a 
little beyond them stretched to its utmost extent, 
biting at a stalk of three small leaflets, which were 
toppling and presently fell, but the mandibles of the 
larva held on securely while the leaflets were dragged 
backwards to the web, and there fixed close to some 
other leaves, forming a bower-like shelter; to this it 
continued daily to spin more and more threads until 
the 7th of August, when some important work seemed 
going on within the dense interior, for I saw two stout- 
stems, resting on the margin of the pot at a distance 
below, suddenly lifted up for a moment ; this was 
repeated three or four times in succession, and by 
evening I found the stoutest stem had been cut 
asunder, apparently to stop further growth ; next 


morning the larva had spun itself up in the ham- 

The remaining larva3 soon afterwards spun up in a 
similar way, though the last two were as late as the 
16th of August, amongst gathered food and in cap- 
tivity ; for the fine plant had become utterly suffocated 
and unable to sprout afresh by the binding of its parts 
together with great quantities of web ; probably one 
or two larvae escaped, as I picked up one astray at 
some distance from the pot. 

I do not think that it is to be inferred that the 
larvse are naturally gregarious, for, although in this 
instance they were able to conform to circumstances, 
I did not fail to witness a little testy and resentful 
behaviour by one larva when intruded on by another. 
They were lovers of sunshine, and whenever they felt 
the genial rays, came forth to spin with increased 

Five moths in all were bred, on the 13th, 16th and 
30th of September, and the 1st of October. 

The egg of Pempelia camella when first laid is 
round, flab and scale-like, whitish, then turning 
yellow, afterwards streaked with reddish, again 
changing to fawn-colour and becoming convex above, 
and, an hour or two before hatching, showing a dark 
purplish spot on the upper surface. 

The larva on quitting the shell is of a pale drab 
tint with darker dorsal line, and blackish head and 
collar ; its pace is running rather than walking ; in 
four days' time it shows traces of other lines besides 
the dorsal one, and on the nineteenth day it is nearly 
an eighth of an inch long, of pale pinkish-green tinted 
body, with numerous dark brown lines along its 
length, the head and collar dull black. 

After hibernation it is nearly three-sixteenths of an 
inch long, slender, and marked as before with alter 
nate lines, now of green and blackish, a design which 
continues to be developed, the head and second 
segment black, and for a time even the pair of legs of 


that segment are black, all without any gloss, save a 
slight glistening on the anal flap ; the beginning of the 
green lines on the thoracic segments is quite pale, and 
the subdorsal one is rather conspicuously so ; the 
dorsal is a straight black line, and from it to the 
spiracles on either side are four black and five green 
ragged-edged lines, making a total of nineteen lines 
from one spiracular region to the other; as the larval 
growth increases to half an inch and more, the green 
becomes bluer, then more slaty, and the black lines 
less and less intense; the dingy green belly has two 
black lines above the legs, a black ring round each 
ventral leg, and a ventral black line. 

The last moult produces a skin which seems for a 
time to be black, but by degrees, as the larva attains 
its full growth of seven-eighths or nearly an inch in 
length, traces of the lines reappear without much effect 
of breaking the general bronzy blackness of the skin ; 
this is rather rough, with fine transverse wrinkles, 
and one much deeper subdividing each segment ; the 
body in front tapers a little from the third segment 
to the head, and more behind from the tenth to the 
thirteenth. The second segment and the head having 
remained deep dull black, begin at the very last to 
glisten faintly; the papillae are pinkish-grey tipped 
with black, parts of the mouth being of the same grey 
colour with a black streak midway across the upper 
lip ; some parts of the paler lines are drab or dirty 
whitish on the thoracic segments, but indistinct 
behind, though the subdorsal is rather more noticeable 
throughout, as on it are the black tubercular dots 
minutely ringed with dirty whitish, of which tint also 
are the minute roundish-oval spiracles, and also the 
ocellated spot, with its centre black and extra long 
hair, on the third segment; a fine soft hair of light 
brown colour proceeds from each tubercular dot, 
several from the head, the second and anal segments; 
the ventral legs, light shining pinkish-grey, are 
fringed with black hooks. 


The pupa is enclosed in a cocoon spun within the 
hammock, and composed of a coarse dirty whitish 
silk reticulation of oval form, five-eighths of an inch 

The pupa itself is seven-sixteenths of an inch in 
length, of moderate stoutness, broadest across the 
thorax and wing-covers, rounded above and sloped 
suddenly towards the head, which is but little pro- 
duced, somewhat flattened beneath ; the wing-covers 
are rather long and close to the body ; the flexible 
rings of the abdomen taper to a blunt rounded tip 
furnished with two minute thorny points wide apart; 
the colour is dark mahogany-brown, darkest on the 
back of the abdomen, the tip black, the wing-covers 
and under parts rather lighter brown, the whole 
surface shining. (William Buckler, 11th October, 
1879; E.M.M., December, 1879, and January, 1880, 
XVI, 167 — 172; supplemented from Note Book III, 

Pempelia dilutella. 
Plate CLIX, fig. 3. 

On the 23rd of June, 1878, I received a larva of 
JPempelia subomatella from Mr. C. Gr. Barrett, found 
with two or three more by his eldest daughter and 
himself at Pembroke amongst Thymus serpyllum 
spreading its growth over a rock, the larva inhabiting 
a silken gallery. Of this larva I took my fig. 22 of 

The larva is three quarters of an inch long, slender, 
•cylindrical, though tapering a little from the fourth 
segment to the head, which is of roundish character, 
and tapering still more from the ninth to the end of 
the thirteenth segment; the segmental divisions are 
yery well defined, and across the thoracic segments 
the usual subdivisions are deep, and on each of the 
•others there is behind the middle a moderately deep 


subdividing transverse wrinkle; the legs are all much 
beneath the belly. 

In colour it is very dingy olive blackish ground 
colour with a blackish dorsal line, and a rather less 
black subdorsal line, both of them edged on each side 
with a finer line of olive ocbreous ; the head is black 
and rather shining ; the black mouth has a transverse 
bar of ochreous olive above it ; the papillae are of this 
colour tipped with black ; the plate on the second 
segment is blackish and with very little gloss ; all the 
rest of the skin of the body is quite dull and smooth 
without the least gloss, excepting the minute tuber- 
cular warts of the ground colour which glisten 
slightly; on the subdorsal region of the third segment 
is a greyish ocellated spot with black central dot and 
longish hair ; another, similar but less noticeable,, 
occurs on the twelfth segment ; the anterior legs are 
black ; the hair from each tubercular wart is very 

From this I bred an ichneumon on the 9th of August,. 
1878, and sent it to Dr. Capron. 

On the 23rd of June, 1879, Mr. C. G. Barrett sent 
me three more of the larvae of Pempelia subornatella , 
precisely similar to the single larva of last year, 
excepting that these were not more than from three- 
eighths to half an inch long. The largest was laid up 
for moulting when, on my return on the 26th, I first 
examined them. This moult was -safely over and by 
the 2nd of July the larva measured quite five-eighths 
of an inch ; the head and second segment were black, 
with the plate slightly glistening like the head; the 
body was a dead or dull black, on which were faintly 
shown a dingy olive or blackish-olive line on either 
side of the black dorsal line ; two other blackish-olive 
lines follow at wider intervals along either side, the 
lowest so faint and broken as barely to be traced, the 
upper less faint and bearing the usual minute warty 
glistening black dots and hairs on a base of glistening 
blackish-olive ; above the legs by a faint mark or two- 


are slight indications of a third line almost obsolete; 
the anal flap is wholly black and as a plate rather 
glistening; the upper lip is drab colour, as also are 
the papillae but tipped with black; the minute spiracles 
are black and slightly glistening. 

The larva spins a number of threads on the plant, 
drawing the leaves together and forming a silken 
gallery amongst them in which when full-fed it 
constructs its cocoon and changes to a pupa. 

The pupa is five-sixteenths of an inch in length, of 
moderate stoutness in proportion, with the wing- 
covers long and wrapped very close to the body, the 
eyes large, the abdomen tapering a little, but ending 
in a blunt tip, having a few excessively minute curly- 
topped short bristles. Its colour (on the 16th of 
August) was a light reddish ochreous-brown, the eyes 
and the tip of the abdomen blackish, the wing-covers 
the palest portion, a dark blotch on either side of the 
back on the fourth abdominal ring, and the surface 

The moth, a ? , came forth on the 5th of September, 
1879. (William Buckler, September, 1879; Note Book 
III, 239, 239b, and 271.) 

The larva of Phycis subornatella is noticed by 
Professor Zeller in the 'Isis,' 1846, p. 768 (translated 
in the ' Entomologist's Annual,' 1867, p. 144), thus : — 
" It lives in silken tubes upon the ground amongst 
the plants of thyme, and is pale with some dark 
longitudinal stripes." Further than this, I think it 
has not been noticed or described ; and when, in 1877, 
I met with one or two specimens of the moth on the 
coast here (Pembrokeshire), the re-discovery of this 
larva became a special object of anxiety and search, 
and considering that the moth is scarce here, and that 
thyme is most emphatically not so, it will readily be 
supposed that the re-discovery was no easy matter. 
However, in the beginning of June, 1878, I visited a 
spot about thirteen miles from Pembroke, on which one 
specimen of the moth had occurred, and there on the 


rocks I found large spreading masses of thyme, under 
which were populous colonies of yellow ants. Here, 
after careful scrutiny, I found some loose patches of 
fine silken threads, such as might conceal the retreat 
of a spider, but connected beneath with a thicker 
dirty white loose pouch or passage of silk, in which, 
if traced far enough, was a dull dark larva. This was 
a great discovery. My little girl set to work to help 
me, and we succeeded in extracting about half a dozen 
of these larvae, part of which were immediately sent 
off to Mr. Buckler for nVurins:, but from some defect 
in our mode of treatment, neither of us succeeded in 
rearing" a moth, although Mr. Buckler was tantalised 
with an ichneumon. 

'This season, 1879, 1 hardly need say that everything 
was late, and it was not till the 23rd of June that I 
again found larvae. They were feeding in the plants 
of thyme on the same rocks, and it was curious to 
observe that not a larva was to be found except in 
plants that were crowded with the habitations of the 
yellow ants. The silken passage of the larva was 
completely mixed up with the debris of the ants' nest, 
and the abundant ant-pupae which were brought up to 
the surface to be warmed by the sun. To make 
success a certainty, I took up two large turfs of the 
thyme (containing, of course, plenty of ants and 
pupae), and planted them at home in pans. Upon 
these the larvae fed very well, filling the whole mass 
of thyme with web, and almost clearing it of leaves; 
but although the ants must have been in danger of 
starvation, not a single larva was ever touched by 
them. The larvae continued to feed until the end of 
July, and in the course of August a dozen beautiful 
moths emerged. 

The larva is generally very sluggish, and difficult 
to disturb, but, ivheii roused, can move quickly 
enough, and in confinement is restless, and, while 
young, inclined to wander from its food and get into 


It is cylindrical, and, while young, dull dark grey, 
with slightly darker dorsal line, spots pale grey, very 
minute, head and both plates dull black, remainder of 
second segment brownish. 

When full-grown it is dull greenish-grey, more 
yellowish on the back, with narrow dorsal and sub- 
dorsal lines of dark greenish-grey ; the third, fourth 
and fifth segments are much wrinkled on the back ; 
the head and plates still dull black. 

It lives in a loose silken pouch or purse at the end 
of a passage of loose silk, under a spreading plant of 
thyme (Thymus serpyllum), and comes out at night to 
feed on the leaves. 

The pupa is light brown, in a thin cocoon of papery 
silk in the silken habitation on the surface of the 

The moths emerged at about 8 o'clock in the 
morning, and were generally to be found sitting, head 
upwards, on a blade of fine grass, with the wings 
wrapped closely round the body. (Charles G. Barrett, 
6th November, 1879; E.M.M., December, 1879, XYI, 

On the 10th of May last, 1883, I received from 
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, of Worthing, some half-score 
larvae of Phycis adomatella. 

They varied in length from three-eighths to five- 
eighths of an inch, the larger probably being nearly 
adult larvae, and the smaller ones, which were pro- 
portionately more slender, younger specimens. The 
head has the lobes rounded ; in the younger specimens 
it is about the same width, but in the older ones 
narrower than the second segment; both it and the 
frontal plate are polished. The body is cylindrical, 
and of almost uniform width ; in the older examples 
tapering a little at the extremities. The segmental 
divisions are distinct, and a transverse depression on 
each segment gives to the skin a slightly wrinkled 

The ground colour of the younger specimens is 


•dull smoky black, but in the larger examples a 
strong tint of olive is distinctly seen through the 
l)lack. The head is brown, strongly freckled, and 
marked with very dark brown. A dark smoky black 
line, faintly edged on each side with slaty grey, forms 
the dorsal stripe ; there are also two indistinct irre- 
gular lines of this pale colour between the dorsal and 
spiracular regions, and a still fainter indication of the 
pale colour along the spiracles. In the young speci- 
mens these pale lines are scarcely discernible, even 
with a lens. In the young specimens the frontal 
plate is black, but in the older ones the olive tint 
shows through it also. The ventral surface and the 
prolegs are uniformly dark smoky blackish olive, and 
the anterior legs are tipped with black. 

It feeds on wild thyme. No imagos emerged from 
my larvae ; but Mr. Fletcher fortunately bred several 
from those he kept. (George T. Porritt, 8th August, 
1883 ; Entom., September, 1883, XVI, 212.) 

Pempelia fusca. 

This species — Phycis carbonariella — being usually 
very abundant on the dry heaths in this (Huddersfield) 
district, I determined last year, if possible, to work 
out its history. Therefore, on the 2nd of July, I 
went up to Crosland Moor, a heath almost close to 
the town, and, in a very short time, had netted and 
boxed some thirty imagos, a fair proportion of which 
were females. Several of them immediately deposited, 
and the eggs were oval, though rather pointed at the 
ends, the colour a bright light purple. 

On the 11th a number of them hatched, and the 
newly emerged larvae were very lively, red with black 
segmental divisions, and the polished head and frontal 
plate nearly black. 

Ling, sallow, etc., were at once supplied, and they 
soon took to the sallow, quite forsaking the ling and 


heath, which I suppose must be the natural food, as 
there is no sallow on the heaths where the moths 

The red colour was retained until they were about 
a quarter of an inch long, but after the next moult 
they became uniformly dull black or brownish -black, 
the black head and frontal plate only having a polished 
appearance. I was from home at the time the change 
took place, so cannot tell exactly at what date the 
moult was effected. Up to this time, too, they had 
fed in the leaves, eating the inside between the upper 
and under skins ; but after this they spun together 
two or more leaves, and ate from the outside of the 
leaf, — only, however, the softer parts, leaving the 
ribs and veins. 

On the 28th of July they were three-eighths of an 
inch long, and, by the 5th of August, half an inch 
had been attained, when I took down notes on them 
as follows : — 

The body is slender, cylindrical, and of nearly uni- 
form width, tapering only slightly towards the anal 
extremity ; the head is a little narrower than the 
second segment, rounded, with the mandibles promi- 
nent ; both it and the frontal plate are polished; the 
segmental divisions are well defined, and from each 
segment being also divided by a transverse depression 
the skin has a rather wrinkled appearance ; there are 
a few scattered short hairs. 

The colour of almost the whole of the larva is a 
uniform dull black, showing brownish at the seg- 
mental divisions only, though an exceptional larva is 
entirely of this brown tinge. The black specimens 
have the ventral surface slightly paler, but there are 
no other discernible markings of any sort. Alto- 
gether it is one of the most unicolorous larvae I ever 
saw, and no species on our list is more appropriately 
named than Phycis carbonariella, the larva, imago, 
and habitat (the burnt, charred parts of the heaths) 
being almost equally black. 


For some days the larvae had been unaccountably 
disappearing, but how and when I never could make 
out, as their cage seemed close-fitting enough. By the 
16th I bad only two or three left, and as these seemed 
disposed to hibernate, I described the largest again, 
as follows : — 

Length, three-quarters of an inch, and proportion- 
ately stouter than when last described ; the segments 
are rather plumper, and the wrinkled appearance of 
the skin in the earlier stage partly lost. Raised 
tubercles, too, have now made their appearance, but 
are not very conspicuous. In other respects the 
shape is the same. 

The ground colour is now a little paler, a distinct, 
but very dark, olive tint is seen through the dull 
black, and the alimentary vessel shows as a quite 
black dgrsal line. The head, frontal plate, and 
tubercles are polished, and black. There are no 
other perceptible markings. The ventral surface 
and prolegs are dull dark olive-green, and the legs 

The larvae fed on the sallow leaves; but one I 
found had evidently excavated the soft stem, causing 
the leaves to droop and wither ; this was one of 
the last larvae I saw, and suggested that it was 
just possible that the disappearance of the other 
larvae miofht be accounted for from their having been 
thrown away unperceived in the old stems, though 
I can scarcely credit that I overlooked them in such 
a way. 

In the spring I could find none of the two or three 
hibernated larvae, so made several journeys to the 
heath, in order to complete the history of the species ; 
but neither by sweeping nor by close searching could 
I detect any trace of the larvae, which, however, may 
perhaps be accounted for from the fact that three or 
four excursions later for images only produced three 
specimens, where the previous year they were in pro- 


As I obtained no more eggs, I think it best to 
publish this history incomplete, as in the larva three- 
quarters of an inch in length, there is, I think, little 
doubt that adult markings had been quite or almost 
attained. (George T. Porritt, 2nd September, 1882; 
E.M.M., October, 1882, XIX, 110.) 


Plate OLIX, fig. 4. 

For examples of this larva I am indebted to Mr. F. 
Franks and Mr. W. Machin, from whom I received 
them on the 21st of July and the 19th of August, 

Their usual food appeared to be the leaves of elm, 
though, in confinement, I found they would also eat 
birch; and, when a fresh supply was given to them, 
their first proceeding, before satisfying their appetite, 
was either to spin two leaves together or to turn 
down the corner of a leaf with a few threads ; under 
this shelter they began to feed ; and in a day or two 
a considerable number of threads would be spun, 
agglutinating the leaves together in various direc- 
tions. The earliest were full-fed by the 20th of 
August, and the latest by the 15th of September. 

The full-grown larva is about five-eighths of an 
inch or little more in length, tolerably cylindrical, 
and, when looked at from above, of nearly uniform 
bulk, but, viewed sideways, the three hinder segments 
are seen to taper beneath towards the anal extremity; 
all the segments are plump, and rather deeply divided ; 
the head is rounded at the sides, and a little flattened 
in front. 

The ground colour is a deep olive-green, much 
freckled with darker green ; the usual dorsal and 
subdorsal stripes are of this colour, each of them 
being enclosed within two rather sinuous fine lines of 
yellowish-olive ; another such line runs between the 

VOL. ix. 18 


subdorsal and the spiracles; the spiracles are whitish, 
outlined with black, and immediately beneath them is 
a whitish-green line, which is followed by a similar 
one just above the legs, so that altogether there are 
no less than twelve of these pale lines on the back 
and sides ; the ventral surface is dull green ; the 
head is of the freckled ground colour, the mouth 
blackish, with the papillae whitish ; the second seg- 
ment has a shining plate on which are faintly seen 
the colours and lines of the back ; on each side of the 
third segment in the subdorsal region is a conspicuous 
transverse oval white spot, bearing a black dot within 
its lower margin. The tubercular dots are blackish, 
each emitting a rather long greenish hair ; though 
amongst these larvae were some with whitish-green 
dots, and two that varied in the ground colour, being 
of a bluer green than the others above, and whitish- 
green beneath. 

The moths appeared from the 12th to the 17th of 
July, 1S69. (William Buckler, January, 1870 ; E.M.M., 
June, 1870, VII, 14.) 

I received larvae of Bhodophxa formosella on the 
3rd of October, 1877, from Mr. J. R. Wellman, of 

They were full-grown, about five-eighths of an 
inch long, and of moderate bulk in proportion. The 
head has the lobes rounded, is a trifle narrower than 
the second, but quite as wide as the third segment. 
The body is cylindrical and of nearly uniform width, 
throughout ; the skin has a slightly wrinkled and 
velvety appearance, except on the second segment, 
where it is smooth, and has a rather polished horny 
appearance; there are a few scattered hairs. 

The ground colour is dark velvety green ; the head 
is of the same colour, but very faintly and indistinctly 
freckled with greyish. Two fine interrupted grey 
lines extend throughout the dorsal area ; below them 
is a similar subdorsal line, followed by two more 
similar lines between it and the spiracles ; and again 


a similar one along the spiracular region ; there thus 
being five of these grey lines on each side. The 
spiracles are imperceptible. The ventral surface is 
uniformly dark green, powdered, especially at the 
segmental divisions, with whitish. (George T. Porritt, 
4th June, 1879; Entom., August, 1879, XII, 206.) 

Pempelia hostilts. 
Plate CLIX, fig. 5. 

On the 23rd of September, 1879, Dr. J. H. Wood 
kindly sent me two larvse of Pempelia hostilis, each 
between two leaves of Popiilus tremula, spun together 
with silk, to which quantities of frass were adhering. 

One larva was full-grown, the other quite small and 
preparing to moult, three-eighths of an inch in length 
and very slender, with blackish head and collar plates, 
light pinkish-drab body with dorsal stripe just a tint 
darker, and having on either side of the back two 
cream-coloured lines, and along the spiracular region 
two paler cream-coloured stripes, the lowest slanting 
downwards just at the end of each segment through- 
out its course, the ground colour between these and 
also of the belly paler than that of the back and sides. 
After moulting on the 26th it assumed the colour of 
the full-grown example, though it refused to feed, and 
in the course of a day or two a parasitic larva ate its 
way out, which proved fatal to the unlucky victim, 
whose shrivelled-up skin alone remained. 

The full-grown larva measures nearly three-quarters 
of an inch in length, and is of moderate slenderness ; 
the head is broad and full, about as wide as the second 
segment, the body tapering behind from the tenth to 
the end of the thirteenth ; the thoracic segments are 
deeply wrinkled, the others with a deep transverse 
wrinkle a little beyond the middle ; the ventral and 
anal legs are short and much beneath the body ; the 
rather shining head is blackish-brown, having a broad 


ochreous stripe on the crown of each lobe, and a 
streak above the mouth ; the papillse are black, finely 
ringed with white ; the ground colour of the body is a 
dingy blackish-olivaceous-brown, darkest on the anal 
flap, rather glistening on the second segment, but 
quite dull on the rest of the body ; two fine black lines 
on the collar change from thence to a plain dorsal 
stripe, rather darker than the ground colour as far as 
the last segment, where it is black ; continuous from 
either lobe of the head is a broad subdorsal ochreous 
stripe on the second segment, opening out beyond in 
two lines, which, after passing the thoracic segments, 
become more dingy and somewhat greyish-ochreous, 
and show but faintly ; midway along the side occurs 
the faintest possible trace of an extra line, thin and 
indistinct ; a subspiracular stripe begins on the third 
segment, and continues of a dirty whitish colour just 
above the legs to the end of the thirteenth, having a 
fine line of the ground colour running through below; 
the minute round spiracles are of the ground colour, 
finely ringed with darker; the tubercular dots are very 
small, blackish -brown, and slightly glistening, each 
with a fine hair ; the ocellated spot on either side of 
the third and the twelfth segments is of the ground 
colour, ringed with black, and with a minute black 
centre bearing an extra long hair ; the anterior legs 
are black, the ventral and anal legs of the ground 

This individual produced an ichneumon on the 25th 
of June, 1880. (William Buckler, 13th November, 
1880; E.M.M., January, 1881, XVII, 178.) 

I was fortunate enough last June, 1880, to breed 
three specimens of this rare insect, a species that has 
not, I believe, been taken in this country for many 

The larvas were met with somewhat accidentally. I 
was hunting one day in the middle of September, 
1879, among underwood, for larvse of the Clostevd3> 
when I caught sight of a few strands of silk spun 


from a brown curled aspen leaf to a living green one. 
On picking the dead leaf and nncurling it, I saw 
exposed on its surface a silken tube, at once sugges- 
tive of the work of a Knothorn, and this supposition 
became almost a certaint}^ when the little grey larva, 
after some persuasion, was prevailed on to show 
itself. For the rest of the afternoon, I had, as may 
be supposed, eyes for nothing but dead or dying aspen 
leaves, and the result was two more nests. I call 
them nests because I subsequently found that with one 
exception, in which instance only a single larva was 
present, the leaves were occupied by two or even three 
larvae living together, each in its own gallery, but with 
the galleries closely joining or even interlacing. The 
larvae at this time were very young, and considering 
the choice they had made (in the one case of a dead 
leaf, in the other two of the old tenements of other 
larvae), might readily have been overlooked ; but it 
was quite a different matter when I found, later in the 
month, a fourth nest containing two nearly full-grown 
larvae. As in the others, so there was here, the 
nucleus of two half-dead yellow leaves, but from these 
were stretching in all directions bands of silk to the 
adjacent fresh ones, which had been freely eaten, 
drawing them together, and thus making a large and 
conspicuous object. I sent Mr. Buckler two of the 
larvae, and am greatly indebted to his kindness for the 
description of them given above ; unfortunately, both 
proved to be stung. Mine, when full-fed, left their 
nests. They spun up (four of them) in rolls of paper, 
and changed to pupae at once. Being anxious to see 
the moth, I forced one early in the spring, and was 
punished with a very bad cripple ; the others, left to 
themselves, produced fine specimens in June. 

The question arises — which selects the site of the 
nest? Does the parent moth lay her eggs on these 
old leaves, or do the larvae wander about till they find 
them ? In favour of the former is the fact that more 
than one larva is generally present ; nevertheless I 


am inclined to think that the latter is the correct 
view, since the exercise of such a choice seems to fit 
in better with larval instincts than with those of the 
perfect state ; and, moreover, there was certainly, in 
one instance, a marked difference in the sizes of two 
larvae feeding together. (John H. Wood, 22nd 
November, 1880; B.M.M., January, 1881, XVII, 177.) 

Pempelia betulm. 
Plate CLVIII, fig. 10. 

On the 2nd of June last, 1883, accompanied by Mr. 
George Tindall, I visited the Green Farm Wood, 
Doncaster, to search for the larvse of Pempelia betulde. 
Mr. W. Warren, of Cambridge, had told us he used to 
take it there, and, following his instructions, Mr. 
Tindall soon discovered a fine, nearly full-fed speci- 
men ; and, before the afternoon was over, we had 
each the satisfaction of having secured several. 

Length about three-quarters of an inch and rather 
slender, but not conspicuously so in proportion. The 
head is a little narrower than the second segment ; it 
has the lobes rounded, and is, as is also the second 
segment, polished. The body is cylindrical, thickest 
in the middle, tapering gradually and evenly towards 
each extremity. The segmental divisions are clearly 
defined, and the skin is soft and velvety, very 
sparingly clothed with short hairs. 

The ground colour is dull velvety-black ; the head 
is black and glossy, but very prettily marbled on the 
lobes with clear white, and there is also a white streak 
above the mandibles. Two clear, bright, lemon-yellow 
stripes (white on the second and anal segments) 
extend through the centre of the dorsal area, running 
parallel from the second to the twelfth segment, where 
they unite and form one stripe through it and the 
thirteenth. (When quite full-grown these stripes 
become paler, and are then of a warm cream-colour.) 


The only indication of subdorsal lines is in an indis- 
tinct and interrupted series of small white dots (more 
numerous in some specimens than in others), from the 
second to about the ninth segment. The spiracular 
stripes are of the clear bright lemon-yellow of those 
of the dorsal area, and below them is another equally 
broad, but more interrupted, white stripe. The 
spiracles are black, the hairs grey. The ventral 
surface and the prolegs are uniformly dull black ; the 
anterior legs are also black, but highly polished. The 
larva is very pretty, and is a conspicuous and striking 
object when at rest, stretched along the midrib under 
a slight web on the upper side of a birch leaf; the 
spinning of the slight web draws the edges of the leaf, 
and turns them up a little on each side. 

The bright colours are evidently not assumed until 
the last moult, but, unfortunately, I have no descrip- 
tion of the larva in an earlier stage. Whilst collecting 
the larvas, I put in a separate box a number of 
supposed birch-feeding Tortrices, etc., one of which 
developed into a bright Pempelia betulde, but the only 
recollection I have of it when found is a dull unin- 
teresting-looking larva, brownish-black, with dingy, 
pale, double dorsal stripe. This specimen did not spin 
up until quite the end of June, whereas all the others 
were enclosed by about the 10th of June. My larva? 
formed their cocoons in the corners of their cage, but 
Mr. Warren writes me that, in a state of nature, " the 
larva makes a conspicuous white web in a leaf, or more 
frequently draws three or four leaves together ; these 
nests are easily seen, and it pupates within them." 

The pupa is from three-eighths to half an inch 
long, rough, but highly polished, of the usual shape, 
except that it has a more pointed appearance, caused 
by the abdomen tapering rapidly to the anal segment, 
which ends with a rather sharp point. All [the parts 
are prominently denned, the colour uniformly black. 

My first imago appeared on the 3rd of July, but 
Mr. Tindall had one out on the 29th of June, and two 


more the day following, and he captured a female 
specimen at large in the wood on the 28th. (George 
T. Porritt, 11th July, 1883; E.M.M., August, 1883, 
XX, 69.) 

Pempelia davisella. 
Plate CLIX, fig. 2. 

This day, 23rd July, 1873, I received from Mr. 
Henry Bartlett three larvae of Pliycis {?) davisellus 
(Nephopteryx genistella Dup.). They were in a fine, 
loosely-spun open web of slight silken threads on a 
piece of furze. 

The largest of them measures between five-eighths 
and six-eighths of an inch in length; its form is 
tolerably cylindrical, the head full and rounded at the 
sides, the second segment a trifle larger, and the third 
a trifle larger still, being the same size as the following 
segments to the end of the tenth, from whence it 
tapers gradually to the end of the thirteenth ; the 
segments beyond the thoracic are on the back well 
defined by a deep wrinkle, and subdivided by another 
wrinkle (equally deep) into two unequal portions, the 
greatest portion in front ; the larva is more wrinkled 
along the sides, the spiracular region being a little 
inflated and puckered ; the segments of the belly are 
deeply divided and transversely wrinkled ; the anterior 
legs are well developed, the ventral and anal legs 
moderately so, and placed much beneath the body ; 
the skin is slightly glistening on the head, the back 
of the second segment, and the legs, but all the rest, 
though smooth, is without gloss. 

With regard to colour, the dorsal line is blackish- 
brown, bordered w r ith a line of very pale drab, next 
with a ragged-edged stripe of deeper reddish -drab, 
and this in turn by a stripe of very pale drab, on 
which are placed the blackish tubercular dots in rings 
a little paler than the ground. Along the subdorsal 
region is a very broad, conspicuous, blackish-brown 


stripe, in bold relief to the foregoing as well as to 
that which follows below, which is, in fact, a repetition 
of the two pale, narrow, drab stripes, having a darker, 
reddish-drab, ragged-edged, broader stripe between 
them ; the belly is of a uniform, rather deeper reddish- 
drab, slightly inclining to greyish ; the head has a pale 
drab ground colour, but is so thickly marked with 
blackish-brown spots and curved blotches as to 
show but little, chiefly on the crown ; above the mouth 
is a transverse whitish band, and the bases of the 
papillse are also whitish ; on the second segment the 
dorsal line is represented doubly, enclosing a fine 
thread of pale drab; at the beginning of most of the 
segments on each side of the back is a transverse row 
of four or five small blackish-brown dots, seen only 
while the larva is in motion, being hidden at other 
times in the segmental folds ; on the side of the 
third and twelfth segments, situated in the broad dark 
stripe above mentioned, is a characteristic ocellated 
spot, whitish-grey w T ith black centre, bearing a fine 
pale hair, longer than that emitted by the ordinary 
tubercular dots distributed along the sides and belly; 
the spiracles are whitish-drab, ringed with blackish ; 
the anterior legs are reddish-brown, the ventral legs 
spotted and tipped with dark brown. 

In the two smaller examples, the broad blackish- 
broWn stripe has a line of reddish-drab blotches 
through the middle of its course, though but a faint 
trace only remained of them in the largest example. 
(William" Buckler, 23rd July, 1873; Note Book II, 
33 ; and E.M.M., September, 1873, X, 89.) 

A description of the full-grown larva of Phycis 
davisellus has been already published, but as its 
earlier state has not been noticed, the following infor- 
mation may be acceptable. 

The eggs of P. davisellus are laid in July and 
August on young shoots of TJlex cawpestris, and as 
soon as the larvas emerge they spin a thick network 
of silk round the branch, and under this feed until 


the approach of winter, when each forms for itself a 
close cocoon or tunnel of silk in which to hibernate. 

In early spring the larvse lengthen these cases, and 
extend, as they increase in size, the silken web,, 
feeding on the young buds and blossoms beneath it. 
On fine clays they may be seen sunning themselves on 
the outer part of the web, but they retreat into their 
tunnels on the least alarm. The little companies of 
larvse are very abundant in this district in winter and 
spring, and as the summer advances form conspicuous 
objects on the furze bushes. The larvse cannot be 
dislodged by beating, and it is only by pulling their 
nests to pieces that their presence can be detected. 

The imago is figured in Morris's ' British Moths ' 
as P. palumbella, and under that name I have had it 
in my collection for several years. (H. Moncreaff;. 
Entom., June, 1874, VII, 132*.) 

Pempelia palumbella. 

On the 7th of July, 1883, Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher 
sent me about fifty eggs laid on small terminal sprays 
of Galluna vulgaris, by no means easy to detect. 

The egg is in shape a long elliptical figure, covered 
all over with fine pitting, slightly glistening, and of a 
dirty greenish tint ; by the 12th the eggs had become 
quite green, and matched well the slight withered tint 
of the heather spray they were laid on, and were now 
more difficult to discern than before. 

On the 15th, at 8.15 p.m., three larvae were hatched,, 
and soon after were placed on sprays of Galluna vul- 
garis; twenty-one more were hatched by next morning 
(the 16th), three more in the afternoon, and in the 
evening as many as twelve, and three more on the 
19th, two more on the 21st, and one on the 22nd. 

The newly-hatched larva is of a dull brownish- 
green colour, with very dark brown head and a less 
dark brown plate on the second segment, and fine 


dorsal and subdorsal lines darker than the ground 
colour of brownish-green on the body. One day later 
I could see just what Mr. Fletcher had imparted to 
me while mine were hatching, viz. tbat they had spun 
many fine webs from leaflet to leaflet, which had be- 
come dotted minutely with frass, and that ling is un- 
doubtedly their proper food-plant. 

On the 2nd of August they had grown a little, and 
the head was deep olive-brown marked with black on 
each lobe; the plate on the second segment was dark 
shining brown; the body was a subdued olivaceous 
greenish, with numerous very thin length lines alter- 
nately paler and darker, the dorsal and subdorsal 
being darker. 

They bad got over their first moult between the 
27th and the 31st of July, of which the head-pieces 
hanging in the webs bore evidence. 

On the 9th of August two or three were almost 
ready to moult again, and in this condition were 
rather paler than the rest. Only thirteen were now 
left alive. 

On the 13th they had moulted the second time, 
and on the 18th I placed them on a growing plant of 

The larva now is just 5 mm. long and of slender 
proportion, and is of a deepish heather-green on the 
back, having a dark blackish dorsal line finely edged 
with paler like the pale line above the subdorsal line ; 
this last is a black line followed by a dark blackish- 
green stripe ; beneath this is a broad stripe of green 
like the ground of the back, and is edged with a paler 
line both above and below ; the head is green marked 
with black on each lobe; the plate is green, having 
the lines on it, but it is glossy. All now alive were 
four only. 

On placing them on the plant they began to spin 
threads uniting the top of the heather spray to a 
rush which I had cut to the same level. (William 
Buckler, 19th August, 1883 ; Note Book IV, 204.) 


Plate CLX, fig. 1. 

In the spring of last year, 1883, Mrs. W. H. B. 
Fletcher found several larvae " under stones" at 
Worthing which produced Crambus cerussellus ; and 
this year, 1884, Mr. Fletcher, while at Portland, 
found numerous similar larvae, some of which he very 
kindly forwarded to me, which proved to be of the 
same species. I had several times received batches 
of the oval, bright, straw-coloured eggs from various 
friends, but had always failed to rear larvae from 

The larvae reached me on the 6th of May, and were 
feeding on the roots of a short, stiff species of grass. 

They were about half an inch long and rather 
slender ; the head is highly polished, it has the lobes 
rounded, and is about the same width as the second 
segment; the body is cylindrical, and of nearly uni- 
form width, being attenuated only slightly towards 
each extremity ; the skin is smooth and rather glossy, 
and the segmental divisions and the tubercles are well 

The ground colour varies considerably, in some 
specimens being a pinky flesh-colour, in others 
greyish-brown, and in some dingy olive-green ; the 
head also varies in different examples, in some being 
bright yellowish with brown mandibles, in others 
yellowish-brown, with the mandibles and the freckles 
on the lobes still darker brown. There are absolutely 
no markings beyond a small black spot on each side 
of the frontal plate, and the tubercles, frontal and. 
anal plates, and the almost imperceptible spiracles, 
are of a darker shade of the ground colour. The 
ventral surface and the prolegs are uniformly of the 
ground colour of the dorsal area, the anterior legs 
ringed with a darker shade. (George T. Porritt, 7th 
August, 1884; E.M.M., September, '"1884, XXI, 86.) 



On the 7th of July, 1883, I received a numerous 
batch of eggs of this species, laid loose. 

The shape of the egg is a broad oval, numerously 
ribbed, the ribs very slightly glistening, of whitish 
colour when recently laid, then turning of a faint 
drab tint, and later to a dirty brownish-ochreous 
tint, when a small speck of deeper brown appears at 
one end. Some were in each stage on arrival. 

On the 9th they had become of an olive-greenish 
tint, very dingy almost blackish at one end. They 
began to hatch during the night, and on the 10th I 
put twenty-five on a turf of Festuca ovina and other 
grasses from a chalk down, furnished by Mr. Fletcher. 

The newly hatched larva is greenish-grey, with 
black-brown head and plate on the second segment ; 
the three hinder segments are very pale ; an internal 
greyish dorsal vessel is just visible along the middle 
of the body. 

They were all hatched by the evening and put on 
turf, together about seventy in number. (William 
Buckler, 10th July, 1883 ; Note Book IY, 202.) 

Crambus ealsullus. 
Plate CLX, fig. 2. 

On the 10th of June, 1879, I received from Dr. 
Wood a number of these larvse in different stages of 
growth, living in silken-lined tubes or galleries within 
wall-moss (Barbula muralis). 

Some of them were no more than a quarter of an 
inch long, others were three-eighths and four-eighths 
to five-eighths and rather more, cylindrical, tapering 
a little to the head and rather more tapering to the 
anal end. 

In colour they were pale grey, rather darker 


brownish-grey on the anterior portion of the body. 
The head was glossy reddish-brown, and similarly a 
plate on the second segment ; the internal vessels and 
parts of the body show dark brownish-grey through 
the transparent skin, which however is only glossy 
on the spots, and they are but little darker than the 
grey ground, and are each with a central spot of 
warm brown, these showing best on the paler hind 
segments, each bearing a fine hair ; the anal plate is 
light warm brown ; the belly and beneath the minute 
round black spiracles along the sides are light 
ochreous-grey, which with the ventral legs have a 
slight opalescent gleam of pinkish ; the legs are 
tipped with brownish ; the anterior legs are reddish- 

The second segment is shorter than usual with any 
Or ambus I have yet seen, so that the plate thereon is 
much narrower. In those a quarter of an inch long 
the front part of the body is light grey changing to 
paler dirty flesh-colour; the grey is from the internal 
parts showing through the skin, while the pale parts 
behind seem more empty within. 

The pupa is five-sixteenths of an inch long, of 
moderate substance, the wing-covers long, the end of 
the leg-covers a little free from the abdomen, the ab- 
dominal tip rather bluntly rounded off, the colour 
light brown, dark brown at the tip, and the whole 
surface glossy. 

The moths appeared on the 12th, 15th, 17th, 18th, 
and 19th of August, six specimens in all. 

A large number of the larvae proved to be infested 
with Chalcid parasites. (William Buckler, August, 
1879; Note Book III, 265.) 

The newly-emerged larva of Grambus falsellus is 
purplish-red, with blackish-brown head. 

They emerged from eggs sent to me by Mr. Hinch- 
liffe of Alva. (George T. Porritt ; Note Book, 3rd 
September, 1883.) 



Several moths of this species which I took here 
(Huddersfield) on the 30th of June last year, 1883, 
deposited eggs, and two batches of them I dropped 
among grass planted in a large flower-pot. I do not 
know when they hatched, and, indeed, have no further 
notes on them til] the 12th of September, when I 
found that the larvae were about three-eighths of an 
inch in length, and were living in silken galleries, 
spun at the bases of the grass-stems above the ground, 
and in some cases between grass-stems and the sides 
of their plant-pot. 

Twelve days later, on the 24th, T examined the pot 
again, to find that the larvas had grown rapidly, had 
eaten nearly all the growing grass, and were wandering 
about the sides of the pot and on the gauze covering. 

I then described them as follows : — 

About five-eighths of an inch in length, of average 
bulk, and of the usual Cramps-shape; the head is 
slightly narrower than the second segment, it has the 
lobes rounded, and is, as is also the frontal plate, 
highly polished ; the body is cylindrical above, slightly 
flattened ventrally, of nearly uniform width, tapering 
only a little towards the anal segment; the segmental 
divisions are well-defined; the tubercles are all 
polished, large and prominent, the dorsal four oblong- 
oval in shape, and placed end opposite end, giving the 
appearance of two transverse ridges on each segment ; 
the other tubercles are of the usual round form. The 
tubercles give to the skin a rousfli and uneven 
appearance, though in reality it is smooth and glossy. 

The ground colour is dingy greyish-olive, of lighter 
or darker shades in different specimens ; the head is a 
warm brown, marbled with dark sienna-brown, the 
mandibles being also dark sienna-brown ; there are 
no perceptible dorsal, subdorsal, or spiracular lines ; 
all the tubercles are dark smoky-olive. The ventral 


surface and the prolegs are uniformly of the ground 
colour of the dorsal surface, and the anterior legs 
polished black. 

I supplied them with fresh grass roots, but they 
soon commenced hibernation. 

On the 16th of March, 1884, they were all lively 
again, and apparently in size, colour and markings 
just as when described in the autumn. 

On the 14th of April, being full-grown, I took a 
number of them out again for further notes. They 
had not much altered since described on the 24th of 
September, and many of them did not exceed the 
length then given (five-eighths of an inch), and none 
did I see over three-quarters of an inch. They were 
of the same form, and the most material alteration 
was in the ground colour, which had become browner, 
many, indeed, having quite lost the olive tint ; the 
tubercles had also become browner in accordance with 
the ground colour, and in the centre of each was a 
minute black spot, from which sprang a short hair. 
The very minute spiracles are also black. 

They lived in silken tubes spun close to, or on the 
earth just above, or even among the roots of the 
grasses, and came out to feed with avidity at night. 
As they ceased feeding they spun firm silken cocoons 
among the roots of the grass, or very frequently 
against the sides of the breeding-pot, but just below 
the surface of the soil. 

The pupa is about three-eighths of an inch long, 
and of ordinary shape ; it is glossy, fairly plump, and 
has all the parts clearly defined. The ground colour 
is bright yellow-brown, the abdominal divisions 
darker brown, and the eye-cases and anal point nearly 

I bred a good and beautiful series of imagos, the 
first not appearing until the 14th of June, though I 
had noticed the species on the wing at large three 
weeks previouslv. (George T. Porritt, ]8th July, 
1884; E.M.M., August, 1884, XXI, 62-63.) 


Crambus dumetellus. 
Plate CLX, fig. 3. 

On the 28th of June, 1876, Mr. C. Gr. Barrett sent 
me from Pembroke a batch of twenty-one eggs of this 
species, with the information of the insect occurring 
in dry pastures, and that a sod cut from such a place 
would be the most likely nourishment for the larvse. 

The egg is a longish-oval shape, ribbed and pitted, 
the shell glistening, of a delicate salmon colour on 
arrival, the next clay more pink. 

On the 1st of July a second batch arrived from Mr. 

The eggs began to change by imperceptible degrees 
daily to deeper and deeper pink, until the 8th of July, 
when a dark brown spot appeared at one end of the 
egg. Towards the evening of the same day they 
began to hatch. 

The young larva has a darkish chestnut-brown 
head and plate behind it, the body being a light 
salmon colour banded across each segment with 

On the 9th of June, 1878, came a good batch of 
eggs from Mr. Barrett. They were pale straw-colour, 
but they began to turn pinkish next day, and deepened 
in colour daily till they became as above, and they 
began to hatch on the 23rd and were all out on the 
24th. They w r ere placed on a large potted turf of 
grass cut from a dry pasture. The grass looked well 
all through the winter, too well indeed in April and 
the beginning of May to allow me to count on many 
larvae feeding on it. 

On the 15th of May, 1879, I removed the turf and 
searched it all thoroughly, when I found only one 
larva and one cocoon. The larva was inhabiting the 
usual little cylindrical gallery of silk, very smooth and 
whitish within and covered exteriorly with dried 
particles of grass and frass. 

VOL. ix. 19 


The larva itself was five-eighths of an inch or a 
trifle more in length, of a moderately stoutish figure, 
and having the usual large shining finely wrinkled 
spots of very dark brown on a dull smooth brown skin 
rather paler (all Vandyke brown) ; those on the back 
are very close together, divided only by a fine dorsal 
line of flesh-colour, each spot with a fine dark hair, 
the first dorsal pair of each segment transversely 
squarish but rounded off, the second pair transversely 
linear; beneath on the side the anterior spot is some- 
what triangular, the hinder one narrow and drop- 
shaped ; those below are longitudinally rather linear- 
ovate; those on the side of the thoracic segments 
are drop-shaped, those above on the back of those 
segments linear as in Xylophasia polyoclon ; the 
spiracles are small, round and black; the plates on the 
second and the thirteenth segments are warm dark 
shining brown ; the thirteenth segment on its front 
portion has the two spots soldered together into one 
transverse spot, so characteristic in this genus; the 
head is dark shining brown. All were figured with 
Vandyke brown on the 16th of May. 

The cocoon is less than three-eighths of an inch in 
length, oval, of brownish-grey silk formed at the end 
of a gallery. (William Buckler, 1879 ; Note Book III, 

Crambus sylvellus. 

In August, 1880, Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher found 
Crambus adipellus (sylvellus) swarming in a bit of 
boggy ground in the New Forest, and on the 19th I 
received a few eggs from him. They were deposited 
loosely, and were of a dull creamy white colour. 

They hatched out on the 28th of August, the 
newly-emerged larvae being white, with reddish head. 
(George T. Porritt, Note Book, August, 1880.) 


Orambus HAMELLUS. 

Mr. William Johnson, of Liverpool, sent me eggs of 
Cr ambus hamellus which had been deposited on the 
23rd and 30th of August, by moths taken on Chat 
Moss ; they were obloug-oval, glossy, at first pale, but 
soon changing to red. (George T. Porritt, Note Book, 
1st September, 1880.) 


Eggs of Crambus pascuellus from moths captured 
on Thome Waste, near Goole, Yorkshire, on the 9th 
of July, 1881, were oval, without gloss, and salmon- 
colour. (George T. Porritt, Note Book, 13th July, 

Crambus hortuellus. 

On the 27th of June, 1881, I received a few eggs 
laid loose, from Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher. 

The eggs were at first whitish, and soon turned 
flesh-colour, and in a few days light brown, and by 
the 5th of July they were rather deeper reddish- 
brown, and on the 6th and 7th they hatched. In 
shape the egg is roundish-oval, and it is rather 
strongly ribbed. 

The young larvas are of a light reddish flesh-colour, 
inclining to brownish ; the shining head and plate on 
the second segment are reddish-brown, and a dorsal 
vessel seen faintly through the skin is of the same 
colour. (William Buckler, July, 1881; Note Book 
IY, 74.) 

Early in March last, 1879, 1 found at roots of grass 
and moss in one of my fields a few larvae of a Crambus 
I was uncertain about, but which, at the end of June, 
produced C. hortuellus. 


Larva about half an inch in length, and of average 
build in proportion ; the head has the lobes rounded, 
and is very highly polished, as is also the horny front 
of the second segment. The body is rounded above, 
but flattened ventrally ; it is of tolerably equal width, 
but tapers very slightly posteriorly ; the skin is glossy, 
with a semi-translucent appearance, the segmental divi- 
sions well-defined ; the raised tubercles are polished, 
large and prominent, and from each of them is emitted 
a short but moderately stiff hair. 

Ground colour dingy purplish-brown ; head pale 
yellowish-brown in some specimens, in others very 
dark sienna-brown ; frontal plate also of different 
shades of brown in different specimens ; and the 
tubercles in some are of a darker shade of the ground 
colour, in others quite black ; spiracles black. There 
are no other noticeable markings. 

Along with these larvse was one with an olive-green 
ground colour ; it I kept separate, but as it seemed a 
slightly more robust-looking creature, and I failed to- 
rear a moth from it, I cannot be certain that it was a 
variety of the same species ; C. culmellus and G. pra- 
tellus occur on the same ground, so it is possible for 
it to have belonged to either of them. (George T. 
Porritt, 15th October, 1879; E.M.M., December, 1879, 
XVI, 162.) 

Crambus culmellus. 

Plate CLX, fig. 4. 

Although this is a very common species, yet its 
history has, I believe, never been investigated, or any 
description of the larva published, a desideratum I 
have herein attempted to supply from the opportunity 
afforded me by Mr. J. Gardner of Hartlepool, who 
kindly sent me first a larva, in 1878, and in 1879 a 
batch of eggs on the 22nd of August; these began to 


hatch on the 28th, when the larvae were transferred 
to a large pot planted with Festuca duriuscula, and 
having a margin of moss inside. 

On the 4th of October I observed several of their 
little tubular galleries, open at the top, as they were 
spun in an upright position amongst the grass, with 
a few withered grass particles adhering ; and by the 
16th many more could be seen, more or less connected 
with each other and the grass by a number of fine silk 

The grass was vigorous enough to withstand their 
early attacks, and flourished well during the ensuing 
winter while the larvae were quiescent, until a warm 
and sunny day — the 6th of March, 1880 — waked them 
from their torpor, when they became very busy amongst 
both grass and moss, in extending the old residences 
and constructing others, uniting the moss-covered 
galleries to the grass-blades near with a great number 
of fine threads, and in the same way they secured the 
moss to the side of the pot. 

By degrees the combined attack began to check 
the growth of the grass, which presented a melan- 
choly spectacle as June approached, when a fresh pot 
was provided, barely in time, as I found the greater 
number of larvae had escaped, though a couple had 
been picked up while deserting their old quarters, 
just in time to warn me of their exodus ; but enough 
for my purpose were put in the fresh grass to produce 
six examples of the moth, which appeared from the 
19th of July to the 1st of August. 

The egg in shape is elliptical, having an elongate 
depression on part of its surface, and it is very closely 
ribbed and finely reticulated ; when first laid it is of 
a whitish straw tint, changing in two days to flesh- 
colour, again onwards to salmon colour, and then to 
deep pink, when it begins to hatch. 

The young larva at first is of a pinkish-salmon 
colour, with darkish brown glossy head and plate, the 
body without gloss, and a pale brown anal plate. 


By the middle of October the larva is just a little 
over one-eighth of an inch long, and proportionately 
stout, its form cylindrical and slightly tapered only 
at the hinder segment, having all the segmental divi- 
sions well cut ; the head is of an opalescent or whitish 
flesh-colour with conspicuous black ocelli ; the second 
segment is of similar pale colour, but having an in- 
ternal leaden-grey blotch showing through the sur- 
face; the rest of the body is pinkish-brown, with the 
anal flap pale as the head, the horny tubercular spots 
close together and concolorous ; its gallery or tube is 
a quarter of an inch long, composed of silk, covered 
with frass having the appearance of finely-gnawed 

After hibernation the new gallery is formed between 
a few blades of grass, about the distance of an inch 
and a half above the ground, and is covered with fine 
particles of moss and of withered remnants of grass 
blades, or with frass only ; early in March its occu- 
pant is more than three-sixteenths of an inch long, of 
an uniform brown colour, the spots ouly noticeable by 
their gloss. 

Towards the end of April the larva has grown to 
the length of three-eighths of an inch, moderately 
stout in proportion, though gently tapering from the 
thoracic segments to the thirteenth ; its colour much 
paler, without any difference in that of the head, 
plates, spots, or the skin of the body, except that the 
latter is dull and all the former shining. 

During June the larva attains its full growth of 
half an inch in length, or a trifle more; the skin of 
the bodv is still a lisfht flesh-colour, but the head, 
plates, and spots show more distinctly from it of a 
light warm cinnamon glossy brown, the spots not 
quite so large in proportion as with many of the 
genus; the parts of the mouth are outlined with 
darker brown, and each lobe on the crown of the 
head is margined by a short blackish-brown streak, 
and has besides a few other spots and streaks above ; 


the plate on the second segment bears a few minute 
black-brown dots and a larger pair on the hind 
margin ; each tubercular spot bears two dots of 
darkish brown, one small, the other larger, furnished 
with a fine hair; the minute spiracles are round and 

It travels forwards or backwards equally well, and 
from the middle of June converts its tubular residence 
into a cocoon of oval shape from three-eighths to half 
an inch longest diameter, smoothly lined with pale 
grey silk and externally covered with frass or with 
particles of moss, or with both. 

The pupa is three-eighths of an inch long, of the 
usual contour, but rather plump ; the head and thorax 
are moderately produced, the form tapering very 
slightly towards the widest part of the body at the 
ends of the long wing-covers ; from thence the abdo- 
men tapers a little more towards the rounded-off tip, 
ending with a rather prominent boss ; in colour it is a 
light warm shining brown, the lower part of the 
wing-covers paler brownish-yellow, the terminal boss 
dark brown. (William Buckler, 12th August, 1880 ; 
E.M.M., September, 1880, XVII, 91—93.) 

Crambus pedriolellus. 
Plate CLX, fig. 6. 

Thanks to Mr. Charles G. Barrett's researches at 
the Yarmouth denes, and his kindness in supplying 
me on the 11th of last June, 1870, with several 
examples of the larvae, and subsequently with their 
curiously constructed cases and cocoons containing 
pupae, I am able to offer the following account of 
Crambus fascelinellus (pedriolellus). 

The larva is from five-eighths to three-quarters of 
an inch in length, moderately stout and cylindrical, 
but tapering a little just towards the hinder extremity ; 
all the segments are plump and well defined. 


The ground colour is a delicate pearly shining grey, 
the front of each segment broadly banded with darker 
grey, which melts into the pale ground colour near 
the spiracles; the fold of skin at the segmental 
divisions is whitish. The head is shining brown, with 
the mouth dark brown ; on the second segment is 
a brown and polished semicircular plate margined 
behind with darker brown, and bisected by a central 
dividing line of the grey ground colour ; a slight indi- 
cation of this dorsal line appears on the middle of 
each segment from the fifth to the twelfth ; a striking 
feature is shown in the ornamentation of the tuber- 
cular spots, which are blackish-brown and most con- 
spicuous, those on the third and fourth being paler 
than the rest; on these segments, also, the dorsal 
tubercles are elongated transversely, and those on the 
sides are of a drop shape, as seen in some species of 
the Eepiali; on the other segments the tubercles on 
the back are large in proportion to the size of the 
larva, especially the front pairs, which are thick and 
transversely oblong, something like rather short bricks 
in shape, and only separated by the before-mentioned 
dorsal line ; the hinder pairs are equally long trans- 
versely, but so thin as to be almost linear ; beneath 
the oblong pairs of spots there comes on the side a 
row of circular spots one on each segment ; and below 
these again are situated the minute black spiracles 
with an equally small black dot behind each ; a small 
brownish plate is on the anal tip; the legs andprolegs 
are pale grey, these last tipped with brown; a fine 
short pale brown hair proceeds from each of the spots. 
Like several other larvas that dwell in sand, they 
become, as they mature, of an ochreous tint in the 
ground colour, though their spots remain the same as 

The tubular residence of agglutinated particles of 
sand constructed by this active larva is, as Mr. 
Barrett has previously informed us, four or five inches 
in length, though it varies in this respect according to 


the growth of the larva, which does not appear ever 
to leave its abode, but to lengthen it in front, while it 
moves on in quest of fresh food, so that the bitten-off 
stem of the plant on which it feeds appears to grow 
from the mouth of the tube ; the hinder end of this is 
densely packed with frass of a whity -brownish or 
greenish colour, and evidently composed of small bits 
of grass stems scarcely altered by any digestive 

The larvse I had in confinement within a pot of 
sand, furnished with a growing plant of their native 
food, Triticum junceum, did not, after being turned 
out of their cases for inspection, spin any new ones, 
nor did they re-enter their previous abodes, but 
wandered about, and spun a great quantity of useless 
web along the sides of the pot at the edge of the sand, 
and joined some of their deserted tubes together into 
a tangled mass, and finally contrived to gnaw a hole 
in their covering of new stiff muslin, and thus escaped. 

The cocoon spun by the full-fed larva, and in which 
it completes its change to the pupa, is attached to the 
former opening of its previous residence at right 
angles, and in a perpendicular position; it varies in 
length from one to two inches, probably in proportion 
to the depth of the tube in the shifting sand, though 
one inch and a half is the average length ; cylindrical, 
thick as a goose-quill at the top, and a little larger at 
the bottom, with both ends rounded ; the point of 
junction with its former abode is nearly midway, but 
nearer the top than the bottom ; its exterior composed 
of sand similarly to the tubes, but the well-lined 
interior is much firmer, and is beautifully smooth with 
white silk, very tough and strong. 

The pupa is from five to six lines in length, very 
pale shining brown in colour, and quite of an ordinary 
slender form, only the wing-covers are seen to be very 
long in proportion to its size. (William Buckler, 5th 
October, 1870; E.M.M., December, 1870, VII, 160.) 

298 6rambus inqutnatkllus. 

Cram bus inquinatellus. 
Plate CLX, fig. 5. 

At the end of April last, 1883, Mr. W. H. B. 
Fletcher sent me about two dozen larvse of a Crambvs 
he had found about grass-roots, at Worthing, but the 
species of which he did not know. I placed them in a 
pot of growing grass, where they formed slight silken 
galleries near the roots on the surface of the soil, in 
which they lived during the day, and apparently 
coming out and feeding on the grass-stems only at 
night. During May I lost sight of them, and judged 
they had all gone below the soil to pupate. Through 
June and July I anxiously awaited the emergence of 
the imagos, but, none appearing, I quite gave them up 
as all dead, and I was, therefore, very agreeably 
surprised, at quite the end of August and early in 
September, to breed from them a nice and varied 
series of G. inquinatellus. 

Larva about three-quarters of an inch in length, 
and fairly stout in proportion ; the head narrower than 
the second segment, with the lobes full and rounded, 
and both it and the frontal plate highly polished. The 
body cylindrical, and tapering a little towards the 
extremities ; there is a slight transverse depression on 
each segment, and these, together with the deeply-cut 
segmental divisions, give the skin a wrinkled appear- 
ance. The tubercles are very large and prominent, 
and are, as well as the whole surface of the body, 
rather glossy, though not so much so as the head and 
frontal plate. 

The ground colour varies in different specimens 
from dull purplish-brown to an equally dingy greyish- 
green, but the purple-tinted forms predominate; the 
head is very dark sienna-brown, the depth of colour 
varying in different specimens; the frontal plate is 
paler, and partakes more of the colouring of the dorsal 
surface; the dark pulsating alimentary canal forms the 


dorsal line, but there are no perceptible subdorsal or 
spiracular lines. The large tubercles correspond to 
the ground-colour, but are much darker in tint ; the 
spiracles are very small, and black. 

The ventral surface and prolegs are of the ground 
colour of the dorsal area, but the legs, until towards 
the base, are very dark sienna-brown. (George T. 
Porritt, 7th November, 1883; E.M.M., December, 
1883, XX, 154.) 


Plate CLX, fig. 7. 

On the 4th of September, 1877, my friend, Mr. 
William R. Jeffrey, kindly sent me a female moth of 
this species alive in a pill-box, wherein she had laid a 
few eggs loose, and continued to lay a few more until 
the 9th, when she died. 

The eggs began to hatch on the 28th of the month, 
one or two at a time, until the end of October, and, 
as the young larvae hatched, they were in succession 
placed on a potted turf of short grass cut from a dry 
pasture, and I had no further trouble with them 
through the winter beyond occasionally watering the 
grass, which continued to look very well up to the 
commencement of March, 1878, when it began to look 
sickly and to die off; meanwhile a fresh turf was 
potted just in time to receive the remaining larvae, 
for many had already left their winter quarters in 
quest of fresh pasture, and I picked up a few while 
making their escape from the withered turf ; amongst 
which, however, quite enough still remained, crawling 
actively amongst the threads spun in connection with 
their silken galleries, now for the most part aban- 
doned; these galleries were close to the earth, and 
some few partly beneath the surface, crowded with 
frass at the bottom, and, being made of dirty-brown 
silk, they were not conspicuous. 


By the 13th of April the fresh turf had become 
greatly ravaged, and the larvae were rapidly maturing, 
two at this early period having already spun up ; and 
a further examination at the end of the month proved 
them to be full-fed and all spun up, after converting 
their galleries into cocoons, wherein they remained 
(while the grass flourished) for the three following 
months. The moths appeared at intervals, two or 
three at a time, from the 2nd to the 25th of August. 

The egg of Gr ambus geniculeus is roundish-ovate in 
shape, the shell rather strongly ribbed and reticulated, 
and slightly glistening; its colour, when first laid, is 
yellowish-white, but changes in a few days to salmon 
colour, afterwards to pinkish-red, and a few hours 
before hatching again changes to a dark pinkish-grey. 

The newly-hatched larva is of a rose-pink colour, 
with a blackish head and a brown plate on the second 
segment, and when about the age of five months it is 
half an inch long, of a very dingy reddish-brown or 
greyish-brown colour, with blackish head, black plates 
and spots, altogether darker than it afterwards 

The full-grown larva measures five-eighths of an 
inch in length, and is moderately stout in proportion, 
cylindrical, though tapering a little at the hind 
segments ; the head, full and rounded, is a trifle less 
than the second segment, which is rather long ; each 
segment after the fourth has a deepish wrinkle across 
the back. 

The colour of the head is shining black with 
reddish-grey margins to the lobes on the face, a 
transverse streak of grey just above the mouth, and 
the papillae paler grey ; the ground colour of the body 
is reddish-grey or light brownish-grey, darkest on the 
thoracic segments, paler behind where it is slightly 
tinged with ochreous, and palest on the belly ; on the 
second segment is a broad semilunar black shining 
plate dorsally divided by a line of grey ; a dark dorsal 
line is visible through the dull skin, which is greatly 


relieved by the glossy tubercular spots of dark brown ; 
these on the hinder segments are of warmer brown, 
and also the anal plate ; of the trapezoidal spots on 
the back the front pairs are the largest, of a rounded- 
off squarish shape ; the hind pairs are smaller and 
transversely oblong, and in front of the anal plate the 
two spots are united together ; along the side is a 
longitudinal row of spots, two on a segment, the front 
one roundish and less dark, the hind one transversely 
oblong and much paler; the spiracles are very small, 
round and black, situated on the pale tracheal thread 
which shows faintly through the skin ; beneath these 
occur other tubercular longitudinally-ovate shining 
spots, every spot furnished with a fine hair. 

On opening a cocoon — which is of an earthy-brown 
colour, nearly half an inch long, and roundish-oval 
form — the pupa was found quite lively within it on 
the 26th of August; it was of moderate slenderness, 
a trifle over three-eighths of an inch in length, the 
head obtusely pointed downward in front, the thorax 
convex, the eye-, leg-, and wing-covers very distinct, 
and also the antennae, which take a sweeping curve 
round the eye to the end of the wing ; the abdomen 
tapering to its rather blunt extremity ; the free abdo- 
minal segments are deeply cut; in colour it is light 
brownish-ochreous, much freckled with darkish brown 
on the head, thorax, and wings, these last being rayed 
and margined with still darker brown, the eyes and 
anal segment equally dark brown ; the whole surface 
shining. (William Buckler, 2nd December, 1878 ; 
E.M.M., February, 1879, XV, 206.) 

r802 ckambus contaminellus. 


Plate CLX, fig. 8. 

Towards the end of May, 1877, while turning over 
a stone on muddy earth near a sea-bank, I chanced to 
find a small larva, which I brought home together 
with part of a little rigid tuft of grass that was grow- 
ing close to the stone. The larva was evidently a 
Gr ambus of a species I had not before seen, and 
seemed near moulting ; a few days later, having ac- 
complished its moult within a slight web it had spun 
around itself and attached to the grass, it began to 
feed well on the grass, and to fashion its dwelling 
with more silk into a complete tubular form, and to 
cover it with frass. 

After watching its progress a little, it was not very 
difficult to find a few more ; the only real difficulty 
seemed to consist in finding stones in similar places 
not already tenanted by ants or other predaceous 
creatures. However, on the 11th of June following, 
I fell in with an occasional stone or two that rested 
on or close to small tufts of Poa maritima and P. 
borreri, which were, so to say, tenanted by one of 
these larva?, and in one 1 instance by two of them. 
When these stones were turned over the tubular 
gallery, though of no great length, was readily seen 
attached to the lower whitish sheaths of the grass to- 
wards the roots, being conspicuous, however small, 
by its covering of fine greenish frass, or frass and fine 
grains of earth together, or else partly spun against 
the stone itself, the sudden removal of which tore open 
the gallery and the surprised larva dropped out. 

These larvse throve verv w r ell in confinement on 


growing tufts of the same species of grass planted in 
a pot, with some of the muddy soil, and surrounded 
with a few small stones, amongst which they con- 
structed their galleries, and when full-fed converted 


them into very tough cocoons smoothly lined with 
brownish-grey silk, and externally coated with fine 
earth and frass. 

The moths, and a couple of ichneumons, were bred 
from the 17th of Julv to the 7th of August. 

This season I have again found a few of the larvae, 
and have been able to verify and extend last year's 
observations, so that I can now say that in early 
spring the larva is not more than three-sixteenths of 
an inch long, the body of an earthy reddish-brown 
with darker brown head, the spots and plates of the 
same colour as the body, but contrasting by their gloss 
alone. After each moult the colour becomes greyer 
as they advance in growth, and when full-grown the 
larva measures a little more than three-fourths of an 
inch in length, and is moderately slender, yet the 
segments have a certain characteristic plumpness in 
detail from their being well defined, and each is sub- 
divided with a deep transverse wrinkle between the 
trapezoidal spots of the back ; the rather rounded 
head is a trifle less than the second segment, which is 
long in proportion, and the body tapers a little just 
towards the hinder part ; in colour the head is greyish- 
brown marked with blackish-brown ; the plate behind 
it is similar, and both are shining ; the body is lightish 
dull earthy-grey with a rather darker dorsal line; the 
spots are lightish brown and glossy, the larger trape- 
zoidal pairs transversely roundish-ovate, the smaller 
pairs rather linear and each encompassed with a faintly 
paler outline ; there is a row of somewhat trilobed 
spots along the side, and under them the small round 
black spiracles, and beneath them again other rows 
of paler and longitudinally-ovate spots ; every spot 
having within it, nearer the outer margin than the 
middle, a small black dot bearing a fine hair; on the 
front part of the thirteenth segment the two spots are 
united into one larger than usual; a few minute dark 
dots are on the shining anal plate ; the ventral and 
anal legs are tipped with brown hooks. 


Varieties occur with dark brown heads and plates 
on the second segment ; but principally towards the 
last (when about to pupate) these parts and the anal 
plate grow darker, and the rest of the body lighter of 
a dirty yellowish tint. 

The cocoon, constructed as before described, is of a 
somewhat oval figure, its longer diameter about five- 
eighths of an inch, and its shorter diameter one- 

The pupa is a little over three-eighths of an inch 
in length, and one-eighth in diameter at the thickest 
part; its form is quite ordinary though the wing- 
covers are rather long in proportion, and from them 
the abdomen tapers to a bluntish rounded-off tip ; it 
is of a warm brown colour, and glossy, with the abdo- 
minal tip blackish-brown. (William Buckler, 5th 
June, 1878; E.M.M., July, 1878, XV, 38.) 

Last year, 1885, 1 reared a few beautiful specimens 
of this insect; and, as so much interest pertains to 
the species just now, it may be advisable to place on 
record a description of the larvae, which were found 
by Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, of Worthing, feeding on 
either Poa maritima or P. borreri, and from whom I 
received them on the 29th of June. 

Larva in length generally about three-quarters of 
an inch (though one or two specimens reached nearly 
an inch), and of the usual Grambus shape. The body 
is cylindrical, tapering a little at the anal extremity ; 
the head is narrower than the second segment, has 
the lobes rounded, and is, along with the frontal and 
small anal plate, polished ; the tubercles are large, the 
front pair on each segment rounded, the back pair 
linear ; the skin has a semi-transparent glossy appear- 
ance. The ground is of a pale dingy greyish stone- 
colour, some specimens tinged with greenish ; the 
frontal and anal plates are of the same colour, but at 
each side of the former, and again immediately below 
it, is an intensely black spot ; the head is pale brown, 
freckled with darker brown ; the mandibles are very 


dark sienna-brown, almost black, indeed; a darker 
pulsating vessel, varying in colour in different speci- 
mens from grey to greenish, forms the dorsal stripe, 
but there are no subdorsal or spiracular stripes ; the 
tubercles are of a darker shade of the ground colour, 
and in each is a small black spot, from which springs 
a short black hair. The ventral surface is of the 
colour of the ground of the dorsal area; the anterior 
legs are ringed, and the ventral legs margined, with 
dark brown. 

It lives in a gallery of silk, constructed in an up- 
right position on the stem of the food-grass, but close 
to the root, in the same manner as does the larva of 
G. perlellus. 

The cocoon is about five-eighths of an inch long, 
a quarter of an inch wide, and is firmly constructed. 

The first moth appeared on the 28th of July, the 
others at intervals until the 23rd of August. (George 
T. Porritt, 5th April, 1886; Entom., May, 1886, XIX, 

Plate CLX, fig. 9. 

On the 4th of September, 1877, I received from 
Mr. W. R,. Jeffrey a batch of eggs laid loose by a cap- 
tured female of this species. 

The eggs were at first whitish, soon turning yel- 
lowish-ochreous, and by the 11th brownish-ochreous, 
without gloss, some being quite dark brown by the 

The shape of the egg is elliptical, the surface ribbed 

On the 30th of September they began to hatch. 

The newly-hatched larva is pinkish-ochreous or 
pinkish-brown ; the head and second segment are 

These larvae were placed on a turf of several 

VOL. ix. 20 


grasses cut from a chalk hill, which proved unsuitable 
for them, and they all made their escape. (William 
Buckler, October, 1877; Note Book III, 215.) 

While larva-hunting along the coast last year, 1878, 
on the 17th of May, I found one of a Cr ambus I did 
not then know, and brought it home to rear, to figure 
and describe. 

It was in a green frass-covered tube or gallery, 
partly attached to a stone lying on a damp place, 
among small mixed growths of Poa maritima, Spar- 
Una striata, and Hordeum maritimum ; at the beginning 
of June I came upon another like it, though this was 
close to a stone amongst a short growth of Poa mari- 
tima solely. 

These two larvae soon fed up and converted the end 
of each gallery into a cocoon, and the moths emerged 
on the 13th and 22nd of July ; they were kindly 
named for me by my friend Mr. 0. Gr. Barrett, who 
affirmed that C. selasellus was known to haunt rank 
and coarse grasses in other situations far inland ; I 
can, therefore, only regard the two larvae thus found 
under somewhat exceptional conditions to have been 
the offspring of stragglers from a neighbouring marsh. 
The full-fed larva is seven-eighths of an inch in 
length, and stout in proportion, tapering very little 
near the anal extremity ; the head is black and glossy, 
and a glossy blackish-brown plate dorsally divided 
with a pale line is on the second segment ; the large 
shining spots of dark warm brown are darkest on the 
back, lighter brown and smaller on the sides and belly, 
each spot having a fine dark hair; the shape and ar- 
rangement of the spots are quite as usual with many 
of the genus ; the anal plate is lightish brown ; the 
rest of the skin of the body is of a warm brown colour, 
melting gradually into rather lighter, olivaceous, or 
ochreous-brown on the sides, the belly, and the hinder 
segments, smooth but dull, yet showing distinctly 
through it a faintly darker dorsal vessel and the pale 
tracheal thread besides other portions of the interior; 


the spiracles are round and black, each surrounded 
with a halo of pale ochreous. (William Buckler, 12th 
June, 1879; B.M.M., July, 1879, XVI, 41.) 

Cbambus tristellus. 
Plate CLX, fig. 10. 

On the 28th of August, 1874, Mr. W. Robinson- 
Douglas kindly sent me a small batch of eggs of this 
species loose in a quill, which were the more welcome 
from the fact of my having obtained a batch the year 
before, but with no satisfactory result beyond 
learning something of the voracity of the larvae, for 
whilst young they entirely killed a large pot of grass 
before the following spring, and when I looked for 
them had all escaped in quest of fresh pasture. 

In order to prevent a similar failure, I this time 
provided several large pots of Aira flexuosa and A, 
cxspitosa, among which the newly-hatched larvae were 
distributed on the 12th, 13th and 14th of September, 
and, beyond a little attention to the grass by occasional 
watering, they were not disturbed until April, 1875, 
when I began to search the remains of the grasses for 
the larvae. Amongst the A. csespitosa none could be 
found, only a number of quite small empty galleries, 
which had been abandoned at an early period, with 
but little damage to this grass — a proof of its unsuit- 
ability. Two pots of A. flexuosa had been so ravaged 
as to be destroyed; the lower parts of the dead grass 
had a number of silken cases or galleries, both little 
and big, spun amongst it and covered with frass, but 
no larva remained, and although several vigorous 
plants of Luzula multiflora were by chance still 
growing amidst the dead A. flexuosa, they had not 
kept the larvae from wandering away, nor had they 
been eaten at all. 

The third and largest pot of A. flexuosa, though 
greatly ravaged, still had a little of the grass alive, 


and here, amongst a great number of the silken 
galleries, I was glad to find four tenanted ; one gallery- 
was covered with dry frass, the other three partially 
protected externally with small particles of moss, 
some of which was growing in patches at the base of 
the grass ; each was spun amongst the grass in a 
vertical position, the lower end rather over half an 
inch from the earth ; the length of these galleries 
varied from three-quarters of an inch to one inch and 
a quarter; their shape was a little inclining to fusi- 
form, but yet rather irregular in figure, made of strong 
grey silk, and very smooth within. When removed 
to a fresh pot of A. flexuosa these larvae fed well for a 
time, but early in June they deserted these dwellings 
and constructed little silken-lined tunnels in the light 
soil amongst the upper parts of the grass roots, and 
therein, during July, they pupated. The moths 
appeared from the 1st to the 11th of August. 

The egg of G. tristellus — which, as far as the 
experience of these two batches enables me to speak,, 
appears to be deposited free, and not attached by the 
moth to anything — is in size rather large for that of 
the moth, of a long elliptical shape, and ribbed 
longitudinally; when first laid, of a whitish straw- 
colour, turning in about five days to buff, on the tenth 
day to light brown, from thence growing gradually to 
dark brown or dark red, and within two days of 
hatching, to a dingy purplish tint. In this instance, 
the hatching continued at intervals from the sixteenth 
to the nineteenth day. 

When first hatched, the larva is less than the 
sixteenth of an inch long, of a dingy pink colour, with 
large black head and plate on the second segment. 
Not having examined them till the following spring, 
I can give no account of the intermediate moults, but, 
towards the end of April in the following year, I found 
the smallest larva to be three-eighths of an inch, two 
others about half an inch, and the largest three- 
quarters of an inch in length ; the ground colour of 


the smallest pale pinkish-grey, the next sizes more 
strongly tinged with pink, and the largest a darker 
reddish-grey, the ground colour of each being paler 
on the hinder segments, and by degrees darker 
towards the head ; the belly is a little paler than the 
back. The conspicuous character of this genus — the 
dark shining spots — were in the smallest example 
lightish brown, and blackish-brown in the others ; the 
anterior plate dingy brown in the smallest, and quite 
black in the largest, dorsally divided by a fine thread 
of greyish ; the head of each was quite black, and the 
hinder plate of the ground colour. 

At the beginning of June, the larvae, then full- 
grown, were all of about the same size, measuring 
three-quarters of an inch in length, and their skins 
changed to a light fawn-colour and to light brown, 
and as before, smooth without gloss, the head, plates 
and spots only being glossy ; the spots on the thoracic 
segments transversely oval and fusiform, on the back 
of the other segments the first pair transversely 
squarish-ovate, the second pair transversely linear; 
those along the sides longitudinally squarish-ovate ; 
those situated behind and below the spiracles of the 
ground colour but shining; the spiracles are small, 
round and black. 

The pupa is nearly half an inch in length, rather 
slender, with longish wing-covers, smooth and shining, 
of a light brown colour. (William Buckler, 3rd April, 
1876; E.M.M., June, 1876, XIII, 14.) 

Crambus fubcatelltjs. 

Eggs were received from Dr. White on the 2nd of 
August, 1871. 

The egg is of an oval shape, of a drab colour, 
changing to reddish and deep red, then deep greyish 
just before hatching. 

The eggs hatched on the 10th of August. 


The young larva is of a pinkish-brown with very 
dark brown shining head and plate behind it, and 
with excessively minute brown dots and fine hairs, 
and is rather active for so small a creature. (William 
Buckler, August, 1871 ; Note Book I, 118.) 

Crambus mahgaritellus. 

Specimens of C. margaritellus which I took on 
Thorne Waste, near Goole, on the 9th of July, 1881, 
deposited eggs, which were oval, highly polished, and 
salmon colour. (George T. Porritt, Note Book, 13th 
July, 1881.) 


Plate CLX, fig. 11. 

On the 1st of August, 1872, Dr. F. Buchanan 
White, then at Bastferry near Dunkeld, kindly sent 
me some loose eggs of this species in a quill, and they 
hatched from the 14th to the 16th of the same month. 

Not knowing what food the larvae required, and 
happening to have then unengaged a tuft of Erio- 
phorum vaginatum growing in a pot, I ventured to put 
the young larvae round the base of the grass, and then 
encircled the tuft with about an inch of damp moss. 
I then took no further trouble with them throughout 
the succeeding winter beyond attending to the health 
of the grass, in watering it and exposing it to the air 
at intervals as the weather permitted. 

Early in May, 1873, I observed that very few fresh 
green shoots made their appearance from the old 
brown tuft, so on the 9th I turned it out of the pot to 
examine its state. I found that the rootlets of most 
of the grass had disappeared, but whether they had 
been eaten, or had rotted away in the damp peaty 
soil, I was unable to decide. 


Of the larvae, I found, on pulling the tuft to pieces, 
two about a quarter of an inch long, and one about 
half an inch, alive, and all three alike in colour and 
markings ; there were also a dozen or more of dead 
larvas varying from one-eighth to one quarter of an 
inch in length. They had been living in little silken 
cases, constructed vertically amongst the grass in the 
dense tuft, about three inches above the roots, and 
outside these cases were little collections of frass 
adhering to them, evidently consisting of finely com- 
minuted grassy particles. Many of these dwellings 
still held their small defunct tenants, but in some 
instances they were just outside of them. 

After all the living shoots had been picked out and 
replanted, the tuft became reduced from its original 
diameter of five inches to no more than two inches ; I 
now replaced the three living larvse on the Eriophorum, 
and soon found them engaged in spinning fresh 
habitations for themselves; they began by uniting two 
or three blades together, and spinning beneath them 
a somewhat cylindrical case of greyish web, perpen- 
dicularly attached to the grass on which they fed. 
From the necessity of keeping the plant growing, I 
was unable to secure the larvae from wandering for 
some few days, and during that time two of them 
escaped. On searching for them on the 21st of May, 
when the grass seemed dead, I found but one remain- 
ing ; for this individual I provided a small piece of 
the root-stock of Air a csespitosa, having three or four 
blades sprouting from it, and after a day or two I had 
the satisfaction to find that it had made a new case 
and was feeding ; on the 28th, a fresh piece of Aira 
csespitosa was supplied, and afterwards others at 
intervals of seven days up to the 21st of June, when I 
found it had spun itself up within the sheaths of the 
grass in a neat little chamber, smoothly lined with 
white silk, and covered outside with particles of 
gnawed grass ; though I had rudely torn it open, yet 
it set to work immediately to repair the damage, and 


by the next day it had completed a cocoon of some 

The moth, a very fine one, appeared on the 22nd of 

The egg of G. pinetellus is of elliptical shape, and 
under an ordinary pocket lens appears smooth ; at 
first it is of a pale flesh-colour, deepening in tint by 
degrees, and turning in eight days to blood-red, and 
in six days more to a dingy purple, just previous to 

The newly-hatched larva is of a drab colour, with a 
blackish head. In early spring it is very dark, but 
differs from the adult larva in size only. 

My larva which reached full growth was five-eighths 
of an inch in length, moderately slender, cylindrical, 
almost uniform in size throughout ; the skin, of a 
dingy reddish slate-colour, was smooth but not 
shining ; the head, the plates on the second and on 
the thirteenth segments, and all the tubercular spots, 
were jet-black and very highly polished, each spot 
being furnished with a fine blackish hair; the spots on 
the third and fourth segments are transversely oval in 
front and fusiform behind ; on the other segments the 
anterior pairs of dorsal spots were squarish, and 
larger than the hinder pairs, which were somewhat 
transversely linear; the spiracles are small, circular 
and black. 

The pupa skin is about three-eighths of an inch in 
length, moderately stout, the wing-cases long in 
proportion ; the skin is smooth and polished, and of 
a cinnamon-brown colour. (William Buckler, 6th 
October, 1873; B.M.M., December, 1873, X, 162.) 



Plate CLX, fig. 13. 

In July, 1884, Mr. Nelson M. Richardson sent me 
a supply of eggs of G r ambus perlellus, obtained from 
a moth or moths he had taken in the neighbourhood 
of Llangennech, Carmarthenshire. 

They hatched in the third week of the same month, 
the newly-emerged larvae being yellowish-green, with 
a red longitudinal vessel or stripe showing through 
the skin, which gave them a salmon-coloured appear- 
ance ; the head and frontal plate were dark brown, 
indeed almost black. 

They were placed in a pot in which were growing 
one or more of the common garden lawn grasses, and 
on which they at once made themselves perfectly 

On examining them on the 8th of September, I 
found they were living in silken galleries spun at the 
bottom of the grass stems, and were about one-third 
of an inch long. Four days later, on the 12th, I saw 
them again, when they were still only about the same 
length. The ground colour varied from dingy olive- 
brown to dirty purplish-brown, the skin in all cases 
being so transparent that the internal alimentary 
vessel could be distinctly traced through it ; the head 
varied from pale brown with darker marks to very 
dark sienna-brown; the frontal plate to some extent 
followed the colour of the head, but was without the 
darker markings, and in the olive-tinted specimens 
was paler and greener. 

From this time they evidently hibernated, and I do 
not know at what date they recommenced feeding in 
the spring. 

By the 25th of April they were about three-eighths 
of an inch long, and of the usual Gr ambus form. The 
ground colour was light mahogany-brown, the tuber- 


cles darker brown with a black dot in each ; the 
frontal plate was almost unicolorous with the ground 
colour, and the head was very dark sienna-brown 

They were living in galleries formed of particles of 
grass woven together with silk, and placed upright 
against the stems of grass, but resting on the ground 
at the base, their habit of living and feeding, indeed, 
being exactly like those of Cr ambus ivarringtonellus 
as described by Buckler in the E.M.M. of November^ 
1880, p. 130. By the 1st of June they had reached 
half to five-eighths of an inch, and were still of the 
pale mahogany tint ; the hind pair of tubercles on each 
segment had become much narrower than the front 
pair ; the front pair were nearly round though slightly 
oblong, whereas the hind pair took almost the form 
of transverse streaks. At this time most of the larvse 
appeared to be about moulting, and there was evident 
indication that with it would be a change of colour, 
for a greyish tint clearly showed through. 

By the 17th of June they were evidently full-grown, 
and were described as follows : 

Larva three-quarters of an inch in length, stout, 
and of the usual Orambus shape, i. e. cylindrical, of 
nearly uniform width, tapering slightly at the pos- 
terior segments ; the skin is semi-transparent, the 
head, the plates, and the raised tubercles polished ; 
the front dorsal pair of tubercles on each segment, 
and those on the sides, round, the hind dorsal pairs 
narrow and almost oblong ; the segments are well- 
defined, and each has a subdividing transverse wrinkle 
in the middle. 

The ground is of a greyish stone-colour, some 
specimens having a brownish tinge ; the head is 
usually pale yellowish-brown, slightly freckled with 
darker brown ; but in occasional specimens it is much 
darker brown ; in all cases the mandibles are dark 
sienna-brown ; the frontal plate is of a slightly 
browner shade than the ground colour. The greenish 


alimentary canal shows through as the dorsal stripe; 
the tubercles are of a darker shade of the ground 
colour, and each contains a black spot from which 
springs a single short hair ; the spiracles are intensely 
black. The ventral surface is of a paler shade than 
the dorsal area; the anterior legs are ringed and 
tipped, and the posterior legs slightly fringed, with 
dark sienna-brown. 

All through they fed and lived in precisely the same 
manner as does the larva of G. warringtonellus. The 
first two imagos appeared on the 25th of July, and 
the others continued to appear until about the middle 
of August, by which time I had bred a nice series. 
Every specimen was of. the pale bronze veined form, 
and all were, as far as I could judge, exactly inter- 
mediate between the ordinary white form of G.perlellus 
and G. ivarringtonellvs ; so much so, indeed, that I was 
puzzled as to which species they belonged to ; and the 
more so as, on submitting some of them to Mr. Richard- 
son, he was uncertain as to whether he had ever taken 
the white form on the ground where he had captured 
the parent of my specimens. On submitting some of 
them to Mr. Stainton, however, he referred them to 
C. perlellus. 

From the foregoing description it will be found that 
the larva of C. jperlellus agrees closely with that of G. 
'warringtonellus, and the rearing of it has not in any 
way shaken the opinion I have long held, that the 
latter is nothing more than a form of the former. 
(George T. Porritt, 12th May, 1886; E.M.M., June, 
1886, XXIII, 7.) 



Plate CLX, fig. 14. 

Of this species I received last year, 1880, two 
batches of eggs, the first on the 14th of August from 
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, and obtained by him in the 
New Forest, and supplemented afterwards with a few 
more, and the second batch six days later from Mr. J. 
Gardner, of Hartlepool, and to both friends I return 
many thanks. 

AH the eggs were laid loose ; those from the South 
hatched on the 16th of the month, and up to the 1st 
of September ; those from the North began to hatch 
on the 27th of August, and had finished on the 29th. 

The young larvae from these wide apart localities 
were kept separate, and placed in pots with growing 
plants of Festuca duriuscida, Aira flexnosa, and some 
other grasses of a hard nature ; their progress was 
noted up to the middle of November, when they 
began to close their numerous galleries for hiberna- 
tion, after having very considerably ravaged the 

In the early spring of 1881, I noticed a great 
number of them busily engaged in afternoons, when- 
ever the sun shone on the pots, spinning threads in 
all directions round the outside of the grasses, which 
had in the interval recovered in a great degree ; but 
for some time after this I was unable to attend to 
them, until at length I observed the grass to be 
nearly all dead; then, when almost too late, I had 
the mortification to find that the greater part of them 
had deserted their quarters, though enough still re- 
mained to serve my purpose of figuring the larvaa and 
breeding the perfect insects. 

The moths from the New Forest were bred from 
the 7th to the 17th of July, and those from Hartlepool 
from the 13th to the 17th of July; and here it may 


be stated that there was no very appreciable differ- 
ence in the moths from either locality, beyond this, 
that the darkest southern example was of a satiny 
creamy-yellowish ground colour, with the veins and 
inner margin dark bronzy-green ; the darkest from 
the North was of a whitish cream-colour and bronzy- 
brown ; while on the other hand the lighter examples 
of the South had the veins and inner margin browner, 
while the northern were more green. 

The shape of the egg is broadly elliptical, appear- 
ing almost truncated at the ends, with the shell 
numerously ribbed and finely reticulated ; the colour 
when first laid is pale straw, changing gradually in a 
day or two to pinkish-red, which deepens until about 
the tenth or eleventh day, when it is brownish-red 
with a greyish-brown spot at one end, and then 
hatches in a few hours. 

The young larva is of a light salmon-red colour, 
showing an internal deeper reddish vessel through 
the skin, with the head and neck-plate darkish 
brown, and a paler brown anal plate ; by the middle 
of November the case or gallery which it has con- 
structed is a quarter of an inch long, composed out- 
wardly of finely comminuted grassy particles firmly 
attached to the grass about three-quarters of an inch 
above ground ; the larva itself at that time, while yet 
feeding during mild days, is nearly three-sixteenths of 
an inch long, and comes out readily from its abode 
when disturbed ; it is of stoutish character, tapering 
a little posteriorly, with the skin slightly glistening 
and of a lightish mahogany-brown colour ; the usual 
spots are glossy dark transparent brown with a black 
dot in each ; the plates and head are also dark trans- 
parent brown, the lobes of the head very dark, also 
the mouth ; the ocelli are black. 

After hibernation some are full-fed and spun up by 
the end of May, while others are not yet full-grown, 
ranging in length from half an inch to five-eighths, 
and go on feeding till the second week in June ; when 


near full growth they inhabit tubular galleries two 
inches long and of irregular figure, and firmly attached 
to the grass in an upright position with the lower end 
touching the ground, and fabricated of grey silk 
covered with particles of moss, frass, and grains of 

When full-grown the larva is three-quarters of an 
inch long, of moderate stoutness, cylindrical, though 
tapering a little at the three hinder segments, and the 
head is rather smaller than the second ; the segments 
are well defined and have a subdividing* wrinkle about 
in the middle of each ; the ground colour of the body 
is a dirty greyish-green rather inclining to glaucous, 
and a little paler on the belly ; the skin though dull 
is yet clear enough to show a darker dorsal pulsating 
line ; the shining head, and plate with a wide behind 
dorsal division are of lightish warm brown, both 
dotted and marked with darker brown ; the mouth is 
blackish ; the shining spots on the back and sides, 
each bearing a hair, are of a darkish warm brown on 
the back, lighter brown on the sides ; the small round 
spiracles are black, the anterior legs ringed and tipped 
with darkish brown, the ventral legs fringed with 
dark brown hooks ; when full-fed and about to spin 
up, the colour of the skin changes to a pale pinkish- 

The pupa is enclosed in an oval cocoon half an inch 
long and a quarter of an inch wide, made with similar 
materials to those of the gallery, but is more tough 
and stronger, and sunk partly in the earth. 

The pupa itself is three-eighths of an inch long, 
with no peculiarity of shape, with longish wing-covers, 
leg- and antenna-cases, the tapering abdomen ending 
in a short truncated projection, the spiracles rather 
prominent; the colour at first is pale yellowish-brown 
and shining, changing to dark brown a little before 
the insect is disclosed. (William Buckler, 30th Sep- 
tember, 1881 ; E.M.M., November, 1881, XVIII, 129 



Plate CLIX, fig. 6. 

I received eggs from Mr. C. G. Barrett on the 21st 
of August, 1871. They were laid in a cluster and 
enveloped in a little ball of whity-brown fluff, from 
which the larvss began to appear on the 26th. 

The larva when first hatched is diDgy blackish- 
green with black head and plate behind it. (William 
Buckler, 26th August, 1871 ; Note Book I, 127.) 

On the 10th of July, 1881, I received from Lord 
Walsingham four larvas inhabiting stems of a Gar ex 
about an inch above the root, and the sign of its 
presence is a small round hole in the stem two or 
three inches above the root, or about two and a half 

?he larva is five-eighths of an inch in length, of 

slender proportions, tapering from the fourth segment 
to the head as seen sideways, while viewed from above 
it only tapers from the third ; the head is smaller 
than the second segment, the last four segments 
gradually tapering. The anterior legs are moderately 
developed, the ventral and anal legs very little deve- 
loped, and their extremities are encircled with minute 
hooks. The colour of the head is reddish-brown, 
with the mouth, the ocelli, and a lateral streak all 
black ; there is a reddish-brown plate on the second 
segment with darker brown front margin and dorsally 
divided towards the hind margin with cream-colour, 
bearing a short dark brown curved mark on either 
side of the division on the hind margin, which is of a 
creamy tint all round the very edge of the plate 
except in front. The body above on all the other 
segments is of a dingy olive-brown ; the soft and 
velvety skin is totally without gloss, but the head 
and the plate on the second segment are highly 
polished ; the dorsal stripe shows faintly through of 


a darker brown ; there are two deep subdividing 
wrinkles at the end of each segment, and the seg- 
mental divisions are about the same, as those sub- 
dividing on the thoracic segments are deep ; where 
the skin is folded the colouring is deepened, and 
when distended or extended rather paler ; the spiracles 
are darkish brown but not very conspicuous ; the 
colour of the belly and legs is of a paler tint, towards 
which that of the sides melts by degrees. 

When turned out of the stem the movements of 
the larva are rather slow. 

On the 8th of June, 1883, I received three or four 
stems said to contain others. One stem had been split 
at the bottom, and this I opened enough to see the pale 
belly of a larva, but without a sign of life, so closed 
it, and next day I found the larva was dead, and on 
taking it out, saw that it had been disturbed while 
fixed for moulting, as proved by the small protruding 
head and swollen second segment ; so I kept the other 
stems undisturbed and moist. (William Buckler, 
9th June, 1883; Note Book IV, 77.) 


On the 4th of September, 1871, I received from 
Mr. C. G. Barrett eggs laid in a somewhat rounded 
ball of brownish-grey fluff. 

They hatched on the 14th of September, the young 
larvse being dark greyish-brown, with black heads and 
black plates on the second segment. (William Buckler, 
14th September, 1871 ; Note Book I, 141.) 



Plate CLIX, fig. 7. 

On the 12th of February, 1869, 1 received, from the 
Rev. John Hellins, two larvae of this species, and on 
the 28th, some more of them from the Hon. T. de 
Grey [now Lord Walsingham], in stems of Arundo 
jpliragmites, either hibernating or feeding (perhaps) 
on the knots inside. Early in April, I found one that 
had escaped from the stems very actively crawling 

The larva is three-quarters of an inch in length, 
cylindrical, and tapering a very little behind; the 
segmental divisions are deeply cut; each segment has 
only one subdividing and deep wrinkle. 

The ground colour of the back is pinkish-grey or 
pinkish-brown, the sides flesh-colour, and the belly 
white. The dorsal line, very thin, is dark greyish- 
brown or pinkish-grey ; the subdorsal stripe is of a 
similar colour but a little paler; the spiracular line 
is a little thinner and paler, though on the thoracic 
segments it is not linear but blotchy ; the subspira- 
cular line is thinner still, and of the same pinkish- 
grey colour; the head is brownish-grey or pinkish- 
grey, with an ochreous tinge, having the large ocelli 
and the mouth blackish; on the back of the second 
segment is a pinkish-grey-brown semicircular plate, 
and another on the anal tip ; the small tubercular dots 
are dark brown, each having a fine bristle of the same 
colour ; the spiracles are black. 

Previous to pupation, the larva gnaws an oval hole 
from within at the side of the reed, and covers it 
carefully with silk and bits of dry reed, so as almost 
entirely to conceal it, and which serves as an outlet 
for the moth. 

The pupa is three-quarters of an inch long, mode- 
rately slender, and of nearly uniform bulk, tapering 
only at the two last abdominal segments ; the anal 

vol. ix. 21 


extremity is blunt and fringed with a circle of small 
hooks ; its colour is a pale ochreous-brown, with but 
little polish. 

The moths emerged from the 4th of June to the 
2nd of July. (William Buckler; B.M.M., January, 
1870, VI, 188.) 

While collecting at Wicken Fen in June, 1880, and 
again in May, 1882, I found the larvae of this species 
were readily procured, by pulling at the tall, withered, 
previous year's reed-stems along the ditch-sides ; the 
stems tenanted by larvse or pupae broke off near the 

The larva is in length just about an inch, and rather 
slender. The head is considerably smaller than the 
second segment ; it has the lobes rounded, and is, as 
is also the frontal plate, highly polished ; the whole 
surface of the upper part of the body indeed is very 
smooth and glossy. The body is cylindrical, but 
when crawling is strongly attenuated posteriorly. 
The segmental divisions are well-defined, and the 
tubercles are distinct but not very prominent. 

The ground colour is a pale yellowish-grey, some 
specimens having a pink tinge. The head is wainscot- 
brown, the mandibles very dark sienna-brown. The 
frontal plate is greyish-yellow, edged all round with 
smoke-colour; the purplish-brown alimentary canal 
forms the dorsal stripe ; the subdorsal and spiracular 
stripes are broader, also purplish-brown ; this darker 
colour is also more or less suffused on the dorsal area 
between the subdorsal lines, giving some specimens a 
darker appearance than others. The spiracles and 
tubercles are intensely black. The ventral surface, 
legs, and prolegs are uniformly of the pale ground 
colour of the dorsal area. 

It feeds in the reed-stem, just below the surface of 
the ground, and frequently, probably usually, under 

The change to pupa also takes place inside the 


The pupa is large for the size of the moth, those 
which will produce female specimens being nearly an 
inch in length. It is long, cylindrical, narrow, and 
of nearly uniform width, tapering near and towards the 
anal point, and also towards the snout ; it is smooth, 
highly polished, and with all the parts well defined. 
When exposed it is very active, wriggling and twisting 
about rapidly and with the greatest ease. The ground 
colour of the abdominal segments is deep ochreous 
yellow ; the wing-, eye-, and leg-cases, abdominal divi- 
sions, and anal point, dark brown. 

In some reed-stems I found, instead of the larva or 
pupa, batches of cocoons of a small but very pretty 
ichneumon, and in one instance the just-emerged 
ichneumons were inside the stem. They were brightly 
coloured, black and reddish-brown. A number of these 
I forwarded to Dr. Capron, who informed me that 
they were a species of Ajpanteles, new to science 
(Bntom., XIV, 142). (George T. Porritt, 8th Feb- 
ruary, 1883; Entom., March, 1883, XVI, 63.) 

Earias clorana. 

Plate CLXI, fig. 3. 

On the 7th of July, 1875, Mr. A. Thurnall sent me 
for identification three larvse which be had found in 
little bundles of leaves on the topmost twigs of osiers. 
I had never seen the species in this stage before, and 
did not at once remember what I had read of it, nor 
was it till the larva3, on spinning up against the side 
of their cage, gave me a further clue to their identity, 
that I looked at the right page of Stainton's Manual, 
and found all I wanted ; I had before been looking for 
them among the Bombycina, thus unconsciously pay- 
ing tribute to the correctness of the new arrangement 
which places Earias in that family ; and I have noted 
below the little points which all tended to give me 
that impression. 


I should say that I bred the moths on the 11th 
and 13th of June, 1876. 

When full-fed this larva was from five-eighths to 
six-eighths of an inch long, with sixteen legs, stout 
and thick in figure, thickest in the middle and front 
segments, less so behind ; when it is at rest, and is 
viewed sideways the back is seen to rise gradually 
from the second segment to the sixth, and thence to 
fall as gradually to the eleventh, then to rise again on 
the twelfth and fall to the end of the thirteenth ; the 
head fits into the second segment, within which it is 
often withdrawn as in Cerura vinula; on the third, 
fourth, and sixth segments occur pairs of rather 
pointed tubercles, small on the third and fourth, con- 
spicuously larger on the sixth ; again on the back of 
the twelfth are two prominent tubercles blunt-tipped 
as in Lophopteryx camelina ; the anterior segments are 
more deeply divided than the others, the skin soft 
and wrinkled transversely on the back as far as the 
spiracles, as in L. cucullina ; the ventral and anal legs 
are of thick proportions ; in colour the head is lightish 
green with a large round blackish frontal spot on 
each lobe, and a blackish transverse streak above the 
mouth, which is itself dark brown, with the papillae 
whitish ; the ground colour of the back is whitish, in 
one variety pinkish, with a thin dorsal line and 
broad subdorsal, lateral and spiracular stripes of 
light rust-brown, the subdorsal stripe being broadest 
and suddenly very much darker brown at the tu- 
bercles on the sixth segment, continuing thence dark 
towards the head ; the tubercles and front portion of 
the subdorsal stripe on the twelfth segment are also 
equally dark rust-brown ; the spiracles are black sur- 
rounded broadly with whitish, and close beneath them 
runs an inflated stripe of pure white ; the belly and 
legs are very pale bluish-green, their hooks dark 
brown ; in addition to the more conspicuous tubercles 
mentioned the other usual situations have whitish 
wart-like spots, each bearing a fine soft hair. Just 


before spinning one of the larvse became of a light 
olive-greenish tinge all over, the other a pinkish flesh - 

The cocoon is about three-eighths of an inch in 
length by three-sixteenths in width, closely and firmly 
attached to the surface on which it is made; its shape 
suggests the idea of a broad boat turned bottom up- 
wards and rather prominently keeled at one end by 
what is really a bluntly-beaked projection inclined a 
little upward, while at the rounded-off opposite end 
are two rather long silken moorings, the base and 
sides of each converging into tapering points which 
seem outworks of additional security ; the colour of 
the cocoon is naturally of a light drab, the projection 
dark greyish-brown ; but like 0. vinula the larva, in 
finishing off the exterior, picks up particles from the 
neighbouring surface on which it is constructed, and 
contrives, by sticking them on its work, to make it 
harmonise with its surroundings ; I noticed that, as 
in the case of G. vinula, the moth makes its escape 
by a small orifice at the top, while the rest of the 
cocoon remains so hard and tough that one must use 
the forceps to pull it further open ; the inside is lined 
with a smooth cloth-like substance. 

The pupa-skin measures five-sixteenths of an inch 
in length, is thick and dumpy in its proportions, with 
the wing-covers and antenna-cases long, and the end 
of the abdomen very bluntly rounded with, on each 
side near to the previous segmental division, two 
slightly projecting and divergent minute points. The 
colour of the upper surface is darkish brown, deeply 
tinged on the thorax and back of the abdomen with 
dark purple, the wing-covers and all the under parts 
light brown, the whole surface being entirely without 
gloss. (William Buckler, 11th June, 1877; E.M.M., 
July, 1877, XIV, 42.) 



Plate CLXI, fig. 4. 

On the 14th and the 19th of June, 1881, I received 
in all six larvae feeding on oak, from the Rev. John 

The length of most of them seemed to be about 
from five-eighths to three-quarters of an inch ; they 
were of moderate substance and cylindrical in form, 
only the last segment being a little tapered. Their 
colour was a bright yellowish green, showing deep 
yellow at the segmental divisions and at the front 
margin of the second segment, which is generally a 
little paler green than the rest of the body. The 
head has the least possible tinge of red and is slightly 
paler than the rest of the body. This larva is remark- 
able for bearing very long fine hairs, those on the 
thoracic segments being directed forwards over the 
very rounded head, and all the others directed back- 
wards ; the spiracles are orange red. The skin though 
soft and velvety has yet a degree of transparency, and 
the segmental folds admit of considerable extension. 

When full-fed it spins a delicate whitish inverted- 
boat-shaped cocoon to some solid substance. (William 
Buckler, 1881 ; Note Book IV, 48.) 


Plate CLXI, fig. 5. 

On the 31st of May, 1876, were found between 
united leaves of young ivy and under turned-down 
corners of some of the ivy leaves, nine or ten larva?, 
much like the shape of a Pyralis, excepting the ventral 
legs, which were not long enough. 

The larva is seven-eighths of an inch long, very 
nimble in wrisforlins: backwards and forwards Tortrix- 


like, smooth-skinned but not very shining, excepting 
the glossy head and second segment. The colour of 
the head is rich dark orange-brown marked with 
darker streaks ; the anterior margin of the second 
segment is pale or whitish, w^ith a thick black slanting 
dash on either side of it in the subdorsal region ; at 
the end of the thirteenth segment are two similar but 
smaller black dashes ; the rest of the body above is 
uniformly cool greenish-grey; the tubercular warts 
are of a paler tint of the same colour, a little raised, 
with a central fine darker dot having a very fine 
shortish hair ; the lower part of the sides and belly of 
a very pale almost whitish tint of the same colour. 
The segments are very well defined and with two 
subdividing wrinkles, the second wrinkle being almost 
close to the segmental division and the first wrinkle 
not far from the second ; only a very faint trace of a 
darker dorsal vessel existed ; the spiracles are very 
small, circular, flesh-colour ringed with black. 

The less mature larvse are darker on the back and 
with the spots paler. 

Most of these larvae spun up amongst their food, 
but one of them chose to spin near the edge of the pot 
in a light hammock of white silk. 

The pupa lies within, attached by the tail in a 
horizontal position. 

It was not quite half an inch long ; the head, thorax 
and other front parts were well defined, the wing- 
covers very distinct though not very long, adding 
much to the thickness of the contour; at their ends 
the slender abdomen tapers to a point with each 
segment well-defined, and across the back of each are 
two rows of simple teeth-like hooks, and a few fine 
hairs are seen scattered over the surface. The colour 
is black, not very shining on the head, thorax and 
wings, but more polished across the middle of each 
ring of the abdomen, while the end of each ring is 
quite dull; there is a long pointed tip at the tail. 
(William Buckler, June, 1876, Note Book III, 66.) 


Plate CLXI, fig. 7. 

On the 14th of October, 1876, I received from Mr. 
Wm. Jeffrey several oak leaves, the upper surface of 
each leaf folded together longitudinally and the edges 
of the leaf spun closely together from one end to the 
other, each leaf being tenanted by a larva. I kept 
two for myself and returned the others. 

On opening one I found the larva within it to be 
feeding on the green cuticle of the surface enclosed 
between the veins of the leaf, and an accumulation of 
frass at one end. The silk which had united the 
edges of the leaf was quite white. 

The larva was half an inch in length, with the head 
small and the second segment, into which the head is 
partially retracted, larger ; this second segment is quite 
as long as any of the others, which are subdivided by 
wrinkles into three portions, the greatest portion in 
front. The tubercular warts are large, raised and 
transversely oval ; the colour of these warts is a flesh- 
colour, and they are glistening, and each with a very 
fine and longish hair. 

The ground colour of the back is an olive or 
ochreous-green becoming gradually on the side and 
belly olive yellow. The head and second segment are 
ochreous and glistening; the skin elsewhere is soft 
but without gloss. The head has black marks on the 
crown of each lobe, and the second segment has four 
small black dots behind, and a larger curved blotch on 
each side of them. The body tapers considerably 
behind towards the anal segment, which is very 
narrow ; the anal legs are close together and pro- 
jecting behind ; the ventral pairs are rather short and 
much beneath the body; the spiracles are small and 
black. (William Buckler, October, 1876; Note Book 
III, 156.) 



A larva of Sciaphila virgaureana found by Mr. 
Barrett between united leaves of Teucrium scorodonia 
on the 26th of May, 1871, was figured by me on the 
2nd of June. The moth was named by Mr. Henry 

The larva is about half an inch long, attenuated at 
each end and thickest in the middle of the body. The 
head is small, of an ochreous brown colour, with the 
mouth blackish. The back is of a greenish-grey tint, 
the sides of a rather paler ochreous green, and the 
ventral surface the same. There is a distinct dorsal 
line of darker ochreous green and a broad subdorsal 
stripe of the same colour but indistinctly showing 
through the skin. The paler green of the lower parts 
commences distinctly along the line of the spiracles, 
which are small, of the ground colour and ringed with 
brown. The ordinary tubercular dots are blackish 
brown, each with a very fine short hair of whitish. 
The anterior legs are black. There is a brown plate 
on the second segment, margined in front with a pale 
fold of skin, and this plate is black on each side. A 
similar plate is on the anal tip, and the spots on the 
upper portion of this segment are larger than the 
others. (William Buckler, June 2nd, 1871 ; Note 
Book I, 95.) 

Depressaria. badiella. 

Plate CLXII, fig. 9. 

On the 28th of May, 1882, I received in a quill 
three little larvae found the previous morning by Mr. 
W. H. B. Fletcher on Freshwater Down, Isle of 
Wight, living under the leaves of Hypochseris radicata, 
one of the Compositx, of which three little plants 
accompanied the larvae. 


At this time they were nearly 5 mm. long, cylindrical, 
of a cinnamon-brown colour, with shining darker dots, 
a blackish-brown frontal plate and anal plate. 

By the 2nd of June, one of these had added 1 mm. 
to its length and seemed to have moulted, the 
cinnamon-brown being rather darker than before ; 
the tubercular dots on the back were nearly in a line 
and darker brown than the body; the plate on the 
second segment is glossy black, the head darker 
brown than the body, the anal plate shining black, 
and there is a transverse narrow black plate on the 
dorsal portion of the front of the anal segment. 

These larvae live in fine white silken webs between 
two leaves, or under one leaf, which is spun fast upon 
some firm substance; they live in this way concealed, 
though by their feeding on the lower cuticle of the 
leaf a transparent blotch becomes visible, and they 
push out from their dwellings little heaps of blackish 

By the 7th of June the most advanced had reached 
the length of 8 mm. ; on the 16th I figured one of 
them, but minus the blackish tubercular dots, which 
are at this stage more trapezoidally arranged on the 
back ; a black shield was outside the anal legs. 

On the 11 th of July I received more of these larvae 
from Mr. Fletcher, one of them grown to be 20 mm. 
long; it was of a dark red colour, greenish when the 
segmental divisions were stretched ; the dots were 
black, ringed with greenish; the black plate on the 
second segment is divided in the centre, and with 
paler yellowish margin of skin in front ; the anal 
plate is black and a small black transverse oblong is 
on the front part of that segment. The head is dark 
reddish-brown ; the anterior legs are black ; all the 
dark red skin is dull, the greenish divisions glistening 
a little, the black dots, head and plates glossy, a fine 
hair arising from each dot. 

These five later larvae were put with three vigorous 
growing plants on the 16th, and by the 23rd every 


part of the plants had been devoured, and for want of 
food the larvas had devoured one another, only two 
escaping the massacre ; one of those had spun up in 
an earth-covered cocoon, long and narrow; the other 
was still alive in the larva state ; I tried to get it to 
feed up on Hawkweed, but in the course of eight days 
it died. 

On the 4th of July, 1883, I again received four of 
these larvae from Mr. Fletcher, viz. one 9 mm. long, 
one 12^ mm. long, very dark red on a dingy green 
ground, which is seen at the segmental divisions, and 
in the fine pale rings round the black dots ; another 
was 19 mm. long, slightly tapering from the third 
segment to the head, tapering again a little on the 
twelfth and considerably on the thirteenth segment; 
the head, the second and anal segments with their 
plates just as described above from the specimens I 
received in 1882, but the colouring of the body of a 
deepish sober green with a darker dorsal pulsating 
line, the blackish-brown dots appearing very small as 
their circumscribing pale rings have much faded ; the 
front plate was deep olive outlined with blackish- 
brown. One entered the earth on the 4th of July, 
another I watched burrow into the earth on the 5th. 

Mr. Fletcher tells me that " when young the larva 
is found on the under-side of leaves of the food-plant. 
When it is bigger, it makes a tunnel or gallery under 
the plant on the soil, so that when the rosette of 
leaves is removed the larva is left behind. I think 
that this tunnel reaches into the turf beyond the 
radius of the leaves, as many a little sod cut round 
the plant comes away without the larva. I found one 
pupa of odd shape in this gallery." 

"When full-grown the larva often eats out the 
heart of the plant, and bores down far enough into 
the root to kill it. While the larva is feeding under 
the leaves its ravages are conspicuous enough, even 
while small, as it makes brown marks, which are 
visible on the upper side of the plant." 


In confinement, without earth with the plants, its 
gallery of silk becomes covered with accumulations 
of " frass." 

Often when the larva attains the last moult we see 
the dark dingy olive-green variety, with belly rather 
lighter than the back, the one colour blending with 
the other ; the spiracles round and black, are very 
minute and situated nearly close below the single row 
of dots on the side ; the pale yellowish margin of 
skin next to the head, in front of the plate on the 
second segment, is a good and constant character. 

The pupa is generally enclosed in a cocoon, covered 
with grains of earth, of oval shape, 18 mm. in length, 
rather loosely held together with but very little silk 
in the lining of brownish-grey colour, the interior of 
cylindrical form and smooth, 12 \ mm. in length, so 
that the pupa, which is only 10 to 11 mm. long, has- 
plenty of room. 

The pupa is rather slender in the S > stouter in the 
? ; it has nothing remarkable in its form save that 
beyond the wing-covers, the abdomen tapers gradually 
in the <$ , more obtusely in the ? , and the moveable 
rings are deeply cut ; the tip of the abdomen is sur- 
rounded with about twelve exceedingly minute curly- 
tipped bristles, which take a firm hold of the silk 

One pupated openly on the surface of the earth, 
attaching its tail to a leaf of the plant, and this- 
enabled me to see that for some time its colour was of 
a light greenish-ochreous ; afterwards it was light, 
brownish, and still later it turned very dark brown ; 
it was glossy from first to last. 

The moths were bred on the 11th, 12th, and 17th 
of August, and the 13th of September, 1883. (William 
Buckler, September, 1883; E.M.M., June, 1884, 
XXI, 3—5.) 

[This description is followed by an article by Mr. 
Stainton, which deals with the specific identification 
of the resultant moths, and also by a note front 


Mr. W. II. B. Fletcher, from which we reproduce the 
following :] 

Two small points in the life-history seem to require 

Mr. Buckler alludes to the larvas making a trans- 
parent blotch, while I find it by the dark brown marks, 
on the leaf of the food-plant. Mr. Buckler, no doubt, 
refers to the immediate result of the feeding of the 
larva, I to the more distant, when the milky juice of 
the plant has produced a brown stain on the wounded 

The " odd shape " of the pupa mentioned in the 
extract from my letter has reference to the difference 
between the flattened pupa of a Depressaria and the 
expected cylindrical one of a Botys. (W. H. B. 
Fletcher, 14th May, 1884 ; E.M.M., June, 1884, XXI, 

Gelechia domestica. 
Plate CLXII, fig. 11. 

On the 4th of May, 1878, Mr. Barrett sent me 
three larva? found in moss on an old wall, tenanting 
little silken pouches, three-eighths of an inch in length, 
very little if any tapered in front, but the last two 
segments decidedly tapered, the hind legs brought 
close together behind, the segments with a transverse 
wrinkle about the middle. 

In colour the head is rich reddish-brown, marked 
with darker blackish brown on each lobe at the side ; 
on the second segment is a black brown shining plate 
finely divided with a line of buff; on the rest of the 
body is a broad stripe of buff colour down the back, 
along the middle of which runs the dorsal line of 
brown ; the sides are purplish brown, marbled with 
buff beneath ; the belly is rather paler pinkish-grey ; 
the usual trapezoidal spots are blackish brown, con- 
spicuous, rather large, the hinder pairs quite a trifle 


larger than the front pairs ; all are round and shining, 
each with a fine hair; others are on the sides ; the 
spiracles are of the ground colour; on the anal flap 
on each side is a dark brown stripe, a little curved 
and tapering to the tip, as seen in Cucullia umbratica. 
Mr. Barrett bred from these larvae several specimens 
of Gelechia domestica. (William Buckler, 1878 ; Note 
Book III, 230.) 

Bndrosis fenestrella. 
Plate CLXII, fig. 12. 

On the 6th of April, 1882, I found a larva under a 
board in the wdndow-seat in my bed-room, which I 
believed to be this species, and to be quite sure I 
resolved to figure it and rear the moth. 

I kept it in a pill-box, with a few particles of old 
bran, which it soon spun together at the bottom. 

On the 14th of April I disturbed it for figuring, and 
saw it had made plenty of frass ; and on being put 
back to its food, it soon spun the particles together to 
the bottom and sides of the box. 

As I had in 1876 a lot of these larvae swarming in 
the remains of some beehive comb sent me with larvae 
and pupae of Galleria cerella (mellonella) by the Rev. 
Henry Williams, I kept a few to breed from, and 
they produced E. fenestrella. With the particles of 
wax they constructed little tubes for habitation, some 
of them an inch and a half to two inches long, of the 
substance of a crow quill, adhering slightly to the side 
of the box they were kept in, and when the moths 
came out I was sorry I had not figured the larva of 
this pest for identification and future reference. Now 
I have a figure of this larva taken on the 14th of 
April and the moth bred on the 18th of May, 1882. 

The full-grown larva is about half an inch in length, 
slender, with reddish-brown head and darker mouth ; 
a plate of similar colour is on the second segment, but 


divided dorsally by the creamy-white ground colour of 
the body, and having a margin of this next the head ; 
the anal plate is faintly tinged with yellowish-brown ; 
the segmental folds at the divisions show white. 

On the 12th of October I had two larvae on flour 
dust in a box, which were at first supposed to be 
Py rails farinalis. 

These larvae measured respectively 10 and 12 mm. in 
length. The head is reddish-brown, one dark reddish- 
brown ; in one the plate was dark brown, in the other 
reddish brown ; the body was pallid flesh-colour, 
tinged internally with greyish as far as the seventh 
segment, with a pale brownish plate on the anal flap. 

On the 15th of April, 1883, a specimen emerged of 
Uridrosis fenestrella, and the second pupa I killed. 
(William Buckler, 15th April, 1883 ; Note Book IV, 

Adaotyla bennetii. 
Plate CLXIII, fig. 1. 

In June and July Agdistes bennetii is very plentiful 
around our island (near Portsmouth), flying over the 
Statice limonium, which grows abundantly in our salt 
marshes. I have often carefully watched the female, 
but have never been able to detect her in the act of 
depositing eggs, so that when or how this is done I 
cannot say. 

Last autumn I detected small green larvae feeding 
on the leaves of the S. limonium, which I thought 
must belong to this species, but they were so unlike 
any other lepidopterous larva that I am acquainted 
with that I determined to let them alone until the 
spring, when they would be larger. 

On the 1st of May last (1871) I walked to their 
head-quarters, and, after a careful search, succeeded 
in turning out about two dozen larvae. They were at 
rest upon their food-plant, but fell off on the slightest 


disturbance, and so much resembled the S. limonium 
in colour, that it was only by searching for the plants 
which showed signs of being eaten, that I was able to 
find them. 

The larva, when full-fed, is about 8 lines long ; the 
head is very small, and when the creature is at rest or 
disturbed it is drawn under the second segment, 
which is provided with two horn-like projections, and 
covers the head like a cowl. The third segment is 
the largest, and from this the body tapers gradually 
to the anal extremity ; the last segment but one being 
provided with a horn, as in the larvae of the Sj)liincji&%. 

The colour of the head is brownish-green, with six 
small black spots (ocelli) on each cheek ; the head is 
sparingly covered with pale obtuse setae ; the tips of 
the horns are pink ; the body is bright green, shag- 
reened with light and dark spots ; the anal segment is 
green, with a ray of six long bristles, which point 

When about to change to a pupa the larva crawls 
to the top of the leaf, and spins across it numerous 
silken threads, to which it attaches itself by the anal 
claspers ; and in this position it remains about two 
days. The colour gradually becomes brown, the skin 
assuming a shrivelled appearance. 

The final change is gone through very suddenly ; a 
few minutes suffice to throw off the old skin, which 
remains in a little heap on the leaf, and the pupa then 
hangs freely suspended by the anal segment (or 
hooks ?). It is very attenuated, and the points of the 
legs and wing-cases are free from the body. (Henry 
Moncreaff, 19th May, 1871; Entom., June, 1871, V, 


Ptekophorus rhododactylus. 
Plate CLXIII, fig. 2. 

On the 26th of May last, 1875, I and the Rev. T. 
W. Daltry, of Madeley, Staffordshire, took the larvae 
of Pterophorus rhododactylus rather freely ; and as I 
am not aware of any previous description in this 
country, I have much pleasure in sending one. 

Larva about half an inch in length, and of tolerable 
bulk in proportion ; the body cylindrical and strongly 
attenuated towards the extremities ; it is considerably 
retractile, and when at rest has a dumpy appearance ; 
the head is small, globular, smooth and shining, about 
the same width, or perhaps very slightly narrower 
than the second segment ; the segmental divisions are 
distinctly marked ; the skin is soft, but has a slightly 
rough appearance, and is sparingly, though conspicu- 
ously, clothed with short hairs. 

The ground colour is a rather bright greenish- 
yellow, in some specimens yellowish-green; the head 
is greyish, with the cheeks and mandibles shining 
black. A very conspicuous purple stripe forms the 
medio-dorsal line ; from the second to the sixth 
segment this stripe appears as composed of round 
purplish marks joined at the segmental divisions, 
consequently the stripe is rather broad; on the 
remaining segments it is much narrower and more 
uniform, but equally distinct; the subdorsal and 
spiracular lines are yellow, but only faintly indicated ; 
the segmental divisions are also yellow. The ventral 
surface and prolegs are uniformly dingy green or 
yellowish, according to the ground of the dorsal 
surface ; the legs are black and shining. 

The larvae were found feeding on wild rose, beneath 
the leaf overlapping the rosebud, eating into the 
unexpanded bud from the side; others, however, were 
found feeding in similar positions at the tips of the 

vol. tx. • 22 


young shoots. When full-grown, those that have 
been feeding on the buds affix themselves to the side 
of the leaf close by the bud, and draw the leaf and the 
bud together by means of a few silken threads ; the 
others draw together in a similar way several leaves 
at the end of the young shoot. 

The pupa is about three-eighths to half an inch in 
length ; it is pale green, with the wing-cases whitish, 
and the eye-, antenna-, and leg-cases, and also the 
edging of the wing-cases, smoky-black. 

On a subsequent visit to the locality, near Roches- 
ter, in the middle of July, I found a few of the pupae, 
from which, in a few days, I reared some beautiful 
imagos of this lovely species. 

The moth first appears at the beginning of July> 
and continues to emerge throughout the month. 
(George T. Porritt, 3rd August, 1875; E.M.M., 
September, 1875, XII, 88.) 

Pterophorus ochrodactylus. 
Plate CLXIII, fig. 3. 

On the 8th of June, 1875, Mr. John Sang, of 
Darlington, very kindly sent me several larvae of 
Pterophorus dichrodactylus, in various stages of growth, 
mining within stems of Tanacetum vulgar e. 

As soon as their food began to wither, fresh sprays 
of tansy were provided for the larvae, which, often as 
this occurred, readily left the old stems to commence 
mining into the fresh ones. 

The mouth of the mine is generally between the axil 
of a leaf and the stem, with a few silk threads spun 
from one to the other, just above it, among which the 
dark olive or blackish frass becomes entangled, as the 
larva pushes it out from time to time in its course 
head downward ; the quantity there increases more 
and more, until at length the accumulation becomes 


very conspicuous, and betrays the presence of the 

While immature, the larva is darker in its colouring 
than it afterwards becomes ; it is blackish-green when 
not more than a quarter of an inch long, glaucous- 
green with grey stripes when about three-eighths in 
length; but, when full-grown, the larva measures a 
little more than half an inch, its figure moderately 
slender, cylindrical, and tapering a little from the 
third segment to the head, which is rather rounded ; it 
tapers also from the eleventh segment to the end of 
the thirteenth ; the segmental divisions are well defined 
on the back, and rather deeper on the belly ; the legs 
are all tolerably well developed. 

The colour of the head is very pale, either of a 
brownish-yellow or greyish-yellow, semi-pellucid and 
shining ; the ocelli are large and blackish ; the mouth 
is blackish-brown ; on the second segment is a shining 
plate of the same colour as the head, bearing minute 
blackish dots, and another plate of similar tint is on 
the anal tip ; the rest of the back is either a lively 
green, or else a rather subdued transparent light 
green, bearing a dark olive-brownish pubescent or 
bristly dorsal line ; a naked stripe of opaque greyish, 
or whitish-grey, follows at a short interval, on which 
the minute tubercular black dots are visible ; then 
comes the subdorsal thinner stripe of the transparent 
greenish ground colour, and then another naked thin 
stripe of greyish, which is succeeded by a broad 
lateral band of the ground colour, but so thickly 
covered by a minute bristly kind of brown pubescence 
as to assume an olive hue, and just within its lower 
margin are the circular brownish-red spiracles, out- 
lined with black, and surrounded with a ring of naked 
ground ; beneath them runs an inflated and puckered 
stripe of opaque greyish-white, relieved below by a 
line of the brown pubescence ; the belly and all the 
legs are of the pale greenish ground colour, and but 
very slightly pubescent ; on the belly, between each 


pair of the anterior legs, at their base, are two black 
spots ; the ventral legs are tipped with dark brown. 

The pupa, which is attached by the tail to the stem, 
or to a leaf, is half an inch in length, slender, with a 
longish beak in front projecting at a slight angle 
downwards from the head, pointed at the tail ; the 
wing-covers are of moderate length, well developed, 
and the ends of the leg-cases projecting free from the 
abdomen ; its figure, in repose, is a little curved, so as 
to be concave on the back. In colour it varies, some 
examples being very pale greenish, others light 
pinkish-grey, while others again are dark reddish- 
grey ; in the pale green variety, the characteristic 
darker markings, though partially present in deeper 
tints of greenish, are more tenderly rendered than in 
some of the greyish varieties, which are marked as 
follows : the beak is white above, and black at the 
sides ; on the thorax a blackish-brown dorsal stripe 
widens and then narrows, and from thence passes 
down of uniform width to the tail ; on the thorax it is 
margined with a line of white ; the subdorsal line is 
blackish-brown and rather interrupted ; between this 
and the dorsal stripe, on each segment, are double 
dark brown streaks a little divergent ; these are 
strongly marked on the anterior segments, but more 
faintly, by degrees, on the hinder ones ; at an interval 
below the subdorsal another brown line occurs, rather 
interrupted ; the lateral line is white, bordered beneath 
by a stripe of black; the ventral surface of each seg- 
ment has a broad central somewhat squarish mark of 
light brownish-grey, and a fine subventral line of 
similar tint much interrupted ; the wing-covers are 
brownish-grey with whitish rays. 

The moths appeared at intervals from the 28th of 
June to the 5th of July, 1875. (William Buckler, 
28th January, 1876 ; E.M.M., March, 1876, XII, 233.) 


Pterophorus BERTRAMI. 

About the middle of July in last year, 1884, Mr. 
James Hinchliffe, then of Alva, now of Tillicoultry, 
sent me a few eggs of this species. They hatched 
out directly, and I at once placed them on a potted 
plant of yarrow. Unfortunately, the plant died, and 
I could find no trace of the larvae; but, on writing 
Mr. Hinchliffe of the misfortune, this summer, 1885, 
he very kindly made a search for the larvae, was at 
once successful in finding them, and I had the pleasure 
of receiving a supply from him on the 25th of June. 
They were in three stages of growth, though most 
were in the middle stage, or apparently about half- 

They were of the usual form of larvae of this 
genus, though perhaps a little more slender than 
some species ; the body is cylindrical, stoutest in 
the middle, tapering towards the extremities; the 
head is small and polished, considerably narrower 
than the second segment ; the segmental divisions 
are well defined, and the skin is rather glossy. 

When about a quarter of an inch long, the ground 
colour is pale greyish-olive, but this is almost hidden 
by dark purplish-brown dorsal and subdorsal stripes, 
which give the larva a very dark appearance; the head 
is very pale straw-colour, marked with smoky-brown ; 
the ocelli are black, and the mandibles are reddish- 
brown ; the frontal plate and the anterior legs are 
polished black. 

In the next stage, that is when about three-eighths 
of an inch long, it has become considerably lighter in 
colour; the ground is glaucous-green, the dorsal and 
subdorsal stripes are purple, but more interrupted, 
and not so wide as in the earlier stage ; the head is 
of the same pale straw-colour, but not so clouded 
with darker, though the ocelli are still black, and the 


mandibles are reddish-brown ; the frontal plate is 
gradually becoming pale like the head, the black 
being confined to the front in some specimens, in 
others to a black edging, more or less broken all 
round. The ground of the ventral area and the pro- 
legs are uniformly glaucous-green, and the anterior 
legs are now ringed with black only. 

In the adult stage, about half to five-eighths of an 
inch, the larva has a still paler appearance. The 
ground colour is bright pea-green ; the head is very 
pale straw-colour, faintly tinged with green; the 
large ocelli are intensely black, and consequently 
very conspicuous ; the mandibles are reddish-brown ; 
the frontal and small anal plate are of the same 
bright green as the ground colour; the dark green 
(slightly brownish anteriorly) pulsating dorsal vessel 
forms the dorsal stripe ; between it and the spiracular 
region are two greyish-white stripes, on which the 
small black tubercular spots may be seen ; below the 
spiracles is a still clearer and more conspicuous white 
stripe ; the spiracles are black. 

The ventral surface is uniformly of the same bright 
green of the dorsal area ; at the front, and at the base 
of each anterior leg, is an intensely black spot ; and 
the prolegs are finely margined with black. 

It feeds in the shoots of yarrow, apparently pre- 
ferring the central shoot, and eating downwards 
towards the root. 

It will be noticed from Mr. Buckler's description 
of the larva of P. dichrodactylus (E.M.M., Vol. XII, 
233), that both species correspond in having three 
forms of colouring in the different stages of growth, 
and the resemblance of the adult larvae particularly 
shows the close relationship of the two species ; whilst 
the differences, apart from the food-plants, are suffi- 
ciently wide to separate them. 

When full-grown the larva leaves the shoot, and 
affixes itself by the tail to the outside of the stem, 
leaf, etc. 


The pupa is a little over half an inch long, and 
exactly of the shape of that of P. dichrodactylus as 
described by Mr. Buckler, though perhaps a little 
stouter, as it can hardly be called "slender," the 
word applied by Mr. Buckler to that species. It has 
" a longish beak in front, projecting at a slight angle 
downwards from the head, pointed at the tail ; the 
wing-cases of moderate length, well developed, and 
the ends of the leg-cases projecting free from the 
abdomen." The colour is bright pale green, the 
dorsal line darker green, edged on the thorax with 
white ; the beak is white above, rust-colour at the 
sides ; there is also a conspicuous streak of this rust- 
colour on the hind part of the thorax, and the same 
colour also appears (but more faintly) on the abdo- 
minal point, and at the tip of the leg-cases ; the sub- 
dorsal line is dark green, and the lateral line is white. 

The ventral surface is pale green, with darker green 
lines, and the wing-cases with whitish rays. 

The first imago emerged on the 24th of July, 
1885. (George T. Porritt, 12th August, 1885; 
B.M.M., October, 1885, XXII, 103—105.) 

Pterophorus isodactylus. 

Plate CLXIII, fig. 4. 

The larva, when full-grown, is about three-eighths 
of an inch in length, rather thick and plump, tapering 
much just at each end ; the head is small ; the legs are 
short and placed much under the body ; the skin is 
smooth, shining and pellucid; it is of a watery, 
greenish tint, showing a dark greenish dorsal vessel ; 
the subdorsal stripe is also darker green than the 
ground colour, and this is bordered above by an opaque 
whitish stripe which lies beneath the skin, and shows 
partially through its glossy surface ; another such 
faint whitish stripe shows through along the side, and 
below that is another, somewhat inflated, on which are 


the spiracles ; the head is black, and so also is a narrow 
plate across the middle of the back of the second 
segment, which is divided in the centre by a thin line 
of the pale ground colour; the anterior legs are black; 
the tubercular dots above are small and black ; those 
along the spiracular region are rather larger, and 
those on the front part of the thirteenth segment are 
very much larger still; a black plate is on the anal 
flap ; it is noteworthy that each tubercular dot in this 
Pterophorns has but a single hair. 

The pupa is smooth, nearly three-eighths of an inch 
in length, the wing- and leg-cases meeting in a point 
low down the abdomen, and in close contact with it; 
in colour it is pale whitish -ochreous, the abdomen a 
little deeper tinted ; it is generally striped and marked 
with brown, particularly on the head and the back of 
the thorax; the dorsal marking is a series of brown 
acute triangles. (William Buckler, October, 1871 ; 
E.M.M., December, 1871, VIII, 154.) 

In the autumn of 1870, 1 picked up a few specimens 
of Pterophorus isodactylus in a marsh by the river side 
(in Norfolk), and therefore looked over the place early 
this summer for plants of some species of Senecio. 
The grass, however, was lank and growing rapidly, 
and Senecio hard to find, and it was not until the 
21st of June that, extending my researches into an 
unexplored corner, I found an ugly, scrubby-looking 
species — S. aquaticus — growing in some plenty. 

My search for the larva was, however, cut quickly 
short by the appearance of a specimen of the moth 
already out, and then and afterwards I secured a good 
many, the females being so exceedingly sluggish that 
I only took two specimens of that sex. 

I had, therefore, to wait for the second brood to 
make the acquaintance of the larva; but, according 
to the contrary nature of things in general, just as the 
moths must have laid their eggs, the marsh was 
mowed, and although the farmer had distinctly 
promised to leave a patch of the plants for me, the 


whole of them were cut down. This was discouraging 
enough, as the eggs had not had time to hatch, and 
must have been nearly all destroyed, whereas, had the 
larvae been feeding, some of them would have been 
sure to find their way from the withering plants to 
portions which remained growing. 

But, not to be beaten without an effort, I went to 
work on the 10th of August, and after a long search 
found one larva mining a shoot of the ragwort, and 
sent it at once to Mr. Buckler. A fortnight later, I 
found several larva?, and a few pupae, from which the 
moths began to emerge on the 20th of August. 

The larva of the second brood, when young, mines 
one of the smaller shoots of Senecio aquaticus near 
the buds; afterwards it crawls further down, entering 
one of the larger branches at the axil of a leaf 
(frequently devouring the tender side shoot), and 
bores down the interior, feeding on the pith till 
nearly full-grown, when it again deserts its burrow, 
and proceeds to the thick main stem of the plant, 
which it enters, and there feeds up, hollowing out a 
space in which to assume the pupa state. In every 
case a round hole is left for the extrusion of excre- 
ment, and in the final burrow this is placed exactly 
against the head of the pupa, so that there is no 
difficulty about the egress of the perfect insect. 

The pupa is angular and destitute of hairs, like 
those of the allied species, P. trigonodactylus, P. 
ochrodactyluSi etc., but lies perfectly free in the 
burrow, the anal segment not being attached to the 
usual button of silk. 

The larvae of the first brood must feed in May, in 
the young shoots, then just beginning to grow; the 
perfect insect appears in the latter part of June, and 
again in August and September. 

The diversity in the habits of the larvae and pupae 
of the Pterophoridx is very great. P. ochrodactt/lus 
(bertrami) devours the hearts of the shoots of Achillea 
ptarmica and A. millefolium, eating down into the 


stem, and assumes the pupa state on the plant. P. 
isodactylus lives as larva and pupa within the stems of 
Senecio. P. trigonodactylus devours the middle of the 
seed-heads of Tussilago, drawing together the wings 
of the seeds so as to form a sort of cocoon, in which 
it assumes the pupa state. P. teiccrii withers the 
young shoot of Teucrium, to feed on the drooping 
leaves. P. blpunctidactylus, I am informed, feeds in 
the flowers of Scabiosa succisa, and P. loewii on seeds 
of Erythrsea centaurium. P. plagiodactylus hollows 
out shoots of scabious, entering them at the side, but 
becomes a pupa externally. P. fuscus eats off the 
buds of Veronica chamsedrys, and also becomes a pupa 
on the plant. P. pterodactylus eats the flowers of 
Convolvulus. P. lienigianus gnaws the leaves of Arte- 
misia, leaving one membrane and rolling up the other, 
also making itself a tent of the leaf. P. microdactylies 
feeds on the flowers of Eupaiorium cannabinum, but 
enters the stem to become a pupa. P. galactodactylus 
eats holes in the leaves of Arctium lappa, but rolls 
back all the woolly covering of the leaf to the edge of 
the hole as it eats, and assumes the pupa state close 
to the surface of the under-side in one of the deep 
depressions formed by the union of the ribs ; and P. 
pentadactylus devotes itself to eating off the young 
shoots and leaves of Convolvulus sepium, just as it is 
making a start to smother our fruit bushes with its 
luxuriance. There is all this variation in the few 
species with which I am acquainted ; it would be 
interesting to know something of the habits of the 
rest. (Charles G. Barrett, 11th October, 1871 ; 
E.M.M., December, 1871, VIII, 153—155.) 

On the 10th of May, 1872, I figured more larvae 
mining the stems of Senecio aquaticus. These are 
said to be the first brood by Mr. Barrett, and are 
rather finer larvse than those described above, these 
being perhaps the least trifle larger, the proportions, 
structure and details all exactly similar, the general 
colour only of the skin being a little different, these 


being more yellowish and less greenish. One indivi- 
dual was flesh-coloured as far as the seventh segment, 
the remainder being of a pale faintly ochreous greenish 
yellow. One of these larvae, apparently full-fed, has 
slightly drawn the top of a leaf together, and in the 
corner thus formed has spun a web. 

The moths — three in all — appeared from the 6th to 
the 16th of June, 1872. (William Buckler, 16th June, 
1872; Note Book I, 122.) 

Pterophorus trigonodactylus. 

The larva of Platyptilas gonodactylus is fully half an 
inch in length, stout, attenuated towards both extre- 
mities, subtranslucent, slightly hairy ; the ground 
colour is pink. The head is small, shining, black ; 
the corselet is dark, broad, rhomboid al, with two black 
dots below it placed longitudinally ; the third and 
fourth segments are dilated, and a ring of various- 
sized spots is on each, the following segments having 
a ring of spots, and an additional spot on the hind 
subdorsal region ; the anal plate is small ; the dorsal 
line is broad, pink ochreous-brown, darker and nar- 
rowed on the last segment ; the subdorsal the same 
colour as the dorsal line; the subspiracular line is 
wavy; the spiracles are distinct, black; the feet are 

The larvae feed in the young flower-shoots of Peta- 
sites farfara in April, causing them to be stunted and 
droop ; they leave these stems, and enter more 
advanced flower-stalks, towards the end of April, a 
little below the flower-head, and live beneath the 
seeds, eating them from below; or they enter a well- 
grown flower before it is open, causing it to burst on 
one side, and take their place amongst the seeds as 
soon as they have eaten out a home to live in ; they 
appear in the perfect state in May. 

I have gone fully into this description, because I 


never knew anybody, except Mr. Hodgkinson, who 
knew any particulars about this common species. 

There is a species in Germany called P. farfarx by 
Prof. Zeller ; I possess examples of it from him, and 
as it does not differ much from our old P. gonodactylus r 
I thought an accurate life^history of its larval habits 
might lead to a discovery of Zeller's species in Britain, 
especially so as I once bred a gonodactylus-\ike insect 
from a larva found feeding in a kind of gallery made 
in, or under the woolly under-side of a coltsfoot leaf,, 
found growing on the limestone rocks at Llanferras, 
in June ; the plant grows there in the streaks of pipe, 
or China clay, which crop out two hundred feet above 
the base of the rocks, on what we call the " Goat " or 
" ashivorthii 9 ledges. (C. S. Gregson, Entom., July,, 
1873, VI, 426.) 

The larva of Platyptilla trigonodactyla is 7 lines in 
length, and moderately stout. The head is shining 
black, and but little smaller than the second segment, 
the upper part of which segment is also shining black. 
The ground colour is whitish, with a broad dorsal and 
narrower subdorsal stripe of rosy brown. Several 
small black warts, from which short black hairs are 
emitted, are scattered over the dorsal and subdorsal 
areas ; these are rather larger on the third segment. 
There is also a row of larger black warts along the 
spiracle line. 

The larva feeds in flower-heads of Tussilago farfara 
during April and May. 

The upper part of the pupa is like the larva in 
coloration, but paler, and not hairy. The wing-cases 
are light brown, more or less streaked with darker. 

It may be found among seed-down, in the heads of 
the food-plant, in May. 

Comparing my description of the larva with that 
given by Mr. Peers (Entom., Vol. II, p. 38) it will be 
found that a very material difference exists. Mr. 
Peers says of the larva he describes, " dorsal line 
light brown; subdorsal line broader, lighter brown; 


head and second segment fulvous." Here, then, is 
either discrepancy or descriptions of the larvae of two 
very closely-allied species, sufficiently distinct as 
larvse, but not easily separated as imagines. I have 
no reason to doubt the accuracy of Mr. Peers's obser- 
vations, as recorded, more especially as all the 
imagines bred from my larvae were of the same pale 
colour, and uniform in the character of the apex of 
the anterior wings, in both respects differing from the 
examples of P. trlgonodactylus which I had usually 
taken in the imago state in other parts of England. 
(Richard South, 17th January, 1882; Entom., 
February, 1882, XV, 32.) 

The young larva feeds in the shoots of its food- 
plant, Tussilago fqrfara, until the flower-heads are 
thrown up ; then these are attacked. Sometimes the 
larva will crawl up the outside of a flower-stem and 
enter the head just above the receptacle, but more 
often it ascends by way of the interior. In this latter 
case it does not feed in the stem, but makes its way 
direct to the head. When nearly full-fed the larva 
generally enters a head which has passed or is about 
to pass into the fruiting stage. It then proceeds to 
arrest the ripening process by eating away the inner 
fleshy part of the stem a little below the receptacle. 
This causes the head to droop until it comes in contact 
with the scape, against which it hangs in such a 
manner as to attract the attention of anyone hunting 
for the larva. When full-fed it makes a chamber 
among the seed-down, and enters the pupa state. In 
causing its domicile to become inverted, the larva not 
only secures its food in a palatable form, but exhibits 
wonderful foresight in providing a weather-tight 
apartment for its pupal condition. (Richard South, 
Entom., July, 1882, XY, 145.) 



Plate CLXIII, fig. 5. 

At p. 149 of the twenty-second volume of the E.M.M. 
is a description of the larva of Pterophorus cosmodac- 
tylus ; a reference to it will show that in the year 1884 
Mr. Eustace R. Bankes, of Corfe Castle, sent me about 
a score of larvae of a Pterophorus, from which I bred a 
series of P. cosmodactylus and two specimens of P. 
acanthodactylus. Last year, 1885, Mr. Bankes sent me 
another lot of larva?, from which I bred P. cosmodac- 
tylus only. Notwithstanding this large proportion of 
P. cosmodactylus, Mr. Bankes has all along been con- 
vinced that in reality P. acanthodactylus is much the 
commoner insect in his district ; and, therefore, again 
this year, 1886, collected and sent me thirteen more 
larvae from the Stachys sylvatica. They reached me 
on the 25th of August, and, on opening the box, at 
first sight they appeared to me just like those received 
the two previous years ; they were of the same shape, 
and there was precisely the same range of variation 
from the bright green to purple forms. Two days 
afterwards, however, on comparing them closely with 
my descriptions of the previous years' larvae, it at once 
became apparent that there were distinctly defined 
distinctions between them ; so much so, that I at once 
wrote to Mr. Bankes stating that I fully expected to 
breed P. acanthodactylus from them. On the 7th of 
September a further consignment of larvae reached me 
from my friend Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, of Worthing, 
who sent them (evidently without any doubt on his 
part) as P. acanthodactylus. They seemed in every 
respect like Mr. Bankes's larvae, so that I was now all 
but certain it would be proved that these two closely- 
allied species can be separated in the larval stage. 
The result was perfectly satisfactory, for from Mr. 
Bankes's larvae I bred thirteen P. acanthodactylus, 
from the 7th to the 14th of September ; and from Mr. 


Fletcher's, five specimens, the first appearing on the 
21st of September. It seems almost inexplicable that 
this year Mr. Bankes should collect no P. cosmodac- 
tylus larvae whatever, for he retained a good many 
himself, and when writing me early in September, he 
had up to that time bred forty specimens, all P. acan- 
thodactylus I 

Description. — The larva is in shape exactly like that 
of P. cosmodactylus, as described in the E.M.M., Yol. 
XXII, p. 150. As in that species, there are two distinct 
forms, and intermediate varieties occur partaking 
more or less of each of these extreme forms. 

Var. 1 has the ground colour deep purple ; the head 
is yellowish-grey or yellowish-brown, marked on the 
crown and sides with black ; the mandibles are brown ; 
the medio-dorsal stripe is smoke-coloured ; the sub- 
dorsal lines, and another line of equal width below it, 
white, but interrupted and not very conspicuous ; and 
below these is another scarcely so pale line along the 
spiracles ; the hairs and the distinct tubercles are 
white. The ventral surface and the prolegs are 
greenish-olive, the anterior legs shining black, ringed 
with paler. 

Var. 2 has the ground colour bright pale green; the 
head is as in Var. 1; the pulsating dark smoky vessel — 
in some specimens tinged with pink anteriorly — 
forms the dorsal stripe ; the subdorsal lines are 
indistinct, whitish ; below these is another line, but 
much interrupted and broken into short lengths ; 
there are no lines along the spiracular region ; the 
hairs and tubercles are white. The ventral surface 
and prolegs are of the bright green of the dorsal area, 
and the legs are shining black, ringed with white. 

From the foregoing it will be noted, that the chief 
points of distinction between this insect and P. cosmo- 
dactylics — distinctions which will probably be found to 
be reliable — are : the deep purple ground colour in P. 
acanthodactylus, as compared with the " purplish- 
pink " of P. cosmodactylus ; the white subdorsal lines 


being less conspicuous in P. acantlwdactylus ; and the 
head being yellowish-brown marked with black, in 
place of the " very dark sienna-brown, almost black," 
in P. cosmodactylus. (George T. Porritt, 8th October, 
1886; B.M.M., November, 1886, XXIII, 132.) 

Pterofbokus punctidactylus. 
Plate CLXIII, fig, 6. 

I have to thank most sincerely Mr. Eustace P. 
Bankes, of Corfe Castle, and Mr. Nelson M. Richard- 
son, of Llangennech, for the trouble they have taken 
in helping me to an acauaintance with the larva of 
Pterophorus cosmodactylas H.-S. = P. punctidactylus 

On the 8th of August, 1884, I received from Mr. 
Bankes about a score of larvae which he had collected 
from Stachys sylvatica as ' Pterophorus acantho- 
dactylus, 9 and I made careful notes on them for that 
species. The first two imagos which emerged — on 
the 17th and 19th of August respectively — were P. 
ucanthodactylus, but, to my astonishment, the next 
specimen, on the 21st, and every one following, were 
P. cosmodactylus ! I had described two distinct 
varieties of the larva, but as they had so much in 
common, I had never suspected that they might 
belong to different species ; and being also quite 
ignorant as to which larvae had produced P. acantho- 
dactylus, and which P. cosmodactylus, it became neces- 
sary to wait for further specimens before anything 
satisfactory could be ascertained. 

In the middle of September, Mr. Richardson for- 
warded to me alive two fine females of P. cosmodac- 
tylus, which he had beaten out of furze bushes at 
Aberayron, in Cardiganshire, with the information 
that he almost always took the ? in the autumn in 
such circumstances, and he had no doubt that they 
hibernated in the bushes, and deposited their eggs in 


spring or early summer. The two moths I placed in 
a pot of growing Stachys, and various dry leaves, etc., 
and covered over with gauze. The moths lived well 
into the winter, but on examining the pot, I think in 
January or February (I have no note of the exact 
date), I found that they had died. 

I was therefore very pleased to receive in the middle 
of August last, 1885, another consignment of eight 
larvae from Mr. Bankes, from which I made fresh 
descriptions. From them I bred six P. cosmodactylus, 
but no P. acanthodactj/lus. The moths were bred 
from the larvae described, and on comparing my notes 
with those taken the previous year, they corresponded 
so closely that I suppose all were taken from P. cos- 
modactylus larvae ; the alternative being that we have 
but one species under the two names ; or the dif- 
ferences in the larvae must be so slight as to be almost 
imperceptible. As the P. acanthodactylus I bred 
were the first specimens to appear, it is possible that 
the species may have been in advance of P. cosmodac- 
tylus, and that the larvae were in fact nearly over when 
Mr. Bankes collected them ; but this year, although 
he searched early, he failed to find a P. acanthodactylus 
larva at all. It is now most necessary to have careful 
descriptions of larvae which produce P. acanthodactylus, 
or still better, to rear larvae from P. acanthodactylus 
eggs, and see if both forms of imago would be 
produced from them. 

The larva is about half an inch in length, and of the 
usual stumpy form when at rest. The head is small, 
and narrower than the second segment ; it has the 
lobes rounded, and is highly polished; the body is 
cylindrical, attenuated a little posteriorly, each seg- 
ment plump and distinct, making the divisions clearly 
defined ; the skin is soft, and sparingly clothed with 
short hairs. 

There are two very distinct varieties. 

In Var. 1 (which, judging from the larvae sent me, 
is the rather commoner form) the ground colour is a 

vol. ix. 23 


clear purplish- pink ; the head is very dark sienna- 
brown, almost black ; the smoke-coloured dorsal vessel 
shows through as the dorsal stripe ; the subdorsal 
stripes are clear white, and very conspicuous ; below 
them is a narrow and interrupted white line, and 
another about the same width, but which being tinged 
with pink is not so pale, along the spiracles ; the hairs 
are white. The ventral surface is semi-translucent, 
yellowish-grey ; the prolegs are purplish-pink on the 
outside ; the anterior legs are of the dark sienna-brown 
of the head, but with paler rings. 

In Var. 2 the ground colour is bright pale green, the 
markings the same as in Var. 1, except that the white 
stripes are scarcely so conspicuous ; in some specimens 
the smoky medio-dorsal vessel is tinged with pink ; 
and the ventral surface and prolegs are of the same 
bright green as the dorsal area. 

Some few larvao of those I received in 1884 were 
intermediate between the two varieties. 

The pupa is attached to the food-plant by the tail, 
and two somewhat curved pointed protuberances, 
which spring from the back, give it a curious appear- 

As in the larva, there are two distinct varieties, a 
purple form and a green form, but each having oblique 
dark markings. 

In 1884 the first imago emerged on the 21st of 
August, this year on the 6th of September. (George 
T. Porritt, 7th November, 1885 ; E.M.M., December, 
1885, XXII, 149—150.) 

Pterophorus hieracii. 

Plate CLXIII, fig. 7. 

I have at last discovered the larva of Pterophorus 

hieracii, for which I have searched for years, and 

which, I believe, has not hitherto been found in 


They feed on the common wood-sage, Teucrium 
scorodonia, and are now just changing their first skins ; 
they do not feed down the stems of their food-plant 
like those of some of the other " pluines," but eat the 
young leaves first. (N. Greening, 2nd May, 1867 ; 
E.M.M., June, 1867, IV, 16.) 

I was again at our forest on Saturday last, and at 
first had some trouble in finding the larvae of P. 
hieracii; but I soon found out how they feed. 

When I first found them they had not changed their 
first skins, and were sitting on the top of the leaves. 
After the first moult, they at once go down the stem 
until they get to within about an inch and a half of 
the bottom, and then eat the stem just halfway 
through, causing the parts of the plant above where it 
is bitten to bend down, and soon to become half dead 
and very soft ; on this part the larva feeds, and as the 
plant, getting only a small supply of sap, is not able 
to grow up, the neighbouring plants, in two or three 
days, overtop it and cover it up, so that one cannot 
see it till one looks well for it under the other plants. 

One plant supplies food enough for a single larva ; 
for as soon as the bent part is eaten the larva is full- 
fed, and it then descends to just below where it had 
bitten the stem half through, which is very short and 
stiff, and attaches itself by the tail, and changes to 
pupa with its head downwards. 

It will be perceived what a clever little fellow this 
larva is ; for, in the first place, by stopping the growth 
of the food-plant, and allowing the neighbouring plants 
to shoot above it, it has at once a snug place of con- 
cealment ; and then the upper part of the plant being 
bent down, or inverted, while the larva still attaches 
itself to what was the upper side of the leaf, it is effec- 
tually protected from rain (for none of these plume 
larvae, I think, like wet) ; and lastly, when it is full- 
grown, a very stiff short stem of its own preparing, 
nicely covered over so that the wind cannot disturb it, 
is ready for it to affix itself to before becoming a 


pupa. (N. Greening, 20th May, 1867 ; E.M.M., July, 
1867, IV, 39.) 

To this account Dr. H. G. Knaggs adds that on the 
14th of June he reared the perfect P. hieracii from 
larvae supplied to him by Mr. Greening. (E.M.M., 
torn, cit., 40.) 

The full-grown larva is five lines in length, cylin- 
drical, tapering a little behind, and a little in front 
from the second segment to the head, which is a trifle 
smaller and rounded; the segments appear very plump 
from the divisions being deeply cut. It is of a pale 
glaucous-green colour, with dorsal and subdorsal lines 
of full green ; the tubercles are brown, bearing fascicles 
of numerous white hairs, those on the thoracic seg- 
ments very spreading, and it is altogether very hairy. 
(William Buckler, October, 1871 ; B.M.M., December, 
1871, VIII, 155.) 

As Pterophorus (Oxyptilus) teucrii is only single- 
brooded, it allows itself more leisure for feeding than 
some of its congeners, and may be found commonly in 
the larval state from the middle of May till the end of 

The mode of life of this larva is sufficiently curious. 
It gnaws a deep round hole in the side of a stem of a 
young shoot of Teucrium scorodonia, stopping the flow 
of sap, and causing it to droop, then crawls (slowly 
enough) to the heart and eats portions of the younger 
leaves, biting them clean through like ordinary larvae, 
and never, I believe, gnawing the surface of the leaf 
like some of its congeners, nor entering the shoot like 
others. It does not confine itself to one shoot, but, 
after eating bits of several leaves, goes to another, 
which it causes to droop in the same way. In wet 
weather the shoots will recover and raise themselves, 
but if the sun is hot and the weather dry, they wither, 
and serve (like the shoots of spindle when mined by 
the larva of Hyponomeuta pkimbella) as signal flags to 
show where a larva is to be found. 

In confinement, the larva makes no attempt to enter 


the shoot, but eats the young and full-grown leaves 
indifferently. Its principal object is, evidently, shelter 
from the sun, and it is so sluggish that it can hardly 
ever be seen to move when light is upon it. It is 
liable to a queer disease, which causes it to become 
distended, and die in the form of a little hairy bladder. 
Great numbers die in this way, and from some of them 
ichneumons emerge, but I think by no means from 

The pupa-state seems to be assumed under any 
convenient object close to the ground, as the hairy 
pupa is not often to be found on the plants. 

I have made these notes upon the larva of P. 
teucrii because its peculiar habits interested me ; but 
the merit of its discovery, in the first instance, belongs 
to Mr. N. Greening, of Warrington, who has already 
(E.M.M., Vol. IV, pp. 16 and 39) given a description 
(under the name of P. hieracii) differing very slightly 
from my own. (Charles G. Barrett, 11th October, 
1871 ; E.M.M., December, 1871, VIII, 155.) 

Pterophorus ph^eodactylus. 

Plate OLXIII, fig. 8. 

The larva is seven lines in length, moderately stout, 
tapering towards the anal extremity. The head is 
smaller than the second segment, whitish, tinged with 
green; the crown, sides, and spot on each cheek are 
shining black; the mandibles are blackish-brown. 
The ground colour is green, the segmental divisions 
paler, the dorsal line bluish-green. The tubercles, in 
four dorsal rows (four on each segment), black, each 
with a moderately long grey hair, and a tuft of shorter 
whitish bristles ; the inner rows of warts are situate 
towards the anterior, and those forming the outer 
rows towards the posterior edges of the segments; 
subdorsal, a black wart on each segment, with a 
moderately long grey hair, and a tuft of short white 


bristles ; spiracular, two small black contiguous warts 
on each segment, emitting whitish hairs. The 
prolegs and claspers are semi-transparent, dotted 
with grey. 

The food is rest-harrow, Ononis ; it feeds on the 
terminal leaves. Juue. 

The pupa is very like the larva ; it is attached by 
the tail to the surface of a leaf of the food-plant, 
generally on one of the terminal leaves. June and 
July. (Richard South; Bntom., April, 1883, XVI, 


In the middle of August last, 1883, Mr. Thomas 
Parmiter, of Cattistock, Dorchester, kindly sent me a 
nice supply of full-grown larvae and pupse of Ptero- 
phorus zojphodactylus Dup. = loeivii Zell. 

The larva is slightly less than half an inch in length, 
and of proportionate bulk; the head is much smaller 
than the second segment, the lobes rounded and 
polished ; the body is cylindrical and uniform, 
tapering a little posteriorly ; the segmental divisions 
are fairly denned, and a tuft of several short hairs 
springs from each of the indistinct tubercles. 

In colour there are two extreme varieties, and the 
larva varies between these forms. 

Var. 1 has the ground colour a delicate pale green, 
strongly tinged indeed with yellow ; the head is pale 
yellowish-green ; the mandibles and ocelli are brown ; 
the medio-dorsal stripe is dark green or purple in 
different specimens ; the subdorsal stripes are yellow, 
and there are two other fine but very faint yellow 
lines, one above and the other below the spiracles ; 
the segmental divisions are also yellow ; the spiracles 
are black, very narrowly encircled with white. The 
ventral surface, legs and prolegs are uniformly pale 


Var. 2 has the ground colour brownish-yellow ; the 
head is also brownish-yellow, freckled with brown ; the 
medio-dorsal stripe is broad bright purple; the sub- 
dorsal stripes are also broad, but of a much less 
distinct dull pale purple, and having a fine white line 
running through them; a narrow purple line, edged 
above with white, extends along the spiracular region. 
The ventral surface, legs and prolegs are uniformly 
pale yellowish-brown. 

It feeds on the flowers of Erythrxa centaurium. 

The pupa is slender, and nearly (if not quite) as 
long as the full-grown larva ; it is of almost uniform 
width, the last two segments only tapering to the anal 
point. It is glossy and cylindrical, but there is a 
depression on the thorax and front abdominal seg- 
ments ; the snout and top of the thorax are prominently 
and sharply defined ; the leg-cases extend a long 
distance down the front of the abdomen, but before 
the end, become detached from it. The ground colour 
is yellow, but is almost hid with a deep pink, which is 
suffused all over the surface, and almost forms a stripe 
from the head through the abdominal segments ; the 
wing- and leg- cases are dingy olive, tinged with pink. 

All the imagos — a fine series — emerged from the 
23rd of August to the 1st of September, 1883. 
(George T. Porritt, 5th February, 1884; E.M.M., 
March, 1884, XX, 228.) 


Plate CLXIII, fig. 9. 

The larva of Pterophorus plagiodactylus, when full- 
grown, is about five lines in length, of moderate pro- 
portion, neither stout nor slender, tolerably cylindrical, 
tapering a little posteriorly ; the head is rounded and 
rather smaller than the second segment, of a very pale 
colour and shining ; the body is very pale olive-yellow, 
with a conspicuous brown dorsal line attenuated at 


each end, and with two faint lines along the side a 
little deeper than the tint of the ground colour ; on the 
lowest line are the black spiracles, each on a slight 
swelling ; the tubercular warts are of the pale ground 
colour and furnished with rather long curved whitish 
hairs ; the head and other parts of the body emit short 
hairs. (William Buckler, October, 1871 ; E.M.M., 
December, 1871, VIII, 156.) 

On the 19th of May last, 1871, I went over to my 
favourite chalk-pit, determined, if possible, to make 
the acquaintance of the larva of Pterophorus plagio- 
dactylus. The sloping banks of the pit are covered 
with a profusion of wild flowers, and among them 
Scabiosa columbaria and S. arvensis grow in abun- 

At this time these plants were throwing up strong 
shoots, and growing so rapidly that the infested 
portions of the plant were almost directly covered, and 
concealed by the healthy shoots, so that I had no little 
difficulty in discovering the whereabouts of the larva. 

The mode of life is this : the larva gnaws a hole in 
the side of a young shoot, and working up, devours 
its anterior substance, proceeding from shoot to shoot 
till full-fed, when it attaches itself to the plant by the 
anal segment, and becomes an angular bright green 
pupa, beautifully edged and pointed off with pink, and 
entirely without hairs. 

The favourite food-plant is Scabiosa columbaria, but 
8. arvensis serves as a substitute, and in the fens the 
moth is common among 8. succisa. 

The species is double-brooded, appearing in May 
and June, and again in August, the larva feeding in 
May and doubtless again in July, but in the latter case 
the mode of feeding has still to be observed, as the 
plants are then well grown. (Charles Gr. Barrett, 
11th October, 1871; E.M.M., December, 1871, VIII, 

On the 9th of May, 1872, I received from Mr. 
Barrett to figure and describe two examples of the 


larva called P. scabiodactylus by Mr. Gregson, which 
were on Scabiosa columbaria. 

These larvae were three-eighths to half an inch 
long. One was of a pale yellowish-green slightly 
inclining to olive, the other a fuller and rather deeper 
green, more the colour of the leaf of the plant; the 
body is not very stout, and very slightly tapering to 
the rounded hinder extremity ; the head is smaller 
than the second segment, which last is less than the 
third, so that it tapers in front from the third. There 
is a faintly darker dorsal line or pulsating vessel, 
though on the shining second segment this is repre- 
sented as a double line of faint blackish, and on either 
side of it on the subdorsal region is a black amorphous 
spot. The head is much of the same tint as the body, 
though faintly browner; the jaws are darkish brown, 
with a rather large black spot at the lower side of 
each cheek in the usual situation of the ocelli ; the 
head is very lustrous in polish ; very faint indications 
exist of a rather paler stripe along the subdorsal 
region, but so softened at the edges as to be so ill- 
defined as not to warrant its being noted until the 
larva has fixed itself after being full-fed ; the whole 
surface of the body is covered with very short bristles 
of a dirty whitish colour, mixed in places or sprinkled 
with a few blackish ones, notably on the second, 
third, and fourth segments, and more sparsely along 
the dorsal vessel and last segment ; in addition to 
these which clothe the body are regular series of long 
bristly hairs, dirty whitish, issuing chiefly from the 
usual tubercular positions, sometimes in twos or 
threes ; the spiracles are of the ground colour ringed 
with darkish brown. 

These two larvae came with a bit or two of the leaf 
of the plant ; one of them, the darkest and biggest, 
fixed itself, being full-fed, on the 10th ; the other 

The pupa, which I figured on the 27th of May, was 
three-eighths of an inch in length, slender, attached 


by the tail ; the wing-cases were long, the tips well 
produced and projecting a little, though lying close 
along the abdomen ; the head and thorax rise a little 
at the top to a ridge ; the tail is pointed. In colour 
the pupa is green, slightly inclining to olive, the 
wing-covers darker green ; there are a purplish-brown 
dorsal stripe and two parallel lines of the same colour 
along the subdorsal region. 

The moth — a genuine Pterophorus plagiodactylus — 
appeared on the 9th of June. (William Buckler, 9th 
June, 1872; Note Book I, 170.) 

Pterophoeus ruse us. 

On the 13th of June last, 1881, Mr. W. H. B. 
Fletcher found, feeding on speedwell growing on a 
bank at Worthing, a good supply of larvae of Ptero- 
phorus pterodactylus L. = fuscodactylus Haw., which 
he at once kindly forwarded to me. It was, however, 
a late batch, for at the time Mr. Fletcher was breeding 
the moth freely from larvse he had collected some 
weeks previously. 

The larva is in length about five-eighths of an inch, 
and scarcely so stout as seems usual in the genus. 
The head is small, and narrower than the second 
segment; it is polished, rather flat in front, but 
rounded at the sides. The body is cylindrical, of 
fairly uniform width, but tapering a little at the 
extremities ; the segmental divisions are well defined ; 
the skin, with a soft and half -transparent appearance, 
is sparingly clothed with short hairs. 

In colour there are two varieties, which are perhaps 
about equally numerous. In one of them the ground 
colour is a bright grass-green ; in the other it is 
equally bright yellow-green ; in both forms the head 
is pale yellowish-brown, very prettily reticulated with 
intense black. The dark green, or in some of the 
yellow specimens dark brown, alimentary canal forms 


the dorsal stripe; the subdorsal lines are rather 
indistinct, greyish- white ; below there is a still more 
indistinct waved line of the same colour ; there is, 
again, a similarly coloured faint line along the spira- 
cular region ; and the segmental divisions also are of 
this pale colour. In some specimens the hairs are 
grey ; in others brown. The ventral surface is 
uniformly of the same colour as the ground of the 
dorsal area ; the legs are reticulated, and the prolegs 
tipped with black. 

The pupa, which is attached by the tail only, is 
rather long, but slender. The head, which is the 
thickest part, is abruptly rounded, and has the snout 
very prominent ; the thorax and abdomen are 
rounded above, rather flattened beneath, and attenu- 
ated strongly to the anal point ; the eye-, leg-, and 
wing-cases are fairly prominent, the last prolonged a 
considerable distance over the abdominal segments. 

As in the larva, there are two varieties of colour; in 
one form the ground is bright green, and there is 
little of any other colour, the pale grey abdominal 
divisions, and two indistinct pale lines on the dorsal 
area, with several faint purplish spots behind the 
thorax and on the anal segment, being all that are 

The other form has the ground a dingier green, and 
there is a distinct purple dorsal stripe, edged on each 
side with greyish; the abdominal divisions and the tip 
of the prolonged wing-cases are also purple. 

The pupa is capable of considerable movement, and, 
on being disturbed, turns up sharply the thorax and 
higher abdominal segments, so as to bring them quite 
at right angles with the several posterior segments. 

The first imago emerged on the 29th of June, and 
was quickly followed by a good series, which varied 
in size very much, some specimens being quite small. 

Two species of parasites also emerged, one of them 
an ichneumon with a long ovipositor, which Mr. 
Bridgman informs me seems new to science. (George 


T. Porritt, 2nd January, 1882; Entom., February, 
1882, XV, 44.) 

Pterophorus lithodactylus. 
Plate CLXIV, fig. 1. 

The larva from which I took down my notes was 
received, amongst some of those of Ebulea crocealis y 
feeding on Inula dysenterica, from Mr. W. H. Grigg, 
of Bristol, on the 15th of June, 1875. 

It was full-grown, five-eighths of an inch in length, 
and of average bulk in proportion. The head was 
globular and polished, smaller than the second 
segment, into which it can be partially withdrawn. 
The body was of nearly uniform width throughout, 
but tapering slightly towards the posterior extremity; 
it was clothed rather thickly with short hairs. 

The ground colour was bright yellowish-green ; the 
head was pale green, the mandibles were brown ; 
throughout the entire length of the dorsal area was 
a broad pink stripe, edged on each side with a nar- 
rower purplish one, which was again edged with a fine 
whitish line. The ventral surface was uniformly pale 
green. The hairs on the dorsal area were dark brown, 
those on the sides whitish. 

The pupa is so similar in appearance to the larva, 
that it had actually been in that stage several days 
before I found out the fact. I noticed, as I fancied, 
the larva on the upper side of a leaf, motionless, I 
supposed changing its skin, and I was not a little 
surprised, on examining it closely, to discover that it 
had become a pupa. 

The markings and almost the shape had assumed 
the same character as the larva, but the broad purple 
dorsal stripe was gone, and replaced by a series of 
pale green lozenge-shaped marks, connected at the 
abdominal divisions ; the subdorsal region was dull 
purple ; the wing-cases were pale green, with several 


purplish streaks ; the under-side of the abdomen was 
pale green ; like the larva also, it was thickly clothed 
ou the dorsal surface with short, whitish hairs. 

Tlie imago appeared on the 12th of July. (George 
T. Porritt, 3rd February, 1877; E.M.M., March, 1877, 
XIII, 236.) 

Pterophorus pterodactylus. 

During last summer, 1881, a young " plume " larva, 
which proved to be Pterophorus monodactylus L. = 
pterodactylus Haw., was accidentally brought in with 
some convolvulus I had gathered for a brood of P. 
pentadactylus. By the middle of August it was full- 
grown, when I described it as follows : 

Larva, when at rest, about five-eighths of an inch 
in length, and stout in proportion. The head is 
polished and rather small, narrower than the second 
segment. The body is uniform and cylindrical, 
tapering a little posteriorly. The segmental divisions 
are well defined and deeply cut ventrally ; each 
tubercle emits a tuft of short but rather strong hairs. 

The ground colour is bright yellowish-green, more 
decidedly green on the back ; the head is pale yellow, 
the mandibles are light brown. A fine but clear 
yellowish- white line forms the dorsal stripe ; there is 
a much broader stripe of the same colour along the 
spiracular region, and the space between it and the 
spiracles is freckled with streaks and spots of the 
same colour. The spiracles are black, the hairs 
greyish. The ventral surface, legs and prolegs, are 
uniformly pale green. 

The pupa, although attached by the tail only, was 
laid flat along the top of the cage. 

It produced a fine imago on the 14th of September, 
1881. (George T. Porritt, 3rd February, 1882; 
Entom., April, 1882, XV, 90.) 


Pterophoeus LIENIGIANUS. 
Plate CLXIV, fig. 2. 

The full-fed larva is little more than three-eighths 
of an inch in length, cylindrical, though tapering a 
little behind ; the head is a trifle smaller than the 
second segment, and rather rounded, greyish-brown 
in colour, and marked with blotches of blackish- 
brown on the lobes and between them, and is very 
shining; the body is pale glaucous-green, and has a 
very broad dorsal stripe of darker bluish-green, 
through the middle of which runs an exceedingly fine 
pale thread of the ground colour; the thin subdorsal 
line is yellowish- white, and just above it is a whitish- 
grey parallel streak ; all these are regularly interrupted 
at the segmental divisions ; these divisions are some- 
what yellow; the spiracles are whitish ringed with 
brown ; there is a white wart on the hinder part of the 
side of the third and fourth segments ; all the tubercles 
are whitish, each bearing little fascicles of about four 
white silky hairs, curved and finely pointed ; the 
ventral surface and legs are a little paler than the 
rest of the ground colour. (William Buckler, 11th 
October, 1871 ; E.M.M., December, 1871, VIII, 158.) 

Early in July, 1870. in a country lane some miles 
from Norwich, I chanced to find a plant of Artemisia 
vulgaris, the leaves of which were eaten in a fashion dif- 
ferent from anything I had before seen, — so curiously, 
indeed, that I could not at the time imagine to what 
family even the larva could belong ; and to make the 
matter worse, it appeared to be quite deserted. At 
home I again examined the plant, but finding nothing, 
I threw it aside, and was not a little surprised, a few 
days afterwards, at finding a specimen of Pterophorus 
(Leioptilus) lienigianus at rest on the ceiling. The 
riddle was therefore solved, as it was clear that the 
pupa had been hidden so well that I had overlooked 


On the 26th of May, I caught sight in a neighbour- 
ing lane of a bladdery-looking leaf of Artemisia 
vulgaris, which I instantly recognised, and I had the 
exceeding satisfaction of finding the pretty little hairy 
larva of P. lienigianus very much at home, with 
several more, occupying other leaves of the same 

This larva has the most singular mode of life of any 
plume larva with which I am acquainted. When 
young, it gnaws oblong blotches near the tips of 
upper leaves of the Artemisia, leaving the cuticle of 
the upper side entire and nearly transparent, eating 
the parenchyma, and carefully rolling back the downy 
skin of the under-side to the edge of the blotch (as is 
done by the larva of P. galactodactylus on burdock). 
These blotches are seldom more than half an inch 
long, but generally there are two or three of them 
side by side. 

When about one-fourth grown, the larva moves 
down to a lower leaf, which it draws together, 
uniting the tips underneath, and carefully sewing 
together the edges of the segments, so as to make a 
secure little tent, inside which it feeds as before, only 
making larger blotches side by side, between the ribs 
of the leaf, until the greater part of the parenchyma 
is devoured, after which it deserts this habitation, 
makes another lower down, and so on, constructing 
four or five tents before becoming full-grown. 

Then, disdaining to make use of the larval habita- 
tion as a protection for the pupa, it descends towards 
the ground, and becomes a hairy pupa on the lower 
part of the stem, or on some bit of stick or other 
convenient object. 

The pupa has, strongly developed, the curious 
power (shared more or less by most of those of the 
Pterojplwridde) of throwing its head back over its tail 
with considerable force. Thus, anything touching 
the anal segment is pretty certain to receive a smart 
rap — delivered backwards — from the head of the pupa. 


Every one must have observed that when a plume 
moth emerges, the pupa bends back so as to allow the 
moth to use its long ]egs as soon as they are freed 
from the envelope. 

The deserted tent is a curious object, with its 
oblong windows edged with white down, and its seams 
made as neatly as a spider even could do it. In the 
case of large leaves, only one of the divisions is made 
use of, the whole leaf being beyond the powers of the 
architect. In confinement, these larvse, like those of 
P. teucrii, throw off their protective habit, and make 
no tent, but simply feed under the leaves in their 
usual fashion. Unlike P. teucrii, however, they are 
very easy to rear, as, with a little care, nearly every 
specimen produces the perfect insect. 

I found larvae feeding from time to time, from the 
26th of May till the 20th of June, and by that time 
the more forward specimens had begun to emerge. 

I have seen no indication of a second brood in the 
year. (Charles Gr. Barrett, 11th October, 1871 ; 
E.M.M., December, 1871, VIII, 156—158.) 

Pterophorus tephradactylus. 
Plate CLXIV, fig. 3. 

In May of last year, 1880, and again in May of this 
year, 1881, Mr. W. H. Grigg, of Bristol, kindly sent 
me larvae of this species feeding on the leaves of 

The larva is about half an inch in length, and of the 
usual shape characteristic of the genus ; it is rather 
flattened ventrally, but roofed upwards from the 
spiracular region to the dorsal area, which is also 
rather flattened ; the head is polished, about the same 
width as the second, but narrower than the third 
segment; the segmental divisions are clearly defined; 
the tubercles are prominent, each of them emitting 
several short hairs. 


The ground colour is grass-green, the head pale 
yellow ; there is an interrupted grey line along each 
side of the dorsal ridge, and a faint indication of a 
similarly coloured subdorsal line; the tubercles are 
greyish-white, as are also the hairs; the segmental 
divisions are yellowish. The ventral surface is uni- 
formly grass-green. 

The pupa is attached by the anal segment to a stem 
or leaf of the food -plant, and although there is no 
silken belt its position is not suspended, but flat along 
the stalk or leaf to which it may be attached. It is 
barely half an inch long, compact, and of moderate 
bulk ; there is a distinct depression extendiug through 
the centre of the dorsal surface from the head to the 
anal segment; and the abdominal divisions, the eye- 
and leg-cases are well defined. The ground colour is 
dingy dull-green ; the sides are thickly freckled with 
smoke-colour ; there is also a smoky stripe through 
the wing-cases ; the hairs are grey. 

The imagos emerged early in June. (George T. 
Porritt; Entom., November, 1881, XIV, 260.) 

Pterophorus osteodactylus. 

Plate OLXIV, fig. 4. 

The larva is in ground colour whity-brown, with a 
greenish tinge, and thickly sprinkled with minute 
black dots ; the dorsal stripe and subdorsal line are 
pale rosy pink ; the tubercles are inconspicuous, 
hardly raised above the surface of the skin, two on 
each segment along the dorsal area, from each of 
which a single brownish hair of moderate length is 
emitted; these hairs on the third, fourth and fifth 
segments, curve forwards, those on the posterior 
segment curve backwards ; along the lateral area 
there is one wart with a moderately long hair on each 
segment; the spiracles are black; the prolegs are 
pale brown. October. 

In seed-heads of Solidago virgaurea. The larvae 
vol. ix. 24 


hibernated among the dried heads of Solidago, some 
making a snug cocoon-like retreat of the seed-down, 
others remaining without any such protection; and 
these assumed a reddish tinge during the winter. 
(Richard South, Bntom., February, 1889, XXII, 35.) 

Pterophorus microdactylia. 
Plate CLXIY, fig. 5. 

To Mr. William H. Grigg, of Bristol, I have been 
indebted for the good opportunity afforded me of 
studying this interesting plume larva, by his very 
kindly sending me a number of examples on the 26th 
of July, 1875, which, two days before, he had found 
in the flowering stems of Eupatorium cannabinum. 

Mr. Grigg also acquainted me with his having 
taken, at the same time and place, nine fresh speci- 
mens of the moth, at the very spot where they 
occurred plentifully in May of the previous year, — 
whence he inferred the insect to be double-brooded. 

I found it no easy matter to keep the stems, in 
which these larvae were living, from either drying up 
or turning mouldy ; from these mishaps, and from the 
larvaa refusing to enter the fresh stems provided for 
them, most of the number died. However, I was at 
length well pleased at being able to breed three speci- 
mens of the moth on the 8th, 9th, and 19th of 
August, and a fourth a fortnight later, thus satis- 
factorily proving their identity. 

Most of these larvse were mining, singly, within the 
stems, near to the axils of the leaf-stalks, though 
three or four had their mines situated midway between 
the axillary branchings near the top of the plant; the 
small hole at the entrance of a mine is not very 
readily detected, for although frass is probably 
extruded from it, especially at first, yet I found none 
hanging outside the entrance, and only a fine dust at 
the bottom of their cage gave evidence that a small 


quantity must occasionally have fallen out of the 
holes ; the mines always appeared lightly filled up 
from within, just level with the surface of the stem, 
and so the orifices not contrasting much in colour, 
were not very conspicuous from being no more than 
one-sixteenth of an inch in diameter. 

The youngest larva examined I found to be just 
one-eighth of an inch long, and possessed of all the 
details of form, colour, and other characteristics that 
so well distinguish this species of Pterophorus from 
any I have as yet seen, inasmuch as it is furnished 
with rough points or hooks, in many respects much 
like those we know so well on the pupse of Cossus and 
of Hepiahis ; doubtless these are both for support and 
progression within the very tough stem where it 

The full-grown larva is one quarter of an inch in 
length, plump in proportion, in general figure some- 
what cylindrical, but tapering forwards to the head, 
which is smaller than the second segment, the last 
three segments also tapering to the anal tip ; the 
anterior legs are but little developed, while the ventral 
and anal legs are so exceedingly small as to be with 
difficulty detected even with a lens ; the segments are 
well defined ; the first third of each, after the thoracic 
segments, is clean cut backwards with an upward 
slope, and the summit of this slope is crested with a 
row of minute rough points, or blunt hooks, extending 
unbroken across the back, rather near towards the 
spiracular region ; on the middle portion of the 
remainder of each of these segments is a broadish 
oblong transverse band of the rough points dorsally 
divided by a naked, or nearly naked, interval of 
smooth skin ; similar points occur also across the 
thoracic segments, but in a narrower shape, and on 
the second they fill up the usual form of plate there ; 
those on the twelfth segment, and the front of the 
thirteenth, are very much coarser, and closely aggre- 


The colour of the shining head is light yellowish- 
brown, tinged with deeper brown on the crown of each 
lobe, the ocelli and mouth darker brown again; the 
body is of a slightly livid flesh-colour, becoming a 
trifle paler and yellower on the three or four hinder 
segments ; a distinctly paler dorsal line is visible, and 
bisects both the bands of blackish rough poiuts, and 
the anterior plate of them, though on this last it is a 
mere fine thread ; the skin generally is smooth, and 
glistens a little ; the spiracles are circular, a trifle 
raised, wart-like, brown in colour, with a whitish 
centre; above each spiracle is a wart-like tubercular 
slight eminence ; on the sloping surface, in front of 
the segments, are a pair of transversely-elongate oval 
black-brown rough spots; the anal tip is dark brown. 

On the 2nd of August, I opened a stem and found 
the pupa lying in a small cleared space just above the 
middle of the mine, its head uppermost in a slanting 
direction towards the entrance, its tail steadied by a 
few threads spun on some frass, of which the mine 
below was full; there was some also above, and a 
little about the entrance, dry and mixed with silk. 

The pupa itself was a quarter of an inch long, 
rather slender ; the thorax was rounded and well 
defined, emitting a few bristly hairs, the head and 
eyes rather prominent, the wing-covers long, the leg- 
cases reaching to the penultimate abdominal ring, 
from which they hung free ; on the abdomen were 
subdorsal, lateral, and subspiracular rows of blunt 
hook-like processes, in pairs, those on the last ring 
the most projecting ; the whole surface is rather 
glistening, and the colour a dark bronzy-green. 
(William Buckler, 28th January, 1876; E.M.M., 
March, 1876, XII, 234—236.) 



In June, 1856, I received, through the kindness of 
Mr. Stainton, who had them from Professor Zeller, of 
Zurich, two larvae of Pterophorus brachydactylus ; they 
were found on Prenanthes purpurea, but whilst in my 
possession they ate Lactuca muralis freely, feeding on 
the upper surface of the leaf, and living on it without 
any attempt at concealment. 

The larvae were narrowly fusiform in shape, not 
flattened from above downwards, and with sixteen 
feet, the two segments which followed the three pairs 
of true legs having, however, prominences beneath. 

The head was yellowish-brown ; the body was 
green, with the dorsal line of a darker green colour ; 
the subdorsal line was also dark green, but so wavy, 
as almost to present the appearance of separate spots 
upon each segment ; the spiracles were black. There 
were two rows of lateral tubercles, each of which had 
a few dusky grey hairs springing from it. 

Neither of these larvae was reared ; when apparently 
full-fed they became stationary, without forming any 
silken fastening, and in a few days a cocoon of one of 
the Muscidae emerged from each larva. The small 
flies reared from these apparently belonged to the 
genus Musca, or Anthomyia (Tachina ? Eds., E.M.M.). 
(R. 0. R. Jordan, 18th November, 1864; E.M.M., 
February, 1865, I, 215.) 

PTEROPHORUS galactodactylus. 
Plate CLXIV, Qg. 6. 

During June last, 1880, I bred a nice series of this 
very pretty ' plume,' from liberal supplies of larvge 
sent me by Messrs. W. H. Grigg, of Bristol, and F. 
D. Wheeler, of Norwich. 

From the two lots of larvse it would appear that 


they attain full growth sooner or later in different 
localities, for the larvae from Bristol were spinning up 
when received in the first week in May, and were all 
pupae when the still smaller larvae arrived from 
Norwich at quite the end of the month. 

They were feeding on the under-side of the leaves 
of the burdock, eating through and quite riddling the 
large leaves. 

The larvae were about three-eighths of an inch in 
length, and of moderate bulk in proportion ; the head 
has the lobes rounded and polished, and is consider- 
ably narrower than the second segment ; the body is 
rounded at the subdorsal region, slightly flattened 
dorsally, and still more flattened ventrally ; it is 
attenuated posteriorly, and also from the third seg- 
ment to the head; the tubercles are large and 
prominent, each of them emitting a tuft of moderately 
long hairs; the skin is very slightly roughened, and 
the segmental divisions are well defined. 

The ground colour of the head and body are uni- 
formly pale pea-green, and the mandibles are brown; 
two rather distinct grey lines extend through the dorsal 
region, enclosing between them the less distinct, 
narrow, grey, medio-dorsal line ; there is an indistinct 
row of grey spots substituting the subdorsal line, and 
the spiracular ridge is also greenish-grey; the hairs are 
grey; those from the side tubercles stand out hori- 
zontally and are slightly curved, giving a remote 
resemblance to the larva of Acronycta leporina; the 
ventral surface is uniformly of the pale green of the 
dorsal area. 

When full-fed the larva spins a patch of silk on the 
under-side of the leaf, or on the stem of the burdock, 
or on any convenient object near, and in a few days 
changes to a pupa. This, though laid flat, is attached 
to the silk by the anal hooks only, there being no 
silken belt round the body. 

Like others in the genus, the pupa is somewhat 
similar to that of a butterfly, or of an Ephyra ; it is 


about five-eighths of an inch long, and of average 
proportions ; the thorax and head are rounded above, 
flattened beneath; the head is bluntly rounded off; 
the leg- and wing-cases extend halfway down, but 
are detached from, the abdomen. The ground colour 
is bright green ; two distinct white stripes extend 
from the thorax to the tip of the abdomen, and 
outside these stripes, on each side of the first two 
abdominal segments, are two conspicuous black spots, 
one on each side, and there is a faint indication of 
similar spots also on the other segments ; as in the 
larva, each tubercle emits a tuft of grey hairs. (George 
T. Porritt, 5th April, 1881 ; Entom., May, 1881, XIV, 


Plate CLXIV, fig. 7. 

On the 3rd of September, 1878, I received two 
larvse on Marrubium vulgare, assimilating remarkably 
well to the plant, and very sluggish. 

They were not quite half an inch long when 
stretched out, tapering a little from the third segment 
to the head and very little at the three hinder seg- 
ments; the ventral and anal legs were slender, these 
last stretched out behind in line with the body ; the 
head was small, pale whity-brown freckled a little on 
the face with dark brown; the head was roundish in 
shape; the segments were plump and deeply cut; the 
second segment was rather long, of light ochreous- 
green colour, very minutely freckled with dark brown 
raised dots ; the rest of the body was rather inclining 
to glaucous green and rather darker on the back than 
on the sides ; a thin faint whitish dorsal line is just 
visible ; besides the* trapezoidal projecting tubercles 
of the back there are three rows of them along the 
sides ; these are minute blunt cones, greenish, tipped 
at the apices with darkish brown, and each having five 


or six radiating curved whitish bristles ; the minute 
roundish spiracles are green, ringed with dark red, 
and situate between the first and second side rows of 
tubercles, which have nine or ten bristly hairs each. 

The pupa, which is attached to a leaf by the tip of 
the tail, is nearly three-eighths of an inch long, mode- 
rately slender, with the wings and antenna-cases in 
strong relief, as are also the segments of the body, 
which are deeply cut ; it bears tubercles and bristly 
radiating hairs like the larva, those on the sides of the 
abdomen shorter than on the back ; the wing-cases, 
antennae, etc., are clothed with a fine and short bristly 
pubescence ; the abdomen is tapered to the extremity 
on the last three segments. The pupa is of a green 
colour, and beyond the thoracic segments is marked 
down the back on either side with an oblique broadish 
dash of dark purplish-brown, forming almost a chevron 
on the front part of each segment; the wing-covers 
have raised rib-like longitudinal ridges, and the 
antenna-cases are brownish ; the back is bluish-green 
(having a faint trace of a whitish dorsal line), darker 
than the belly, which is pale yellowish-green. (William 
Buckler, September, 1878 ; Note Book III, 256.) 

On the 14th of August, 1880, I received eggs of 
Pterophorus spilodactylus on Marrubium vulgare from 
Dr. W. S. Riding, who was then collecting at Fresh- 

The eggs were round, glossy, pale green. They 
hatched on the 17th of August. 

The newly-emerged larvae were rather hairy, 
yellowish-green, with brown head. (George T. 
Porritt, 17th August, 1880; Note Book, August, 

The larva of Aciptilia spilodactyla is six lines in 
length, attenuated posteriorly from the fifth segment. 
The head is smaller than the second segment; it is 
green, with a yellowish tinge; the crown is slightly 
freckled with brown ; the cheek spots are small, 
brown ; the mandibles are brown. The ground colour 


of the larva is green, sprinkled with minute black dots. 
The tubercles are : two dorsal rows (four on each seg- 
ment), whitish, each emitting a star-like tuft of white 
hairs ; the subdorsal are one wart on each segment, 
with a star-like tuft of white hairs ; the spiracular are 
one wart on each segment, emitting a star-like tuft of 
white hairs, and two or three longer whitish hairs. 
The prolegs and claspers are semi-transparent, with 
a green tinge, and tipped with brown. 

The food-plant is white horehound, Marrubium 
vidgare ; the larva feeds on the terminal leaves; it 
rests on the upper surface of a leaf in damp or dull 
weather, but hides under the leaves when the sun 
shines. June and July. 

The pupa is green, with whitish warts and hairs, the 
wing-cases are paler green, thickly studded with short 
whitish bristles along the edges. It is fastened by the 
anal segment to the upper surface of the leaf of the 
food-plant. July. 

I have to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. 
Carrington for a supply of the larvae, obtained from 
Mr. Rogers, of Freshwater, Isle of Wight. In 1879 
I met with this * plume ' in all stages in the Isle of 
Wight. Horehound, the food-plant, is very local in 
Great Britain, and in some places its growth is of a 
most stunted character; a few plants I met with in 
Norfolk were only about two inches high. In gardens, 
however, the plant usually attains a respectable size, 
and I have found it more profitable to search such 
plants when they could be found, within say a two- 
mile radius of the wild plants. All the larvas I 
obtained at Ventnor, Isle of Wight, were taken off 
horehound growing in cottage gardens, about a mile 
from the reputed locality of the wild Marrubium. 
(Richard South; Entom., February, 1883, XVI, 29.) 



Plate CLXIV, fig. 8. 

On the 31st of May, 1879, I received from Mr. 
William H. Grigg, of Bristol, seven larvse feeding on 
the leaves of the top shoots of marjoram, Origanum 

They bite practically through the stems near the tops 
of the plant, causing them to bend down and wither, 
which is the sign betraying the presence of the larvas ; 
moreover they eat large holes through the leaves as 
well as portions out from the edges. 

The full-grown larva (which I figured on the 2nd of 
June) measures half an inch in length ; the thoracic 
segments are the stoutest part of the body, from 
which it tapers a little to the small rather roundish 
head, and tapers a little very gradually to the anal 
tip ; the segments are plump and well-defined. In 
colour the head is pale greenish dingy yellow (raw 
sienna), the body lightish green, palest on the thoracic 
segments, and with a thin paler dorsal line interrupted 
on the middle of each segment ; the small tubercular 
dots are darkish brown, and from each about six 
whitish curved bristly hairs radiate at the base, and a 
seventh longer and blackish tipped proceeds from the 
centre of each tubercle ; in front of the face, just 
above the mouth, are two remarkable bristly hairs, 
their tips curving outwards and black ; the front 
margin of the second segment is very bristly. The 
segmental divisions are pale yellowish-green. The 
spiracles are of the ground colour, extremely minute, 
ringed (circular) with dull red. The ocelli are black 
and distinct. The head is small and partly retractile 
within the second segment. The hairs on the belly 
are shorter than the others ; on the third and fourth 
segments the skin between the tubercles is studded 
with short bristly rudiments of hairs. The hairs 


generally assimilate with those which fringe the 
margins and proceed from the leaves of the plant, as 
does the green colour of the larva with the under-side 
of a leaf. 

The first larva spun up on the 1st of June, the 
others several days later. 

The pupa is of slender form, stoutest across the 
thorax, seven-sixteenths of an inch long, attached by 
the tail to a button of silk spun to a stem of its food- 
plant. The head is well produced, the wing-cases are 
long and narrow, the leg-covers longer, projecting 
free towards their tips ; the head and thorax are pale 
green, the wings deeper and fuller green, the abdomen 
lightish green, broadly tinged along the back with 
purplish-brown ; there is a row of purplish -brown 
tubercles across the middle of each segment, emitting 
curved bristly white radiating hairs of varying 
lengths ; and on the longitudinal ridges of the wing- 
covers are a series of most minute short bristlv hairs. 
(William Buckler, June, 1879; Note Book III* 262.) 

Pteeophoeus teteadactylus. 

Early in the season of last year, 1885, Mr. Eustace 
R. Bankes, of Corfe Castle, found a larva on wild 
thyme, from which he bred a specimen of Pterophorus 
tetradactylus ; so, knowing my want of the species, he 
this year, 1886, very kindly made a special search for 
it, the result being that, on the 20th of May, I had 
the pleasure of receiving three specimens from him, 
together with several healthy growing plants of the 
thyme on which to feed them. 

The larva, when full-grown, is about half an inch 
in length, and of ordinary Pterophorus shape, i. e. 
plump, stoutest in the middle, attenuated at the 
extremities, rounded above, flatter beneath ; the head 
is small and glossy, considerably narrower than the 
second segment ; a tuft of short hairs springs from 
each tubercle. 


The ground colour is bright pea-green, when 
younger (i. e. previous to the last moult) having a 
yellowish tinge ; the head is yellowish-green ; the 
mandibles and a spot on each side of them are 
brown ; the broad dorsal stripe is of a considerably 
darker shade of green than the ground colour, and is 
powdered on each side with greyish- white ; the sub- 
dorsal stripes are of the same dark green colour, but 
not so conspicuous ; the spiracular stripes are rather 
broad, yellowish-grey ; the segmental divisions and 
hairs are white. When younger the segmental 
divisions are yellowish-grey, and the hairs are grey. 
The ventral surface, legs and prolegs, are uniformly 
of the bright pea-green of the dorsal area. 

I bred no imagos, as the larvse came to grief during 
my absence in London ; but in this case it did not 
much matter, for Mr. Bankes having fortunately 
reared the imago from a similar larva the previous 
year, had thus made sure of the species. Apart from 
that, they were too large for P. jparvidactylus, the 
other thyme-feeding species, which, moreover, Mr. 
Bankes believes does not occur in the district. 
(George T. Porritt, 3rd September, 1886; E.M.M., 
October, 1886, XXIII, 112.) 

Pterophorus pentadactylus. 

Plate OLXIV, fig. 9. 

On the 4th of July of last year, 1881, I received 
eggs of this species from Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, 
deposited by a moth he had taken at Worthing. Five 
days later they hatched, and the newly-emerged larvse 
were white, and clothed with long white hairs. They 
fed for a short time on convolvulus, but hibernated 
early, when still very small. In April they recom- 
menced feeding, but by the 15th were only a little over 
a quarter of an inch in length. From that time they 


grew rapidly, and by the 5th of May, the largest was 
nearly full-grown. 

The larva is nearly three-quarters of an inch in 
length, and of average build. The head is polished, 
it has the lobes rounded, and is a little narrower than 
the second segment. The body is cylindrical, and 
fairly uniform, tapering only a very little towards the 
extremities. The segmental divisions are clearly 
defined; the tubercles are prominent, and from each 
of them springs a tuft of moderately stiff hairs ; in the 
tuft of hairs from the tubercles on the second, third, 
fourth, twelfth and thirteenth segments is a single 
hair, much longer than the rest, which stands out 
very conspicuously. The skin is soft and smooth, 
but only very slightly glossy. The ground colour is 
of a median shade of dark green, exactly the colour, 
indeed, of the convolvulus leaf, on which it feeds. 
On the dorsal area, however, the ground colour only 
appears as a large lozenge- shaped mark on each 
segment, except the ninth, the remaining space on 
each segment, and the whole of the ninth segment, 
being filled with bright lemon-yellow. The darker 
green alimentary canal shows through as the dorsal 
line ; there are no perceptible subdorsal lines, but 
there are long and continuous whitish streaks along 
the posterior half of the spiracular region. The head 
is bright yellowish-brown, the mandibles are reddish- 
brown, and the ocelli are black and distinct. The 
tubercles are intensely black, and the hairs are 

The imago from this larva was out on the 31st of 
May. (George T. Porritt, 9th December, 1882; 
E.M.M., January, 1883, XIX, 187.) 



Plate CLXIV, fig. 10. 

On the 7th of July, 1882, I received from Mr. W. 
H. B. Fletcher several full-grown larvse feeding on 
the flowers of honeysuckle. 

The body of the full-grown larva is very plump and 
the head small ; the thoracic segments taper to the 
head ; the skin is soft, smooth, and very glossy ; a 
deep transverse wrinkle is across beyond the middle 
of each segment, and the divisions are well defined ; 
it tapers a little also at the last two segments ; the 
legs on the belly are rather short and well beneath 
the body. In colour it is of a deep reddish-pink, 
showing a thin and faint subdorsal line on either side 
the back, and a spiracular line equally thin and pale ; 
these are transparent and light greenish ; the head is 
pale pinkish-green with dark brown mouth ; the 
ventral legs are colourless fringed with dark hooks ; 
it measures 8 J mm. in length. 

The larva, in its general aspect, looks very much 
like a pink maggot. 

The pupa is suspended by the tail, head downwards, 
hanging with a free lateral movement at will ; it is 
about 6 mm. in length ; it is of moderate substance 
and is not remarkable for any peculiarity of form, 
save that the wing-covers are rather long, extending 
to within three segments of the abdominal tip, the 
ends of the leg-cases projecting free. At first the 
colouring is pink, but it gradually changes to a pale 
greenish ochreous, and the eye-pieces assume a brown 
colour (this was on the 24th of July). 

Some of these larvss did not suspend themselves, 
but spun themselves up in horizontal positions within 
slight silken cocoons of open-meshed reticulation. 

On the 27th of June, 1883, Mr. Fletcher sent me 
many more larvse of this species ; most of them were 


at first of a pale greenish .ochreous yellow tint, 
assimilating wonderfully well with the flowers of the 
honeysuckle they feed on, and when they are mature 
and turned pink they well match that part of the 
blossom so coloured. These, like the former batch, 
fed up quickly, and began to spin up in cocoons on 
the 1st of July, and all were pupse by the 3rd. These 
pupas were all pale greenish-yellow. (William 
Buckler, July, 1883; Note Book IV, 143.) 



The following list of parasites, bred from the larvae 
of the species included in the present volume, has 
been kindly prepared by Mr. G. C. Bignell, F.E.S. — 
G. T. P. 


Madopa salicalis 

Pyralis farinalis 

Ennychia octomacu- 

Eudorea pho3oleuca ... 

„ coarctella 
Botys verticalis 

„ asinalis.... 

,, ,, . .... 

Ebulea crocealis 


Ophion obscurum Fab 

Exochus mansuetor Gr 

Macrocentrus abdominalis Fab. 

Chelonus parcicornis Schaff 

By whom bred. 

,, sambucalis 
,, stachydalis ... 
Crambus salinellus = 
Pterophorus Meracii 
= teucrii 

„ galactodactylus 

5} »> 

„ tephradactylus .. 
„ microdactylus .. 
» >> 

„ plagiodactylus .. 

>> >> 

Alucita polydactyla 

Nemeritis macrocentra Gr 

Limneria fenestralis Holm 

,, majalis Gr 

Macrocentrus abdominalis Fab. < 

Lissonotabellator Gr 

„ nitida Bridg 

Rhogas circumscriptus Nees 

Apanteles obscurus Nees 

Macrocentrus abdominalis Fab... 
Limneria mutabilis Holm 

„ tricincta Gr 

Limneria carbonaria Brisch. ... 

„ barrettii Bridg 

teucrii Bridgr. 

Ischnus nigricollis Wesm. 

Limneria unicincta Gr. . . . 

Rhogas bicolor Spin 

Apanteles adjunctus Nees 

,, falcatus Nees ... 

,, albipennis Nees 

Limneria ruficincta Gr. . 

Apanteles sericeus Nees , 

„ difficilis Nees 
Limneria multicincta Gr 

G. C. Bignell. 

W. Buckler. 

W. R. Jeffrey. 

W. H. B. 

G. T. Porritt. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. T. Porritt. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. T. Porritt. 
T. R. Billups. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. 0. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
J. B.Bridgman 
C. G. Barrett. 

W. H. B. 

C. G. Barrett. 

W. H. B. 

G. C. Bignell. 
C. G. Barrett. 
G. C. Bignell. 
J. B. Bridgman 
G. T. Porritt. 
G. T. Porritt. 
R.C. R.Jordan. 

G. Elisha. 

G. 0. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

C. G. Barrett. 

W. H. B. 


E. A. Fitch. 

C. Carrington. 

E. A. Fitch. 


The following list of parasites, bred since the pub- 
lication of the preceding volumes, has been kindly 
prepared by Mr. G. 0. Bignell, F.E.S.— G. T. P. 



Papilio machaon.. . , 
Gonepteryx rhavai i 

Aporia cratvegi 

Pier is brassiac 

Hipparchia janira 
Vanessa atalanta . 

„ urticse .. 
Argynnis papliia 
Melitzea artemis . 

„ cinxia 

Thecla betulse 

., w-album 

Polyommatus argiolus 

„ alsus... 

,, alexis... 

„ agestis.. 

Procris g cry on 


Smerinthus populi . . . 

Pelecy stoma lutea Nees 

Mesoleivs insolens Gr 

„ formosus Gr 

Pimpla scanica Gr 

Apanteles glomeratus L 

,, rubripes Hal 

,, tetricus Rhd 

Limneria majalis Gr 

Pimpla instigator Fab 

Apanteles fulvipes Hal 

„ rubripes Hal 

Amblyteles castigator Fab. ... 

Limneria parvula Gr 

*Hemiteles fulvipes Gr 

Apanteles zygsenarum Mar. < 

Apanteles ruficrus Hal 

Limneria ruficincta Gr 

Cryptus cimbicis Tscbek 

Listrodromus nycthemcrus ") 

Gr | 

= quinqueguttatus Gr. J 

Limneria acideata Bridg. . . . ] 

Apanteles zygsena/rum Mnr. .. 

,, astrarche Mar. (MS.) 
Limneria fulviventr is Gmel. 

Apanteles notlius Rhd 

Macrocentrus abdominalis 

Pimpla instigator Fab 

Tryphon elongator Fab. ... 
' Microplitis ocellatpe Bou. ... 

Sphinx ligustri ' Trogus exaltatorius Panz. 

alboguttatus Gr. 

By whom bred. 

R. Adkin. 
F. W. Frobawk. 
T. R. Billups. 
T. R. Billups. 
G. C. Bignell. 
P. Cameron. 
G. C. Bionell. 
G. C. Bignell. 

J. Arkle. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. Harding. 

G. C. Bignell. 

R. Adkin. 
T. R. Billups. 
T. R. Billups. Y.Kane, 
Miss Hincbliff. 
B. A. Bower. 
P. B. Mason. 

T. A. Marshall. 

T. A. Chapman. 

W.H. B.Fletcher 


J. Gardner. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. C. Bignell. 

T. R. Billups. 

T. R. Billups. 

T. R. Billups. 

W. White. 

G. T. Baker. 

G. C. Bignell. 

G. H. Ray nor. 

R. Adkin. 

* Hyperparasite on Apanteles zygsena/rum. 





Deilephila galii 

j> »> 

Chmrocampa porcellns 



,, sphegiforme 

55 55 

,, scoliseforme 
„ tipuliforme., 

55 5' 

,, culiciforme., 

Zeuzera sesculi 

Cossns ligniperda 

Centra bifida 

„ vinula 

Stauropus fagi 

Notodonta dromeda- 

Drymonia chaonia 

JJ 5> 

Diloba cseruleocephala 
Petasia cassinea ... 
Clostera curtula 

Dasychirafascelina .. 

Demas coryli 

Orgyia antigua 

Porthesia chrysorrhoea 
Nola cucullatella ... 

Arctia caja 

villica , 

Phragmatobia fuligi- 

55 }5 

Spilosoma menthastri 

Callimorpha jacobeeee 

55 55 

Lasiocampa rubi 

Amblyteles proteus Gr 

Trogus exaltatorius Panz 

Amblyteles fusorius L < 

Trogus exaltatorius Panz 

Anomalon cylindricum Bridg. 

Banchus m oniliatus Gr 

„ falcator Fab 

Ephialtes tuberculatus Fourc. 

Macrocentrusmarginator Nees 
Chasmodes motatorius Fab. . . . 
Lissonota segmentator Fab. ... 

Pimpla examinator Fab 

Lissonota bellator Gr 

Meniscus agnatus Gr 

Lissonota cylindrator Gr 

Macrocentrus infirmus Nees... 

*Exorista fauna Meig 

Apanteles octonarius Rtz. 

,, pofularis Hal 

,, stauropedis Marsh. 


,, octonarius Rtz 

Campoplex nobilitatus Holm... 

„ carbonara Rtz. . . , 
Apanteles juniperatse Boil. . . 

,, fulvipes Hal 

Ophion minutum Kriech 

Paniscus cephalotes Holm. , 

Banchus falcator Fab 

Ophion luteum L , 

Pimpla graminellse Schr 

Microgaster connexus Nees 

Mesochorus vittator Zett 

Apanteles spurius Wesm 

Hemiteles fulvipes Gr 

Pezomachus tristis Forst..., 
Exophanes exulans Gr 

Apanteles fulvipes Hal 

Campoplex mixtus Gr 

,, confusus Forst 

Apanteles difficilis Nees 

Agathis nigra Nees 

Mesostenus obnoxius Gr 

Amblyteles armatorius Forst., 
Cryptus migrator Fab 

R. Peek. 

R. Peek. 

J. H. Wood. 

R. Adkin. 

R. Adkin. 

R. Adkin. 

R. Adkin. 

R. Adkin. 

P. W. Abbott. 

P. W. Abbott. 

S. Cooper. 

W. H. Tugwell. 

C. S. Gregson. 

S. Cooper. 

J. R. Wellman. 

T. R. Billups. 

H. J. Turner. 

G. C. Bignell. 

E. D. Y. Pode. 

N. P. Decie. 
J. B. Bridgman. 

Mrs. Hutchinson. 

C. D. Ash. 

C. D. Ash. 

R. South. 
G. C. Bignell. 
H. W. Barker. 
H. W. Barker. 
T. R. Billups. 

J. N. Still. 

J. Gardner. 
T. R. Billups. 
E. A. At more. 

R. Adkin. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 
H. W. Barker. 

W. H. Tugwell. 

S. Cooper. 

S. Cooper. 

S. Cooper. 

R. Adkin. 

G. C. Bignell. 

T. R. Billups. 

G. V. Hart. 

Dipteron, emerged after hibernation of the larva). 





Lasiocampa rubi Apanteles ruficrus Hal. . . . 


,, ,, *Tachina larvarum L 

„ trifolii ... fCryptus migrator Fab. ... 

,, quercns... ,, titillator Gv 

„ ,, ... Metopius dentatus Fab... 

Saiumia pavonia 1 Evetastes illusor Gr 


Meteorus luridus Ruthe 
Pimpla Jiavonotata Holm 

Platypteryx, lacerti 

Psyche = Fumea Limner ia fasciata Bridg 

inter mediella 

,, „ „ ' Lissonott: obsoleta Bridg 1 

Limacodes testudo Platylabus pedatorius Fab. . . . 

Acronycta psi Ophion luteum L 

., aceris j Paniscus testaceus Gr 

,, megacephala j Ophion luteum L 

„ alni [ Macrocentrus abdomincdis 


„ ligustri i Limneria unicincta Gr 

Simyra venosa ! Crypt as tricolor Gr 

Leucania straminea . . . 

Gortijna flavago 

Hydrsecia nictitans ... 

,, petasitis ... 

Agrotis agathina 

,, ashworthii . . . 
Noctua tricing ulum ... 
Tteniocampa populeti.. 
Scopelosoma satellitia 

\Xanthia cerago 

j Tethea subtusa 

\Xylina rhizolitha 

\Erastria fuscida 

\Plusia interrogations 

Mesoleptus testaceus Fab 

Bassus Ixtatorius Fab 

Meteorus punctiventris Ruthe. 
Lissonota variabilis Holm. ... 
Macrocentrus abdomincdis 

Meteorus 2iulchricornis Wesm. 

Ichneumon luctatorius L 

Macrocentrus thoracicus Nees 

Campoplev carbonara Ratz 

Meteorus ictericus Nees 

Amblyteles castanopygus Step. 

Paniscus testaceus Gr 

Macrocentrus thoracicus Nees 
Meteorus chrysophthalmus ( 

Nees \ 
Meteorus deceptor Wesm 

By whom bred. 

T. R. Billups. 

W. G. Clutten. 

G. C. Bignell. 

W. H. Tugwell. 

A. B. Farn. 
H. W. Barker. 

H. W. Barker. 
R. C. Bradley. 

W.H.B. Fletcher. 

R. Adkin. 
J. N. Still. 
J. N. Still. 
R. Adkiu. 

C. D. Ash. 

H. D'Orville. 

T. Eedle. 

W. H. Harwood. 

T. Eedle. 

T. R. Billups. 

T. R. Billups. 

R. South. 
G. C. Bignell. 

J. Gardner. 

J. Arkle. 

G. C. Bignell. 

Mrs. Hutchinson 

J. Hellins. 

C. S. Gregson. 

J. Gardner. 
G. C. Bignell. 
G. C. Bignell. 

J. Hellins. 
K. J. Morton. 

* Dipteron, emerged after hibernation of the larvae, before pupating, 
f Twelve males. 



Abietella, Nepbopteryx . 249 
Acantbodactylus, Ptero- 

phorus .... 350 

Acbatinella, Nyctegretes . 234 

Adipellus, Cram bus . . 290 

Adornatella, Pempelia . 269 

Advenella, Myelois . . 238 

Alienella, Hypoclialcia . 243 

Albistrigalis, Hypenodes * 3 

Alpina, Eudorea . . . 199 

Alpinalis, Scopula . . 162 

Alvearia, Melliphora . . 202 

Ambigualis, Eudorea . . 188 

Anguinalis, Ennycliia . 47 

Angustalis, Cledeobia . . 41 

Angustea, Eudorea . . 196 

Angustella, Acrobasis . 230 

Artemisiella, Epliestia . 216 

Asinalis, Botys . . . 133 

Badiella, Depressaria . . 329 

Baliodactylus, Pteropborus 378 

Barbalis, Herminia . . 14 

Basistrigalis, Eudorea . 188 

Bennetii, Adactyla . . 335 

Bertrami, Pteropborus 341, 345 

Betulae, Pempelia . . 278 

Bineevella, Homo30soma . 222 
Bipunctidactylus, Ptero- 

Bistriga, Cryptoblabes 
Bracbydactylus, Ptero 


Canella, Gymiianeyla . 





Carbonariella, Pbycis . 


Carnella, Pempelia 


Cembrse, Eudorea 


Cepbalonica, Melissoblaptes 

, 202 

Cerella, Galleria . 


Cerussellus, Crambus . 


Cespitalis, Herbula 


Cbrysonucbellus, Crambus 

. 285 

Cilialis, Nascia 


Clorana, Earias . 

. 323 

Coarctalis, Eudorea 

. 196 

Colonella, Apbomia 


Consociella, Acrobasis 

. 229 

Conspicualis, Eudorea . 


Contaminellus, Crambus 

. 302 

Cosmodactylus, Pteropbo- 

rus . . . .35 


Costaestrigalis, Hypenodes 


Cribralis, Herminia 


Cribrum, Myelois 


Crocealis, Ebulea 


Culmellus, Crambus . 


Cuprealis, Aglossa 


Davisella, Pempelia 


Decrepitalis, Scopula . 


Dentalis, Odontia 


Derivalis, Herminia 


Dicbrodactylus, Pteropho 

rus . 


Dilutella, Pempelia 


Domestica, Gelecbia 

. 333 

Dumetellus, Crambus . 


Elutella, Epliestia 




Falsellus, Crambus 
JFarfarse, Pterophorus . 
Farinalis, Pyralis 
Fascelinellus, Crambus 
Fenestvella, Endrosis . 
Ferrugalis, Scopula 
Ficella, Ephestia . 
Ficulella, Ephestia 
Flammealis, Endotricba 
Forficalis, Pionea 
Forficellus, Cliilo 
Formosa, Pempelia 
Formosella, Rhodopham 
Forsterana, Tortiix 
Frequentella, Eudorea 
Furcatellus, Crambus . 
Fusca, Pempelia . 
Fuscalis, Botys 
Fuscodactylus, Pterophorus 

Fuscus, Pterophorus . 346, 362 





Galactodactylus, Pteropho- 
rus .... 346, 373 


Geniculeus, Crambus . 
Genistella, Nephopteryx 
Glaucinalis, Pyralis 
Gonodactylus, Pterophorus 
Grisealis, Herminia 
Grisella, A chroia . 

Hamellus, Crambus 
Hieracii, Pterophorus . 
Hortuellus, Crambus . 
Hostilis, Pempelia 
Hyalinalis, Botys 
Hybridalis, Stenopteryx 

Inquinatellus, Crambus 
Interpunctella, Ephestia 
Isodactylus, Pterophorus 

Laueealis, Botys . 
Lcmiiata, Cataclysta . 






Lienigianus, Pterophorus 346, 366 
Lineola, Eudorea . . . 195 
Lithodactylus, Pterophorus 364 
Loewii, Pterophorus . 346, 358 
Lotella, Anerastia . . 203 
Lutealis, Scopula . . . 162 

Margaritellus, Crambus . 310 
Marmorea, Myelois . . 238 
Mellonella, Galleria . . 199 
Microdactyly, Pteropho- 
rus . ' . . . 346,370 
M itter bacheriana, Anchy lo- 
pera ..... 
Monodactylus, Pterophorus 
Mucronellus, Chilo 
Murana, Eudorea 


Nebulella, Homceosoma . 219 

Nemoralis, Agrotera . . 54 

Nemoralis, Herminia . . 17 

Nimbella, Homceosoma . 220 

Niveus, Acentropus . . 110 

Nympha3ata, Hydrocampa . 85 

Ochiodactylus, Pteropho- 
rus . . . 338,345 

Octomaculata, Ennychia . 51 

Olivalis, Scopula . . . 165 

Osteodactylus, Pterophorus 369 

Palealis, Spilodes . . 159 
Palumbella, Pempelia . . 282 
Pandalis, Botys . . . 112 
Paralis, Eudorea . . . 199 
Pascuellus, Crambus . . 291 
Passulella, Ephestia . . 209 
Pedriolellus, Crambus . . 295 
Pentadactylus, Pteropho- 
rus .... 346, 380 
Perlellus, Crambus . . 313 
Phajodactylus, Pterophorus 357 
Phragmitellus, Chilo . . 321 




Pinetellus, Crambus . . 310 

Pinguinalis, Aglossa . . 26 

Pinguis, Myelois . . . 240 
Plagiodactylus, Pteropho- 

rus .... 346,359 

Polydactyla, Alucita . . 382 

Pratellus, Crambus . . 287 

Prunalis, Scopula . . 168 
Pterodactylus, Pteropho- 
rus . . . 346, 362, 365 

Pulveralis, Lemiodes . . 149 

Punctalis, Stenia ... 70 

Punctidactylus, Pterophorus 352 

Punicealis, Pyrausta . . 43 

Resinea, Eudorea . . 192 

Revayana, Savrothripa . 326 

Rhododactylus, Pterophorus 337 

Roborella, Nepbopteryx . 255 

Rostralis, Hypena . . 1 

Salinellus, Crambus . . 302 

Sambucalis, Ebulea . . 145 

Saxicola, Homoeosoma . 221 

Scabiodactylus, Pterophorus 361 

Selasellus, Crambus . . 305 

Semii'uf'a, Ephestia . . 208 

Senecionis, Homoaosoma . 224 

Sericealis, Rivula . . 6 

Sinuella, Homoeosoma . 225 

Sociella, Aphomia . . 201 


Spilodactylus, Pterophorus 375 

Stachydalis, Ebulea . . 144 

Stagnata, Hydrocampa . 101 

Sticticalis, Spilodes . . 157 

Stramentalis, Pionea . . 152 

Stratiotata, Paraponyx . 79 

Suavella, Myelois . . 236 

Subornatella, Pempelia . 265 

Sylvellus, Crambus . . 290 

Tarsipennalis, Herminia . 16 
Tephradaetylus, Pteropho- 
rus 368 

Terrealis, Botys . . . 131 
Tetradactylus, Pterophorus 379 
Teucrii, Pterophorus . 346, 354 
Trigonodactylus, Pteropho- 
rus .... 346, 347 
Tristellus, Crambus . . 307 
Truncicolella, Eudorea . 189 
Turfosalis, Schrankia . . 5 

Urticata, Botys . 

. 136 

Verbascalis, Ebulea . . 141 

Yerticalis, Botys . . . 124 

Virgaureana, Cnephasia . 329 

Warringtonellus, Crambus . 316 

Zophodactylus, Pterophorus 358 




Note. — The nomenclature is that of Stainton's Manual of British 
Butterflies and Moths, with a very few additional names and 
synonyms added. 




grossulariata . 


pp. 150, 



OXXIV, fig. 1 


ulinata . 


no description 

„ ng. 2 

Abrostola triplasia 



on, fig. 2 


uvticse . 



,5 fig.l 

Acentropus niveus 


p. 110 

CLII, fig. 2 

Acherontia atropos 

II, p. 107 

XXI, fig. 1 



(Melliphora alvearia 

) ix, 

p. 202 

CLVI, fig. 3 


. aversata . 


, no description 

CXIX, fig. 7 


bisetata . 


p. 91 

CXVII, fig. 3 




p. 106 

CXVIII, fig. 3 




p. 9-4 

OXVII, fig. 5 




p. 127 

CXIX, fig. 9 




p. 130 

„ fig. 10 




p. 124 

fig- 6 


fumata . 

• 55 

no description 

5, fig- 3 




p. 99 

CXVIII, fig. 1 


imitaria . 


p. 122 

CXIX, fig. 5 




p. 118 

„ fig- 1 





p. 108 

CXVIII, fig. 5 





Acidalia inornata . 

VII, no description 

CXIX, fig. 8 

„ niancuniata . 

. „ p. 115 

CXVIII, fig. 8 

,, marginepunctata 

(straminata) ,, p. 110 

fig- t> 

,, ochrata 

. „ p. 80 

no figure 

55 55 

. VIII, no description 

CXLVII, fig. c 

,, ornata . 

. VII, p. 107 

CXVIII, fig. 4 

,, osseata 

(interject aria 

) „ p. 97 

CXVII, fig. 7 

,, rem ut at a 

. „ p. 120 

CXIX, fig. 2 

„ rubricata 

• „ p. 86 

CXVII, fig. 1 

„ rusticata 

. „ p. 95 

fig- 6 

„ scutulata 

. „ p. 90 

„ fig- 2 

,, strigilata 

. „ p. 121 

CXIX, fig. 4 

„ subsericeata 

„ p. 114 

CXVIII, fig. 7 

,, trigeminata 

„ p. 92 

CXVII, fig. 4 

,, virgularia 

. „ p. 101 

CXVIII, fig. 2 

Acontia luctuosa . 

. VI, p. 90 

CI, fig. 1 

Acrobasis angustella . 

IX, p. 230 

CLVIII, fig. 1 

„ consociella 

. „ p. 229 

fig- ^ 

Acronycta aceris . 

IV, p. 114, no descriptor 

l LVI, fig. 4 

55 55 ■ ' 

IX, p. 387 

„ alni 

IV, pp. 13, 114 

LVII, fig. 1 

55 55 • 

. IX, pp. 387 

,, auricoma 

. IV, p. 20 

„ fig- 4 

,, leporina 

„ pp.8, 114 

LVI, fig. 3 

,, ligustri 

„ no description 

LVII, fig. 2 

55 55 

. IX, p. 387 

„ megacepkala 

IV, no description 

LVI, fig. 5 

55 55 

IX, p. 387 

,, menyanthidi 

s IV, p. 114, no description 

l LVII, fig. 5 

„ myricas 

■ 5, pp. 21,114 

„ fig- 6 

„ psi 

„ p. 114, no description 

LVI, fig. 2 

55 55 

. IX, p. 387 

„ rumicis 

IV, pp. 19, 114 

LVII, fig. 3 

„ strigosa 

„ p. 9 

LVI, fig. 6 

„ tridens 

,, no description 

fio* 1 

55 Xl t3' 

Adactyla bennetii 

IX, p. 335 

CLXIII, fig. 1 

Aglossa cuprealis . 

„ p. 35 

CXLIX, fig. 5 

„ pinguinalis . . 

5, p. 26 

fig- 4 

Agriopis aprilina . 

VI, p. 30 

XCI, fig. 2 

Agrophila sulphuralis . 

„ P- 89 

C, fig. 5 

Agrotera ncmoralis 

IX, p. 55 

CL, fig. 5 





Agrotis agatbina . 


p. 87, no description 

LXXII, fig. 5 

-*» 3 3 * ' 


, p. 387 

, aquiliua . 


p. 20 

LXXII, fig. 3 

, asbvvortbii 


p. 88, no description 

LXXIII, fig. 5 

> » 


, p. 387 

, cinerea 


p. 12 

LXXI, fig. 5 

corticea . 

• J> 

p. 9 

s, fig- 4 

, cursoria . 

• >3 

p. 17 

„ fig. 7 

, exclamationis 


pp. 7, 87 

„ fig- 3 

, lucernea . 

5 J 

no description 

LXXIII, fig. 4 

, lunigera . 


p. 3 

LXXI, fig. 2 

, nigricans . 


p. 19 

LXXII, fig. 1 

, obelisca . 


p. 21 

fig- 4 

, porpbyrea 


p. 87, no description 

LXXIII, fig. 1 

, praecox 


p. 88, 

„ ng. 2 

, puta . 



LXX, fig. 3 

, ravida 


p. 22 

LXXIII, fig. 3 

, ripa3 


no description 

LXXI, fig. 6 

, saucia 

5 J 


LXX, fig. 5 

, segetum . 



LXXI, fig. 1 

, suffusa 



LXX, fig. 4 

, tritici 


p. 87, „ 

LXXII, fig. 2 

, valligcra . 

) 5 


LXX, fig. 2 

Aleucis pictaria 


CXX, fig. 6 

Alucita polydactyla 


, pp. 382, 384. 

CLXIV, fig. 10 

Ampbidasis betularia 

VII, pp. 172, 173, 

CX, fig. 5 

no description 

„ prodromavit 



„ fig- 4 

Ampbipyra pyramidea 

. V] 

, 140, 

cm, fig. 2 

„ tragopogonis 

> JJ 

no description 

„ fig. 3 

Anaitis plagiata . 

. VIII, 

CXLVI, fig. 2 

Anarta cordigera . 


, p. 80 


„ melanopa . 


p. 78 

„ fig. 1 

„ myrtilli 


p. 139, no description 

s, fig- 3 

Ancbocelis litura . 



LXXXIV, fig. 4 

„ lunosa 


p. 65 

LXXXIII, fig. 3 

,, pistacina 


no description 

fig. 2 

„ rufina . 


p. 62 

fig. 1 




, p. 328 

CLXI, fig. 7 

Anerastia lotella . 


p. 203 

CLVI, fig. 4 

Angerona prunaria 

VII, no description 

CVI, fig. 7 


sopteryx aascularia 

• 3 

, pp. 157, 174 

(JXXVI, fig. 1 




Anthocharis cardamines I, p. 159 
Antkrocera exulans 

,, filipendulse 

„ lonicerse 

,, minos, var 

,, trifolii 

Anticlea badiata . 

,, berberata 
,, derivata 
„ rubidata 
„ sinuata 
Apamea basilinea 
,, connexa 
„ fibrosa 
„ gemina 
,, oculea 
„ ophiogramma 
„ unanimis 
Apatura iris . 
Aphomia colonella 

Aplecta advena 
„ herbida . 
,, nebulosa • 
,, occulta 
,, tincta 
Aporia cratsegi 

Aporophyla australis 
Arctia caja . 

„ villica 

,, ,, • 

Arge galathea 

Argynnis adippe . 

„ aglaia . 

,, euphrosyne 

,, papliia . 

II, p. 13 
» p. 97 
IX, p. 385 
II, p. 18 

„ p. 9 
„ p. 94 
VIII, p. 118, 

no description 


p. 118, 


„ p. 84 

„ P- 94 

„ pp. 86, 115 

„ p. 97 

,, P- 93 

„ pp.87, 115 
I, p. 42 

IX, p. 201 
VI, p. 45 

„ p. 36 

,, p. 139, no descript; 

„ p. 39 

„ p. 44 
I, no description 
IX, p. 385 
IV, p. 63 
III, pp. 77, 78, 

no description 
IX, p. 386 

III, p. 78, no description 
IX, p. 386 
I, p. 160 
„ p. 65 
„ P. 71 
„ p. 77 
„ p. 58 
IX, p. 385 


Ill, ng. 2 
XIX, fig. 1 
„ fig. 4 

„ fig. 3 

XVIII, fig. 4 

XIX, fig. 2 
CXL, fig. 3 

„ fig. 5 
,i fig. 4 
» fig- 2 

» fig.l 
LXVII, fig. 1 
no figure 
LXVII, fig. 4 
„ fig- 2 
fig- 5 
no figure 
LXVII, fig. 3 
VII, fig. 2 

CLVI, fig. 2 
XCII, fig. 5 
» fig.l 
,, fig- 3 
„ fig- 2 
» fig. 4 
II, fig- 1 

LXIV, fig. 1 
XLIV, fig. 3 

fig. ^ 

HI, fig- 4 

X, fig. 2 
„ fig. 3 

XI, fig. 2 
X, fig. 1 



Argynnis selene . 

. I, p. 73 

XI, fig. 1 

Aspilates citraria . 

. VII, p. 173, no description CXXIII, fig. 5 

,, gilvaria 

• „ p. 147 

fig. 6 

„ stri gill aria 

,, no description 

fig. 4 

Asthena blomeri . 

» P- 75 

CXVI, fig. 5 

„ candidata 

„ P- 71 

„ fig. 3 

,, luteata . 

„ no description 

55 fig- 2 

„ sylvata . 

„ P- 72 

55 fig. 4 

Aventia flexula 

„ p. 134 

CXXI, fig. 1 

Axylia putris 

IV, p. 115, no description 

LXn, fig. 5 

Bankia bankiana . 

VI, p. 94 

01, fig. 4 

Biston hirtaria 

VII, p. 172, no description 

CX, fig. 3 

Boarmia abietaria . 

„ p. 20 

CXII, fig. 1 

,, cinctaria. 

„ p. 24 

5, fig. 2 

,, consortaria 

„ p. 32 

5, fig- 4 


,, p. 173, no description 

CXI, fig. 4 

„ rhomboidaria 

., p. 173 

,5 fig. 5 

„ roboraria 

„ pp. 27, 173 

CXII, fig. 3 

Boletobia fuliginaria 

„ p. 47 

no figure 

S3 55 

VIII, no description 

CXLVII, fig. 2 

Botys asinalis 

IX, pp. 133, 384 

CLIII, fig. 7 

,, fuscalis 

„ p. 129 

,5 fig- 5 

,, hyalinalis . 

„ P- 120 

„ fig. 2 

., lancealis 

„ p. 125 

,5 fig- 4 

„ pandalis 

. „ p. 112 

5, fig- 1 

,, terrealis 

„ p. 131 

„ fig- 6 

„ nrticata 

„ p. 136 

„ fig- 8 

„ verticalis 

„ pp. 124, 384 

„ fig- 3 

Bradyepetes amataria 

VII, no description 

CXX, fig. 1 

Brephos notha 

VI, pp. 98, 140 

01, fig. 7 

„ parthenias 

„ p. 140, no description 

5, fig- 6 

Bryophila glandifera 

IV, p. 114 

LV, fig. 4 

„ perla 

„ p. 114 

„ fig- 3 

Oabera exanthemata 

„ pusaria 
Callimorpha jacobaise 

5J 35 

Calocampa exoleta 
., vetusta 

VII, p. 132 CXX, fig. 3 

„ p. 173, no description „ fig. 2 
III, p. 78 „ ' XLVI, fig. 1 

IX, p. 386 

VI „ XCVI, fig. 2 

fig- 1 





„ fluviata 

Caradrina alsines . 

„ blanda . 

,, cubicularis 

,, morpheus 

Carpocapsa pomonella 
Carsia imbutata . 
Cataclysta lemnata 
Catocala fraxini 

,, nupta 

,, promissa 

„ sponsa 
Celama liawortliii 
Cerastis spadicea 

,, vaccinii 
Cerigo cytherea 
Oerura bicuspis 
bifida . 

v inula 

Char seas graminis 
Cheimatobia boreata 
,, brumata 

Chesias obliquaria 
„ spartiata . 
Chilo forficellus . 
,, mucronellus 
,, phragmitellus 
Chloephora prasinana 
„ quercana 

Clioerocampa celerio 
„ elpenor 

,, porcellus 

Chrysophanus phlcoas 
Cidaria corylata . 
,, dotata 

VIII, p. 71 

„ p. 72 
IV, no description 

„ pp. 111,115 
IX, no description 

VIII, p. 102 

IX, p. 74 
VI, p. 119 

„ pp. 121, 140 
„ p. 121 
„ P- 127 

x , , p. 107 

V, p. 89, no description 

,, no description 


II, pp. 62, 137 

„ p. 141 
IX, p. 386 
II, p. 137 

„ p. 143 
IX, p. 386 
IV, p. 70 

VII, p. 160 

„ pp. 160, 174 

VIII, no description 
„ pp. 107, 118 

„ pp. 107, 118 

IX, p. 320 
„ p. 319 
„ p. 321 

„ no description 

II, p. 113 " 

„ p. 113 

„ p. 116 
IX, p. 386 
I, p. 91 
VIII, no description 

„ pp. 95, 118 


CXLI, fig. 1 

» fig- 2 
LXIX, fig. 3 

fig. 4 

» fig. 5 

» fig. 2 
CLXI, fig. 8 
CXLVI, fig. 1 
CLI, fig. 1 
CIV, fig. 4 

„ fig. 5 
CV, fig. 1 
» fig. 2 
LXVIII, fig. 7 
LXXXIII, fig. 6 
fig. 5 
LXV, fig. 2 
XXXII, fig. 1 
fie. 3 

fig. 2 
fisr. 4 

LXIV, fig. 4 
CXXVI, fig. 3 

» fig. 2 
CXLVII, fig. 5 
CXLVI, fig. 5 
fig. 4 
no figure 
CLIX, fig. 6 

,, fig- 7 

CLXI, fig. 1 

„ fig. 2 

XXV, fig. 2 
„ fig. 3 

XXVI, fig. 1 

XIII, fig. 4 
CXLII, fig. 9 
CXLIV, fig. 6 
fig. 4 





Cidaria immanata 

. VIII, pp. 85, 118 

CXLIII, fig. 3 

,, miata 

„ p. 81 

CXLII, fig. 7 

,, picata 

„ p. 82 

„ fig. 8 

,, populata . 

„ p. 93 

CXLIV, fig. 3 

,, pritnata . 

„ p. 118, 

no description 

» fig- 1 

,, psittacata . 

,, no description 

CXLII, fig. 6 

,, pyraliata . 

„ p. H8, 

no description 

CXLIV, fig. 5 

,, reticulata . 

„ p. 89 

CXLIII, fig. 5 

,, russata 

„ pp. 85, 188 

.. fi^ 2 

,, sagittata . 

„ pp. 83, 118 

„ fig. 1 

,, silaceata . 

., no description 

fig. 6 

,, suffumata . 

. „ p. 89 

fig. 4 

ji LGSLttLtl • 

,, no description 

CXLIV, fig. 2 

Cilix spinula . 

. HI, 

LII, fig. 2 

Cirrcedia xerampelina 

Y, p. 78 

LXXXV, fig. 3 

Cledeobia angustalis 

IX, p. 41 

CXLIX, fig. 6 

Cleora glabraria . 

VII, pp. 16, 173 

CXI, fig. 2 

„ lichenaria . 

„ p. 173, 

no description 

„ fig. 3 

Clisiocampa castrensis 

III, no description 

L, fig. 1 

,, neu stria 

„ p. 78, 

„ fig. 2 

Cloantha solidaginis 

VI, p. 58 

XCV, fig. 5 

Clostera anachoreta 

. Ill, no description 

XXXVII, fig. 2 

,, curtula . 

5, ,, 

fig. 3 

j> ,» 

IX, p. 386 

„ reclusa 

. Ill, p. 77, no description 

„ fig- 1 

Cnephasia subjectana 

. IX, no description 

CLXI, fig. 9 

,, virgaureana 

. „ p. 329 

no figure 

Ccenonympha davus 

. I, p. 35 

VI, fig. 3 

,, pamphilm 

i „ p. 172 

» fig- 4 

Colias edusa . 

• „ p. 9 

I, fig. 3 

„ liyale . 

• » p. 16 

no figure 

Collix sparsata 

. VIII, p. 53 

CXXXVII, fig. 1 

Coremia ferrugaria 

,, no description 

CXL, fig. 8 

,, munitata . 

• ,, >y 

„ fig. 6 

„ propugnata 

. „ p. 68 

» fig. 7 

„ quadrifasciarin 

,, p. 70 

„ fig. 10 

„ unidentaria 

,, no description 

» fig. 9 

Corycia punctata 


) VII, pp. 133, 173 

CXX, fig. 4 

„ taminata . 

„ no description 

„ fig- 5 



Cosmia affinis 
,, diffinis 
„ trapezina . 

Cossus ligniperda . 

Crambus cerussellas 

„ chrysonucliellus 

,, contaminellus 


., culmellus . 

„ dumetellus 

,, falsellus 

„ fiircatellus 

„ geniculeus 

,, hamellus . 

„ liortuellus 

,, inquinatellus 

„ latistrius . 

,, margaritellns 

„ pascuellus 

,, pedriolellns 


,, perlellus . 

,, pinetellus . 

,, pratellus . 

,, salinellus . 

„ selasellus . 

,, sylvellus . 

„ tristellus . 

., warringtonellus 

Crocallis elinguaria 

Cryptoblabes bistriga 
Cucullia absintliii 
, , asteris 
„ cbamomillae 

„ gnaphalii 
,, lychnitis . 
,, scrophulariae 
„ umbratica 
,, verbasci . 
Cybosia mesomella 


V, p. 86 
„ p. 85 

,, p. 89, no description 
II, pp. 59, 135 
IX, p. 386 

„ p. 284 

„ p. 285 

„ pp. 302, 384 

„ p. 292 

„ p. 289 

„ p. 285 

., p. 309 

„ p. 299 

„ p. 291 

„ p. 291 

„ p. 298 

,, no description 

„ p. 310 

„ P- 291 

„ p. 295 

„ p. 313 

„ p. 310 

„ p. 287 

„ pp. 302, 384 

„ p. 305 

„ p. 290 

„ p. 307 

„ p. 316 
VII, p. 172, 

no description 
IX, p. 233 

VI, no description 

„ p. 139, 

no description 
„ pp. 69, 139 
,, no description 
., p. 68 
,, p. 71 
„ pp. 67, 139 
III, p. 34 


LXXXVI, fig. 5 

fig. 4 

fie. 3 

XXXI, fig. 3 

CLX, fig. 1 
no figure 

CLX, fig. 8 

„ fig. 4 

„ fig- 3 

„ fig. 2 

no figure 

CLX, fig. 7 

no figure 

CLX, fig. 5 

„ fig- 
no figure 

fig. 12 

CLX, fig. 6 
„ fig. 13 
„ fig. 11 
no figure 
CLX, fig. 8 

.. fig- 9 
no figure 
CLX, fig. 10 

„ fig. 14 
CVIII, fig. 2 

CLVIII, fig. 2 

XCVIII, fig. 3 

„ fig. 1 

fig. 4 

» fig- 2 
XCVII, fig. 3 

» fig. 2 
XCVIII, fig. 5 
XCVII, fig. 1 
XLII, fig. 3 



Cymatophora diluta 

„ duplaris . 

,, flavicornis 

„ fluctuosa 

„ ocularis . 

or . 

,, ridens 

Cynthia cardui 


IV, no description LIV, fig. 5 

., p. 1 „ fig. 3 

„ no description LV, fig. 1 

„ p. 2 LIV, fig. 4 

„ pp. 2, 114 „ fig. 7 

„ p. 114, „ fig. 6 

no description 

„ p. 114 „ LY, fig. 2 

I, pp. 49, 174 VIII, fig. 1 

Dasycampa rubiginea . 
Dasychira fascelina 

,, pudibunda . 
Dasydia obfuscata 
Dasypolia tenipli . 
Deilephila eupliorbia3 . 
galii . 

„ livornica 

Deiopeia pnlcbella 
Denias coryli . 

»j » 

Depressaria badiella 
,, costosa 

„ lieracleana 

„ nervosa 

Dianthsecia albi macula 

,, barrettii . 

,, ca3sia . 

„ cap sine ola 

,, carpopliaga 

., cucubali 

,, irregularis 

Diaphora mendica 

Dicycla oo 

Diloba caeruleocex^bala . 

j» j> • 

Diphthera orion . 
Dipterygia pinastri 


V, 69 

III, p. 77, no description 

IX, p. 386 

III, p. 77, no description 

VII, p. 45 

VI, p. 19 
II, p. 30 

„ p. 36 
IX, p. 386 

II, p. 42 

III, p. 52 

,, p. 77, no description 
IX, p. 386 
„ p. 329 
,, no description 

VI, p. 3 

VIII, no description 
VI, p. 9 

„ p. 6 

„ p. 138, 

no description 

„ p. 138 

„ p. 138 „ 

„ pp, 13, 138 
III, no description 
V, p. 83 

III, pp. 1, 77 

IX, p. 386 

IV, pp. 6, 114 

,, no description 

LXXXIV, fig. 2 
XXXVIII, fig. 1 

fig. ^ 
CXIV, fig. 2 

XXV, fig. 1 
XL VI, fig. 3 
XXXVIII, fig. 3 

CLXII, fig. 9 

„ fig- 7 
„ fig. 10 
„ fig- 8 
no figure 
CXLVII, fig. 1 
LXXXVII, fig. 5 
fig. 3 
fig. 6 

fig- 2: 
fig. 7 
fig- 4 
XLY, fig. 5 
LXXXVI, fig. 2 
XXXVI, fig. 1 

LV, fig. 5 
LXIII, fig. 5 




Drepana falcataria 
,, liamula . 
„ sicnla 
„ unguicula 

Drymonia ckaonia 

„ dodonaea 

Earias clorana 
Ebulea crocealis . 
„ sambucalis 
„ stachydalis 
,, verbascalis 
Ellopia fasciaria . 

Emmelesia affinitata 
Endotriclia flammealis 
Endromis versicolor 
Endrosis fenestrella 
Ennomos alniaria 

„ angularia 
„ erosavia 
„ fuscantaria 
„ tiliaria . 
Ennycbia anguinalis 

„ octomaculata 
Ephestia artemisiella 

,, elutella 
„ ficella 
„ ficulella 
„ (Plodia) 

,, passulella . 
,, semirufa . 
Epbyra omicronaria 


Ill, p. 79, no description 

„ p. 73 

„ p. 66 

,, no description 
II, p. 157 
IX, p. 386 

II, 158 

IX, p. 323 
„ pp. 138, 384 
„ pp. 145, 384 
„ pp. 144, 384 
,; p. 141 

VII, p. 172, 

no description 

VIII, p. 1 
„ p. 4 

„ pp. 3, 117 

„ p. 13 

„ pp. 5, 117 

„ p. 7 

„ pp. 9, 117 

IX, p. 57 

III, p. 60 
IX, p. 334 
VII, p. 172, 

no description 

„ p. 5 

„ p. 4 

IX, p. 47 

„ pp. 51, 384 

„ p. 216 

„ p. 206 

„ p. 212 

„ p. 211 

„ p. 214 
„ p. 209 
„ p. 208 
VII, pp. 63, 173 


LIII, fig. 1 

h fig- 2 
LII, fig. 4 

LIII, fig. 3 
XXXIV, fig. 3 

fig. 4 

CLXI, fig. 3 

CLIV, fig. 1 

fig. 4 

fig- 3 

» fig. 2 

CVII, fig. 1 

CXXVIII, fig. 1 
fig. 3 
fig. 2 
fig. 6 
fig- 4 

no figure 

CXXVIII, fig. 5 

CL, fig. 6 

LI, fig. 3 

CLXII, fig. 12 

CVIII, fig. 3 

CIX, fig. 3 
„ fig- 2 

„ fig.l 
CVIII, fig. 4 
CL, fig. 3 
„ fig- 4 

CLVII, fig. 1 
CLVI, fig. 5 

» fig. 7 
no figure 

CLVI, fig. 8 
„ fig. 6 
uo figure 
CXV, fig. 8 



Ephyra orbicularia 
,, pendularia 
„ porata 
,, punctaria . 
„ trilinearia 

Epione advenaria . 
„ apiciaria . 
„ vespertaria 

Epunda lichenea . 
,, lutulenta . 
„ nigra 
,, viminalis . 

Erastria fuscula . 

>> »j 

„ venustula 
Erebia blandina ( medea) 
„ cassiope 

Eremobia ocbroleuca 
Eriogaster lanestris 
Eubolia bipuuctaria 
„ cervinata . 
„ lineolata . 
„ mensuraria 
„ pluinbaria 
Euclidia glypbica . 

„ mi . 
Eudorea alpina(paralis) 
,, ambigualis 
,, angustea . 
„ basistrigalis 
„ ceinbrae . 
„ coarctella 
„ conspicualis 
„ erataegella 
„ frequentella 

,, lineola 
,, muraua . 
„ pbaeoleuca 

„ resinea . 

truncicolella , 


CXV, fig. 9 

„ fig. 10 

„ fig- 5 
„ fig- 6 
» fig. 7 


VII, p. 65 
„ p. 66 

,, no description 
„ P. 62 
„ no description 

» „ fig- 3 

„ » fig- 2 

VI, p. 138, no description XC, fig. 4 
„ p. 24 „ fig.l 

„ p. 27 „ fig. 2 

„ p. 138, no description ,, fig. 3 
„ p. 92 CI, fig. 3 

IX, p. 387 

VI, no description „ fig. 2 

I, p. 30 VI, fig. 1 

„ pp. 33, 171 

VI, p. 1 

III, p. 78, no description 

VIII, p. 97 
,, no description 
„ p. 98 
„ p. 96 
,, no description 

VI, p. 132 
„ p. 130 

IX, p. 199 
„ P- 188 
„ p. 196 
„ p. 188 
„ p. 183 

„ p. 384, no descripti 
„ p. 188 
,, no description CLV, fig. 5 

» fig. 2 



XL VIII, fig. 1 

CXLV, fig. 










CV, fig. 4 

„ fig- 3 

no figure 

CLV, fig. 8 

no figure 


„ p- 190 

„ p. 195 

„ p- 193 

„ p. 384, 

no description 

„ p. 192 

„ p. 189 

fig. 6 
fig. 7 

no figure 







ia cribrum . 

Ill, no description 

XLYI, fig. 2 

Euperia fulvago 



LXXXYI, fig. 1 

Eupisteria heparata 


p. 79 

CXVI, fig. 6 

Eupithecia abbreviata . 


, p. 118, 

CXXXY, fig. 3 

no description 




p. H7, 

CXXXIY, fig. 1 




j» »» 

CXXXIII, fig. 6 





CXXXIY, fig. 3. 




p. 43 

CXXXII, fig. 5 


castigata . 


p. H7, 

no description 

CXXXI, fig. 5 




p. 22 

CXXX, fig. 1 

5 J 

consignata . 


p. 18 

CXXIX, fig. 2 




no description 

CXXXIII, fig. 2 





CXXXYI, fig. 3 





fig- 5 





pp. 33, 117 

CXXXII, fig. 6 




no description 

CXXXY, fig. 2 




» » 

fig. 4 


expallidata . 


p. 117, 

no description 

CXXXIII, fig. 7 


ex tens aria . 


p. 39 

no figure 


fraxinata . 


p. 32 

CXXXII, fig. 8 




no description 

CXXXI, fig. 1 





„ fig- 3 





CXXXIII, fig. 1 




p. 35 

CXXXYI, fig. 6. 




p. 30 

CXXXII, fig. 4 


jasioneata . 


p. 26 

CXXXI, fig. 6 




pp. 29, 118 

CXXXY, fig. 1 




p. 117, 

no description 

CXXIX, fig. 3 


minutata . 


no description 

CXXXIY, fig. 2: 




p. H7 ; 

no description 

CXXXIII, fig. 3, 




p. 23 

CXXX, fig. 5 




pp. 20, 117 

CXXIX, fig. 4 




p. 52 

CXXXYI, fig. 2 




no description 

CXXXII, fig. 3 


pygmseata . 


pp. 25, 117 

CXXXI, fig. 2 




p. 118, 

no description 

CXXXYI, fig. 4 



Eupithecia satyrata 
,, sobrinata 
,, subciliata 
., subfulvata 

,, subnotata 
,, subumbrata 
,, succenturiata 
„ tenuiata 
,, togata . 
,, trisignata 
,, valerianata 
,, venosata 
„ virgaureata 
„ vulgata 
Euplexia lucipara . 
Eurymene dolobraria 
Euthemonia russula 


VIII, no description 

>» >» 

., p. 45 

„ p. 117, 

no description 

5> J> J> 

,, no description 

„ pp. 22, 117 

„ no description 

„ pp. 48, 118 

,, no description 

„ p. 117 „ 


VII, p. 3 

III, no description 

CXXXI, fig. 4 

CXXXV, fig. 5 
CXXXIV, fig. 5 
CXXX, fig. 3 

CXXXIII, fig. 4 
CXXX, fig. 4 

„ fig. 2 
CXXXIV, fig. 4 
CXXXVI, fig. 1 
CXXXII, fig. 1 

fig. 7 
CXXIX, fig. 1 
CXXXII, fig. 2 
CXXXIII, fig. 5 
XCI, fig. 5 
CVII, fig. 2 
XLIV, fig. 2 

Fidonia atom a via . 
„ brunneata 
,, limbaria . 
„ piniaria . 

Fumea nitidella . 

VII, p. 140 
„ p. 141 
„ no description 


CXXII, fig. 4 

fig. 6 

.. fig- 7 

fig. 5 

LIII, fig. 6 

Galleria mellonella 


Gastropacha ilicit'olia . 

„ quercifolia 

Gelechia domestica 

Geometra papilionaria . 

Gluphisia crenata . 
Gnophos obscurata 
Gnopbria rubricollis 
Gonepteryx rhamni 

>> jj 

Gonoptera libatrix 
Gortyna flavago . 

>> >y 

Grammesia trilinea 
Gi-apta c-album 

IX, p. 199 

III, no description 

IX, p. 333 
VII, p. 173, 

no description 

II, p. SO 

VII, p. 43, 173 

III, pp. 35, 77 
I, p. 145 

IX, p. 385 

VI, no description 

IV, p. 114 „ 
IX, p. 387 
IV, p. 110 

I, pp. 57, 182 

CLVI, fig. 1 
LI, fig. 2 

„ fig-1 
CLXII, fig. 11 
CXIV, fig, 4 

XXXIV, fig. 6 
CXIV, fig. 1 
XLII, fig. 2 
I, fig. 2 

CIII, fig. 1 
LXII, fig. 2 

LXIX, fig. 1 
IX, fig. 3 





Gymnancyla canella 

IX, p. 244 

CLYIII, fig. 7 



YI, pp. 47, 139 

XCIII, fig. 1 


atriplicis . 

,, no description 

XCIV, fig. 1 



„ p. 139, 

no description 

XCIII, fig. 5 


contigua . 

,, no description 

XCV, fig. 1 



„ pp. 50, 139 

XCIII, fig. 4 



„ p. 55 

XCV, fig. 2 

♦ > 


,, no description 

XCIII, fig. 3 


oleracea . 

. „ p. 139, 

no description 

XCIV, fig. 3 

> J 

pisi . 

„ p. 139, 

,. fig. 4 


pro tea 

„ pp. 48, 139 

XCIII, fig. 2 


rectilinea . 

„ p. 56 

XCY, fig. 3 



„ p. 52 

XCIV, fig. 2 



„ pp. 53, 139 

„ fig- 5 

Halia wavaria 

VII, no description 

CXXL fig. 5 


•a dysodea . 



cr. 1 


serena . 

„ p. 138, 

no description 


o\ 2 

Heliodes arbuti 

„ p. 83 

C, fig. 4 


obus hispida 

TV, no description 

LXIY, fig. 3 



„ p. 67 

„ fig. 2 

Heliothis avmigera 

„ p. 73 

no figure 



„ pp. 75, 139 

XCIX, fig. 3 



„ no description 

„ fig- 1 


pel tiger a 

V >> 

„ fig- 2 

Hemerophila abruptarh 

i VII, p. 173, 

CXI, fig. 1 

no description 


ea thymiaria 

„ p. 173, „ 

CXY, fig. 4 

Hepialus hectus . 

. II, p. 52 

XXX, fig. 1 


humuli . 

. „ p. 131 

„ fig- 3 



. „ p. 129 

» fig. 2 



. „ p- 57 

v fig. 5 


velleda . 

■ „ p- 54 

., fig. 4 


a cespitalis 

. IX, p. 45 

CL, fig. 2 

Herminia barbalis 

„ p. 14 

CXLYIII, fig. 




. „ p. 19 





. „ p. 12 






1 „ P- 1" 





3 „ p. 16 

.. fig. 




Heterogenea asellus 
Himera pennaria . 
Hipparcliia hyperanthus 
„ janira . 

>» »» • • 

,, semele 

„ tithonus 

Homoeosoma binsevella 
nebulella . 
nimbella . 
saxicola . 
sinuella . 
Hoporina croceago 
Hybernia aurantiaria . 
„ defoliaria 

„ leucopbaearia. 
,, progemmaria 

„ rupicapraria 
Hydraecia niicacea. 
„ nictitans 

„ petasitis 

Hydrelia uncana . 
Hydrocampa nympbseata 
„ stagnata . 

Hypena crassalis . 

,, proboscidalis . 
„ rostralis . 
Hypenodes albistrigalis 
„ costsestrigalis 
Hypercomj)a dominula . 
Hypochalcia abenella . 
Hypogyinna dispar 

,, padellus 
„ vigintipunctatus 
Hyria auroraria 


HI, pp. 73, 79 
VII, pp. 7, 172 
I, p. 170 
„ p. 166 
IX, p. 385 
I, p. 28 
„ p. 167 

IX, p. 222 
„ p. 219 
„ p. 220 
„ p. 221 
„ p. 224 
„ p. 225 

V, no description 
VII, p. 155 

„ p. 174, 

no description 
„ pp. 153, 174 
„ p. 174, 

no description 
„ p. 174 
IV, p. 51 
„ pp. 48, 114 
IX, p. 387 

IV, p. 115, no description 
IX, p. 387 

VI, p. 96 
IX, p. 85 

, p. 101 

, no description 

J M 

, P.1 

, P- 3 


, p. O 

III, no description 

IX, p. 243 

III, no description 


VII, p. 67 


LIII, fig. 7 
CIX, fig. 4 
V, fig. 3 
» fig.l 

IV, fig. 3 

V, fig. 2 

CLVII, fig. 4 
„ % 2 

„ fig- 3 
no figure 
CLVII, fig. 5 

„ fig- 6 
LXXXIV, fig. 3 
CXXV, fig. 3 
fig- 5 

„ fig- 2 
fig. 4 

fio- 1 

»j 1L o' ■*• 

LXII, fig. 4 
„ fig. 2 

„ fig. 3 

01, fig. 5 
CLI, fig. 3 
CLII, fig. 1 
CXLVIII, fig. 2 

fig. 1 

no figure 

CXLVIII, fig, 3 
XLIV, fig. 1 
no figure 
XXXVII, fig. 6 

CLXII, fig. 4 

„ fig- 3 
., fig. 2 
CXVL fig. 1 



Iodis lacteavia 

„ vein aria 

Lselia coenosa . 

Larentia caasiata . 
„ didymata 
„ flavicinctata 
„ miaria 

„ multistvigaria 
„ olivavia . 
,, salicaria . 
Lasiocampa quercus 

55 55 

,, var. callunae 

,, rubi . 

55 55 

„ trifolii 

55 55 

Lasiommata segeria 
„ megasra 

Leiocampa dictaea . 
„ dictaeoides 

Lemiodes pulveralis 

Leucania albipuncta 
„ comma . 
,, conigera. 
„ impura . 
,, lithargyria 
,, littoralis 
,, obsoleta . 
„ pallens . 
,, phragmitidis 
„ pudorina 
,, putrescens 
„ strain inea 

55 55 

„ turca 
Leucopbasia sinapis 
Ligdia adustata 
Limacodes testudo 


VII, p. 173, CXV, fig. 2 

no description 
„ p. 53 


III, no description 
VII, p. 166 

„ no description 

„ pp. 167, 174 

3 , P- 174, 

no description 

55 55 

„ P- 170 

„ no description 
III, pp. 56, 78 
IX, p. 387 
III, p. 58 
„ p. 78, no description 
IX, pp. 386, 387 

III, p. 78, no description 
IX, p. 387 

I, pp. 27, 163 
„ p. 165 

II, p. 158 
„ p. 160 
IX, p. 149 

IV, p. 24 
„ p. 26 
„ p. 28 

,, no description 

„ p. 114 

„ pp. 25, 114 

„ no description 

„ p. 30 

,, no description 

55 55 

„ p. 24 

„ P- 27 
IX, p. 387 
IV, no description 
I, p. 25 
VII, p. 151 

III, p. 79, no description 
IX, p. 387 

XXXIX, fig. 3 
CXXVII. fig, 3 

fig- 1 
fisr. 4 

fig. 7 

fig. 2 

fig. 6 
fig- 5 
XL VII, fig. 2 

„ fig- 3 
XL VI, fig. 4 

XL VII, fig. 1 

IV, fig. 1 
„ fig- 2 
XXXV, fig. 1 

,. fig- 2 
no figure 


LIX, fig. 3 
LVIII, fig. 1 
LIX, fig. 5 
LVIII, fig. 3 
LIX, fig. 1 
LVIII, fig. 4 
LX, fig. 1 

„ fig- 2 
LIX, fig. 2 
LVIII, fig. 5 
LIX, fig. 4 

LVIII, fig. 2 
III, fig. 3 
CXXIV, fig. 3 
LIII, fig. 8 





Limenitis sibylla . 

. I, p. 36 

VII, fig. 1 



IX, no description 

CLXII, fig. 14 

Lithosia aureola . 

. Ill, p. 15 

XL, fig. 5 

„ caniola . 

■ ,, p. 14 

„ %. 4 

„ complana 

. „ p. 19 

XLI, fig. 2 

,, complanula 

„ pp. 21, 77 

„ fig. 3 

„ griseola . 

„ p. 23 

„ fig- 5 

„ helvola . 

„ p. 16 

XX,, fig. 6 

„ molybdeola 

„ p. 22 

XLI, fig. 4 

„ inuscerda 

„ P- 26 

fisr 7 

., pygmaeola 

. „ P- 25 

» fig. 6 

„ stramineola 

. „ p. 17 

„ fig. 1 

Lithostege nivearia 

VIII, p. 104 

CXLVI, fig. 3 

Lobopbora hexapteratt 

l „ p. 54 

CXXXVII, fig. 


,, lobulata 

,, p. 118, 

no description 



,, polycommata 

53 JJ 

>5 Xi O* 


., sexalisata 

3» )) 



,, viretata 

„ p. 56 



Lomaspilis marginata . 

„ p. 174, 

no desc ription 

CXXIV, fig. 4 

Lophopteryx camelina . 

II, p. 162 

XXXV, fig. 3 

„ carmelita 

„ p. 165 

fig. 5 

,, cucullina 

„ p. 164 

fig- 4 

Lozogramma petraria . 

VII, p. 138 

CXXI, fig. 7 

Lozotasnia fulvana 

IX, no description 

CLXI, fig. 6 

Luperina cespitis . 

IV, pp. 75, 115 

LXV, fig. 4 

,, testacea 

„ pp. 73, 115 

„ fig- 3 

Lythria purpuraria 

VII, p. 144 

no figure 

jj ?> 

VIII, no description 

CXLVII, fig. 4 

Macaria alternata 


CXXI. fig. 2 

,, liturata . 

>> ?? 

„ fig- 4 

„ notata 

1» JJ 

„ fig. 3 

Macroglossa stellatarun 

i II, p. 118 

XXVI, fig. 2 

Madopa salicalis . 

IX, p. 384, 

no description 

no figure 

Maasia belgiaria 

VII, p. 173, 

CXXII, fig. 2 

Mamestra abjecta 

IV, p. 76 

LXV, fig. 5 

„ albicolon 

,, no description 

LXVI, fig. 1 

„ brassicae 

„ p. 115, 

no description 

» fig- 3 





Mamestra furva 

IV, p. 79 

LXVI, fig. 2 

„ persicarise 

„ p. 115, 

no description 

„ fi 

g. 4 

Mania maura 

■ VI, 

CIII, fig 


„ typica 

„ p. 140, 

33 fig 


Melanippe fluctuata 


CXXXIX, fig. 


„ galiata 

„ p. 118, 




., bastata 

„ p. 118, 




„ montanata . 

„ P. 118, 




,. procellata 

„ no description 




„ rivata . 

33 33 




„ subtristata 


33 33 




„ tristata 

33 3} 




,, unangulata 

33 33 




Melantbia albicillata . 

»» 33 




,, ocellata 

33 33 

1 , 



,, rubiginata 

}» 33 




Meliaua flammea 

IY, p. 32 

LX, fig. 




i IX, p. 202 

no figure 

Melitsea ar tern is 

I, p. 84 

XII, fig. 


•> 11 

IX, p. 385 

,, athalia 

I, p. 81 

., fig- 


,, cinxia 

. ,, no description 

XI, fig. 3 

33 33 

. IX, p 385 



L VII, p. 1 

CYI, fig. 


Miana arcuosa 

. IY, pp. 106, 115 


fig. 6 

„ expolita 

. „ p. 103 


fig. 5 

„ fasciuncula 

„ p. 99 


fig. 2 

„ funmcula . 

„ pp. 102, 115 


fig. 4 

,, literosa 

„ p. 100 


fig. 3 

,, strigilis 

,, no description 



Microdonta bicolora 

II. p. 76 


3 fig. 5 

Miltocbrista miniata 

III, p. 13 

XL, fig. 


Minoa enpborbiata 

VII, no description 


fio\ 1 

Miselia oxyacantbse 

VI, p. 138, „ 

XCI, fig. 


Myelois advenella 

IX, p. 238 

no figure 


,, cribrum . 

. „ p. 234 


fig. 3 

,, raarmorea 

„ P- 238 


fig. 6 

pinguis . 

„ P- 240 

CLYI. fi 


„ snavella . 

. „ p. 236 


fig. 5 



Nascia cilialis 
Nemeobius lucina 
Nemeophila plantaginis 
Nemophora schwarziella 
Nemoria viridata . 
Nephopteryx abietella 
„ roborella 

Neuria saponariTe . 
Noctua augnr 
baja . 
„ beJla . 
„ brunnea 
„ c-nigrum . 
,, conflua 
„ dahlii 
„ depnncta . 
,, ditrapezium 
,, festiva 
„ glareosa . 
,, neglecta . 
,, plecta 
„ rhomboidea 
„ sobrina 
„ triangulum 

„ umbrosa . 

„ xantkographa 
Nola albulalis 
cucullatella . 

»> • 

strigula . 
Nonagria crassicornis 
elymi . 
,, fulva 

„ geminipnncta 

„ ueurica . 

,, sparganii 

typhae . 
Notodonta dromedarius 



IX, p. 60 
I, p. 85 

III, p. 78, no description 

VII, p. 52 

IX, p. 249 

„ p. 255 

IV, p. 66 

V, no descripti 

}■> a 

„ p. 40 

,, p. 88, 110 description 
,, no description 
„ p. 34 
„ p. 37 

,, no description 
„ p. 32 

,, p. 88, no description 
,, no description 
„ p. 88, „ 
p. 88, 

p. 150 
IX. p. 386 
tritophns . II, p. 72 

,, no description 

„ p. 45 

„ p. 88, no description 
IX, p. 387 
V, p. 41 

,, p. 88, no description 
III, pp. 41, 77 

.. p. 44 

,, no description 

IX, p. 386 

III, p. 39 

IV, no description 
„ p. 38 

„ p. 36 
„ pp. 42, 114 
,. p. 40 
,, pp. 44, 115 
„ pp. 47, 114, 115 
II, p. 150 


no figure 
XII, fig. 3 
XLIV, fig. 5 
CLXII, fig. 1 
CXIV, fig. 5 
CLVIII, fig. 8 

LXVI, fig. 5 
LXXV, fig. 4 
LXXVIII, fig. 3 

fig. 1 
LXXVI, fig. 5 

» fig- 1 
LXXVII, fig. 2 

fig. 3 
LXXV, fig. 3 
LXXVI, fig. 2 
LXXVII, fig. 1 
LXXV, fig. 2 
LXXIX, fig. 2 
LXXV, fig. 5 
LXXVI, fig. 3 
LXXIX, fig. 1 
LXXVI, fig. 4 

LXXVIII, fig. 2 
LXXIX, fig. 3 
XLIII, fig. 5 
.. fig. 6 

„ fig- 7 
„ fig. 3 

XLIII, fig. 4 
LXI, fig. 5 
LX, fig. 5 
,, fig. 4 
LXI, fig. 2 

„ fig- 1 
„ fig. 3 

» fig- 4 
XXXIII, fig. 2 

fur. 3 





Notodonta ziczac . 

II, p. 152 

XXXIII, fig. 4 

Nudaria mundana 

pp. 37, 77 

XLIII, fig. 1 

„ senex 

„ p. 37 

fi". 2 

Numeria pulveraria 

VII, no description 

CXXII, fig. 1 

Nyctegretes acliatinella 

IX, p. 234 

no figure 

Nyssia hispidaria . 

VII, p. 10 

CX, fig. 2 

„ lapponaria 

„ p. 11 

no figure 

,, zonaria 

„ no description 

CX, fig. 1 

Odezia cbseropbyllata . 

VIII, p. 109 

CXLVI, fig. 6 

Odonestis potatoria 

III, pp. 60, 78, 79 

L, fig. 3 

Odontia dentalis . 

IX, p. 20 

CXLIX, fig. 1 

Odontopera bidentata . 

VII, p. 172, 

no description 

CVIII, fig. 1 



IX, no description 

CLXII, fig. 12 

(Enistis quadra 

III, pp.29, 77 

XLII, fig. 1 

Oporabia autumnaria . 

VIII, no description 

CXLVII, fig. 7 

„ dilutata . 

VII, pp. 161, 174 

CXXVI, fig. 4 

5> JJ • 

VIII, no description 

CXLVII, fig. 6 

,, filigrammaria 

VII, p. 163 

CXXVI, fig. 5 

3> ?> 

VIII, no description 

CXLVII, fig. 8 

Orgyia antiqua 

III, pp. 11, 77 

XXXIX, fig. 1 

55 3> • • 

IX, p. 386 

„ gonostigma 

III, no description 

fiff. 2 

Orthosia lota 

V, p. 89, „ 

LXXXII, fig. 5 

„ macilenta 

,, no description 

fig. 6 

,, suspecta . 

„ p. 59 

fig. 3 

„ upsilon . 

„ p. 89, no description 

fig- ^ 

Ortbotaslia sparganella 

IX, no description 

CLXII, fig. 6 

Ourapteryx sambucaria 

VII, p. 172, „ 

CVI, fig. 1 

Pachetra leucopbaaa 

IV, p. 70 

LXV, fig. 1 

Paclinobia alpina . 

V, p. 48 

LXXX, fig. 2 



VII, no description 

CXXIV, fig. 5 

Pampbila actaaon . 

I, p. 135 

XVII, fig. 2 

„ comma . 

„ pp. 142, 198 

no figure 

„ linea 

„ pp. 139, 195 

XVII, fig. 3 

,, sylvan us 

„ pp. 141, 196 

„ fig. 4 

Papilio macbaon . 

„ p. 1 

I, fig. 1 

j> ») • • 

IX, p. 385 

Paraponyx stratiotata . 

„ p. 79 

CLI, fig. 2 





Pelurga comitata . 

VIII. p. 118, 

no description 

CXLIV, fig. 7 

Pempelia betulae . 

IX, p. 278 

CLVIII, fig. 10 

,, carnella 

„ P-258 

CLIX, fig. 1 

„ davi sella 


„ p. 280 

„ fig. 2 

„ dilutella 



„ p. 265 

» fig- 3 

,, fusca 


„ p. 270 

no figure 

,, fovmosa 

„ p. 273 

CLIX, fig. 4 

„ hostilis 

„ P- 275 

„ fig- 5 

„ palumbella 

„ p. 282 

no figure 

Pericallia syringaria 

VII, no description 

CVII, fig. 3 

Peridea trepida 

III, p. 9 

XXXVI, fig. 4 

Petasia cassinea . 

„ no description 

fig. 2 

>> >1 

IX, p. 386 

„ nubeculosa 

III, p. 4 

„ fig- 3 

Phibalapteryx lapidata 

VIII, p. 76 

CXLI, fig. 4 

,, lignata . 

„ P- 78 

„ fig- 5 

,, tersata . 

,, no description 

„ fig. 3 

„ vitalbata 

»» jj 

» fig- 6 

Phigalia pilosaria 

VII, pp. 9, 172 

CIX, fig. 5 

Philea irrorella 

III, p. 36 

XLII, fig. 4 

Pblogopbora empyrea . 

VI, p. 34 

XCI, fig. 4 

,, nieticulosa 

,. pp. 30, 138 

„ fig- 3 

Phorodesma bajularia . 

VII, p. 56 

CXV, fig. 3 

„ smaragdaria 

„ p. 59 

no figure 



II, pp. 58, 133 

XXXI, fig. 2 



III, p. 78, no description 

XLV, fig. 1 

n 11 

IX, p. 386 

Phytometra senea . 

VI, p. 134 

CV, fig. 5 

Pieris brassicse 

I. p. 148 

II, fig. 2 

,, '? 

IX, p. 385 

,, daplidice 

I, p. 21 

HI, fig. 1 

„ napi . 

„ pp. 20, 156 

II, fig. 4 

,, rapa3 . 

„ pp. 19, 152 

„ fig- 3 

Pionea forficalis . 

IX, p. 151 

CLIV, fig. 5 

„ margaritalis 

,, no description 

fi 1 "'* 6 

„ stra mental is 

„ p. 152 

,. fig. 7 



Platypteryx laeertinaria 

j> ?» 

Plusia bractea 
,, chrysitis 

,, festuca^ 
., gamma 
„ interrogationis 

» jj 

„ iota 

,, orichalcea . 

„ pulckrina . 
Plutella porrectelJa 
Pceeilocampa populi 

>> j» 

Polia chi 

„ flavocincta . 
,, nigroeincta . 

(Lycaena) adonis 

segon . 



}> >j » 

„ vav. artaxerxes 
,, ,, alexis 



,. „ anon 

„ corydon 
Porthesia auriflua . 

„ cbrysorrhoea . 

Procris geryon 

» jj • 

„ globularia? 
,, statices 

Pseudoterpna cy tisaria . 

Psilura monacha . 

Psyche fusca . 


Ill, p. 79, no description 
IX, p. 387 
YI, p. 103 

„ P- 140, 

no description 

„ p. 140, „ 

„ pp.112, no 

„ pp. 115, 140 
IX, p. 387 
YI, pp. 107, 140 

„ pp. 100, 140 

„ p. no 

IX, no description 
III, pp. 58, 78 

YI, pp. 15, 138 

„ pp. 17, 138 
„ p. 18 

I, p. 106 
„ p. H2 

„ p. 116 
IX, p. 385 
I, p. 12] 
„ pp. Ill, 191 
IX, p. 385 
I, p. 100 
IX, p. 385 
I, pp. 94, 188 
IX, p. 385 

I, pp. 105, 188 
„ p. 191 
III, p. 77, no description XL, fig. 2 

» p. 77, „ „ fig. 1 

IX, p. 386 

II, p. 91 XYIII, fig. 3 
IX, p. 385 

II, p. 1 „ % 2 
„ p. 87 „ fig. 1 

YII, p. 173, no description CXIY, fig. 3 

III, „ XXXYII, fig. 5 

LIII, fig. 5 

LII, fig. 3 

CII, fig. 4 
„ fig. 3 

„ fig- 5 
„ fig. 8 
» fig- 9 

„ fig. 6 

no figure 

CII, fig. 7 

CLXII, fig. 5 

XLYIII, fig. 2 

XLIX, fig. 1 

LXXXYIII, fig. 3 
» fig. 4 

„ fig. 5 

XY, fig. 1 
„ fig- 3 

XYI,figs. 1,1a, 1/ 

„ figs. 16, c, d, e, g 
XY, fig. 2 

XIY, fig. 2 

XIY, fig. 1 

no figure 
XIY, fig. 3 





Psyche (Famea) 

intermediella IX, p. 387, no description no figure 

„ nigricans . 

. Ill, no description 

LIII, fig. 4 



. IX, p. 350 

CLXIII, fig. 5 

„ baliodactylus 

. „ p. 378 

CLXIY, fig. 8 

„ bertrami 

. „ p. 341 

no figure 

,, brachydactylus 

„ p. 373 


„ fuscus 


>) „ p. 362 


„ galactodactylus 

„ pp. 373, 


CLXIY, fig. 6 

„ liieracii (teucrii) 

. „ pp. 354 


CLXIII, fig. 7 

„ isodactylus . 

„ p. 343 

fig. 4 

„ lienigianus . 

„ p. 366 

CLXIV, fig. 2 

„ lithodactylus 

„ p. 364 

., fig- 1 

„ loevvii 


) „ p. 358 

no figure 

„ microdactylus 

„ pp. 370, 


CLXIY, fig. 5 

,, oclirodactylus 


) „ p. 338 

CLXIII, fig. 3 

„ osteodactylus 

. „ p. 369 

CLXIY, fig. 4 

„ pentadactylus 

. „ p. 380 

„ fig. 9 

„ phaeodactylus 

„ p. 357 

CLXIII, fig. 8 

,, plagiodactylus 

„ pp. 359, 


„ fig- 9 

„ pterodactylus 


„ p. 365 

no figure 

„ punctidactylus 


„ p. 352 

CLXIII, fig. 6 

„ rhododactylus 

„ p. 337 

fi<* 2 

„ scabiodactylus 

„ p. 361 

no figure 

„ spilodactylus 

„ p. 375 

CLXIY, fig. 7 

,, tephradactylus . 

„ pp. 368, { 


„ fig. 3 

„ tetradactylus 

„ p. 379 

no figure 

„ trigonodactylus 


„ p. 347 


Pterostoma palpina 

II, p. 154 

XXXIY, fig. 1 

Ptilophora pluniigera . 

,, pp. 73, 156 

» fig. 2 

Pygaera bucej>hala 

III, p. 77, nc 

> description 

XXXYII, fig. 4 

Pyralis farinalis . 

IX, pp. 21, 384 

CXLIX, fig. 2 

,, glaucinalis 

„ P- 23 

fig. 3 

Pyrausta punicealis 

„ p. 43 

CL, fig. 1 

Rivula sericealis 

IX, p. 6 

CXLYIII, fig. 4 





Rumia cratsegatu . 

VII, no description 

CVI, fig. 5 

Rusina tenebrosa . 


LXX, fig. 1 

Sarrotliripa revayana 

IX, p. 326 

CLXI, fig. 4 

Saturnia pavonia- 

minor (carpini) 

III, p. 79, no description 

LII, fig. 1 

Schrankia tuvfosalis 

IX, p. 5 

no figure 

Scoparia, see Eudorea 

Scopelosoma satellitia . 

V, p. 89, no descr 


LXXXIV. fig. 

55 55 

IX, p. 387 

Scopula alpinalis . 

„ p. 162 

no figure 

„ decrepitalis 

„ p. 177 


,, fervugalis . 

„ p. 172 

CLV. fig. 4 

,, lutealis 

„ p. 162 

55 fig- 1 

,, olivalis 

,, p. 165 

„ fig. 2 

„ prunalis . 

„ p. 168 

„ fig. 3 

Scoria dealbata 

VII, p. 143 

CXXIII, fig. 2 

Scotosia certata 

VIII, no description 

CXLII, fig. 4 

„ dubitata . 

55 55 

5, fig. 1 

„ rhamnata 

55 55 

fig. 3 

,, undulata . 

55 55 

fig. 5 

,, vetulata . 

55 55 

„ fig. 2 

Selenia illunaria . 

VII, p. 172, „ 

CVII, fig. 4 

,, illustraria . 

55 5? 

„ fig. 6 

,, lunaria 

„ P- 172, 

„ fig- 5 

no descr 


Selidosema plumaria 

„ p. 139 

CXXII, fig. 3 

Sesia boinbyliforrnis 

II, p. 122, no desci 


XXVI, fig. 4 

„ fuciformis 

„ p. 121 

„ fig. 3 

Simyra venosa 

IV, p. 114, no description 

LVII, fig. 7 

55 55 ♦ 

IX, p. 387 

Sinerinthus ocellatus . 

II, p. 99 

XX, fig. 1 

,, populi 

„ pp. 20, 103 

5, fig. 2 

55 »> 

IX, p. 385 

,, tilise . 

II, p. 105 

„ fig- 3 

;> >» • 

IX, p. 385 

Sphecia apiformis . 

II, p. 123 

XXVII, fig. 1 

,, bembeciformis 

„ p. 125 

„ fig. 2 

Spliinx convolvuli . 

. „ p. 22, 108 

XXI, fig. 2 

55 5» 

5) 55 

XXII, fig. 1 

„ ligustri 

„ p. no 

„ fig- 2 

55 5> • 

. IX, p. 385 

„ pinastri 

II, pp. 27, 112 

„ fig- 3 



Spilodes palealis . 
,, sticticalis 
Spilosoina lubricipeda 
,, menthastri 

" papyratia 

Stauropus fagi 

>> »> 

Stenia punctalis . 
Stenopteryx hybridalis 
Steropes paniscus . 
Sterrha sacraria . 

Stilbia anomala 
Stilpnotia salicis . 
Strenia clathrata . 

Tseniocampa cruda 

Tapinostola bondii 
Tephrosia consonaria 
,, crepuscularia 
,, extersaria 
,, laricaria 

„ punctulata 
Tethea retusa 
,, subtusa 

Thanaos tages 
Thecla betulse 


IX, p. 159 

„ p. 157 
III, p. 50 

„ p. 78, no description 
IX, p. 386 
III, no description 

II, p. 63 
IX, p. 386 

„ p. 70 
„ p. 181 
I, pp. 129, 194 

VII, no description 

VIII, p. 110 

VI, p. 118 

III, p. 77, no description 

VII, p. 137 


CLIV, fig. 9 
„ fig. 8 

XLV, fig. 4 
„ fig. 2 

>, fig- 3 
XXXIII, fig. 1 

CL, fig. 7 
no figure 
XVII, fig. 1 
CXXIII, fig. 3 

CIV, fig. 3 
XXXIX, fig. 4 
CXXI, fig. 6 

V, pp. 58, 89 LXXXII, fig. 2 

„ p. 88, no description LXXX, fig. 3 

„ p. 53 

„ pp. 57, 89 

„ p. 88, no description 

„ p. 54 

,, p. 89, no description 

„ p. 54 

,, pp. 88, 89, no description 
IX, p. 387 
V, no description 
„ p. 89, „ 
IV, p. 31 
VII, p. 34 
„ p. 35 
„ pp. 38, 173 

no figure 
LXXXI, fig. 5 

„ fig- 1 
LXXX, fig. 4 
LXXXI, fig. 6 
LXXXII, fig. 1 
LXXXI, fig. 2 
fig. 3 

LXXX, fig. 5 
LXXXI, fig. 4 
no figure 
CXIII, fig. 1 
„ fig. 2 
„ fig. 4 


„ p. 37 
„ p. 42 
V, pp. 80, 89 
„ no description 
IX, p. 387 
I, p. 126 
„ p. 184 
IX, p. 385 

„ fig. 3 
„ fig- 5 
LXXXV, fig. 5 
fig. 4 

XVI, fig. 3 
XII, fig. 4 




Thecla pruni 
„ quercus 
„ rubi . 

Thera coniferata 

,, Armaria 
,, juniperata . 
,, vaviata 

Thyatira batis 

„ derasa . 
Thymele alveolus . 
Tortricodes hyemana . 
Tortrix forsterana 

Toxocampa craccae 

,, pastinum 

Trachea piniperda 
Trichiura cratsegi . 
Tripbsena fimbria . 
,, ianthina 

„ interjecta 

„ orbona . 

,, pronuba 
,, subsequa 


,, culiciforine 

,, cynipiforme 

,, formicaeforme 

„ ichneumoniforme 

„ myopaslbrme 

„ pbilantbiforme . 

,, scoliusforme 

»} »j • 

,, sphegiforme 

,, tipuliforine . 


I, no description 

„ p. 185 

„ p. 89 

„ no description 

IX, p. 385 

VIII, p. 61 
„ p. 63 
„ p. 60 

„ pp. 62, 118 

IV, no description 

j> »> 

I, p. 123 

IX, no description 

,. p. 326 
VI, pp. 117, 140 

,, no description 

V, p. 88, „ 


V, p. 88, „ 

„ pp. 28, 88 
„ pp. 29, 88 
„ p. 25 

II, p. 45 

„ p. 129, no description 
IX, p. 386 
II, pp. 47, 126 
IX, p. 386 
II, p. 129, no description 

„ p. 46 

„ p. 128 

„ p. 50, no description 

„ p. 127, 
IX, p. 386 
II, pp. 49, 127 
IX, p. 386 
II, pp. 49, 128 
IX, p. 386 


XII, fig. 5 

XIII, fig. 2 
» fig. 3 
„ ng. 1 

CXXXVIII, fig. 2 
fig- 4 
fig. 1 

fig. 3 

LIV, fig. 2 

„ fig- 1 
XVI, fig. 2 
CLXI, fig. 10 

fig- 5 
CIV, fig. 2 

„ fig- 1 
LXXX, fig. 1 
XLIX, fig. 2 
LXXIV, fig. 2 
fig. 1 
fig. 3 
fig- 5 
LXXV, fig. 1 
LXXIV, fig. 4 

XXVII, fig. 3 
XXIX, fig. 2 

XXVII, fig. 5 

XXIX, fig. 3 

XXVII, fig. 4 
XXIX, fig. 1 

„ fig. 4 

XXVIII, fig. 2 

„ fig. 2 
» fig. 1 

fig. 3 



Vanessa antiopa . 
„ atalanta . 

„ io 

„ polycbloros 

„ urticae 

»j »> • 

Venilia maculata . 
Venusia cambrica . 


I, p. 52 
» p. 176 
IX, p. 385 
I, p. 179 
„ p. 54 
„ pp. 55, 181 
IX, p. 385 
VII, p. 1 

,, no description 


VIII, fig. 4 
„ fig. 2 

» fig- 3 

IX, fig. 1 
„ fig- 2 

CVI, fig. 6 
CXVI, fig. 7 

Xanthia aurago 


flavago . 
gilvago . 

V, no description . 

„ p. <o 
IX, p. 387 
V, pp. 72, 89 

„ p. 78 

„ p. 76 

„ p. 76 

LXXXIV, fig. 7 

Xylina conformis 

(furcifera) VI, p. 63 
„ petrificata . 
„ rhizolitha . 

,, semibrunnea 
Xylocampa lithorbiza 

Xylopbasia bepatica 

,, litboxylea . 

,, polyodon . 

„ rurea . 

„ scolopacina 

Ypsipetes elutata . 

,, impluviata . 
,, ruberaria 

Zeuzera aesculi 

fig. 5 

fig- 4 
LXXXV, fig. 2 
LXXXIV, fig. 6 
LXXXV, fig. 1 

XCVI, fig.6 
„ fig- 5 
„ fig- 3 

,, no description 

„ pp. 60, 139 
IX, p. 387 
VI, p. 62 „ fig. 4 

,, p. 139, no description XC V, fig. 4 

IV, p. 60 LXIII, fig. 6 

„ p. 58 „ fig. 3 

„ p. 52 „ fig. 1 

„ pp. 57, 115 „ fig. 2 

,, p. 115, no description LXII, fig. 6 
„ p. 59 LXIII, fig. 4 

VIII, no description 
„ p. 66 

„ pp. 63, 118 

II, p. 132 

IX, p. 386 

CXXXVIII, fig. 7 
fig. 6 
fig- 5 

XXXI, fig. 1 


Plate CXLVHI. 






6 a. 

7 a. 

AJ.Wcr, i 

W. BUCKLER del. 


Hypena proboscidalis. 

1, 1 <7, 1 b, larvae after final moult; on stinging- 
nettle, 7th May, 1860, and 31st August, 1868; 
imago emerged 15th June, 1860. 

Hypena crassalis. 

2, larva after final moult; on bilberry, 23rd 
August, 1860. 

Hypenodes costjjstrigalis. 

3, 3 a, larvae after final moult; on wild thyme, 
9th August, 1868. 

See pp. 3 — 5. 

Bivula sericealis. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, the same larva in various stages of 
growth; 4 c, pupa; 4 d, much magnified figure of 
4 ; 4 and 4 d figured 26th September, 1881, before 
hibernation, feeding on Br achy podium sylvaticum ; 

4 a figured 12th May, 1882, after the third spring 
moult; 4 b figured 25th May; 4 c, pupa, 15th 
June, 1882. 

See pp. 6 — 11. 

Herminia dertvalis. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, larvae in various stages of growth ; 

5 b on decaying oak leaves, 24th June, imago 
appearing 15th July, 1873 ; 5 a between decaying 
oak leaves 18th June, 1873, three fourths grown, 
reared from eggs ; moths out from 24th July to 
11th August, 1873. 

See pp. 12—14. 

PLATE CXLVI1I— continued. 

Herminia barbalis. 

6, larva after hibernation, on birch catkins ; 
figured 12th April, imago appearing 22nd June, 
1871 ; 6 a, enlargement of two segments. 

See pp. 14 — 15. 

Herminia tarsipennalis. 

7, 7 a, 7 b, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
7 b, found on sallow 29th April, imago emerging 
15th June, 1868 ; 7 on birch and knotgrass, 6th 
August, 1874; 7 a amongst garden refuse of 
decaying leaves, 15th March, moths out 13th June, 

See pp. 16 — 17. 

Herminia nemoralis (grisealis). 

8, larva after final moult; on oak, 15th Sep- 
tember, 1875 ; moth bred 5th June, 1876. 

See pp. 17—18. 

Hermijs'ia cribralis. 

9, 9 a, larva? in various stages of growth ; bred 
from eggs of 1872 by Hev. John Hellins, on sallow, 
Garex sylvatica, and Luzula jpilosa; figured 2nd 
June; imago appeared 1st July, 1873. 

See pp. 19—20. 

Plate CXLK. 

1 y»w 


:. i 

A.JWeiidel Eh. 



Odontia dbntalis. 

1 , larva after final moult ; mining stalks and 
stems of Echium vulgar e 9 spinning up in cocoons of 
the leaves, as shown in fig. 1 a ; figured 30th May, 
imagos appearing 31st July to 16th August, 1868. 

See pp. 20—21. 

Pyralis farinalis. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, 2 c, 2 d t larvse in various stages ; 2 c, 
and others, of which the drawings are not repro- 
duced, figured 17th, 26th, and 28th June, 1882; 
2 d figured in case, found 2nd May, 1883, with others, 
between a joint of flooring of mill underneath ; 2 
figured 21st May, 2 a figured 2nd May, and 2 b 
figured 5th May, 1883, found in stable in tubular 

See pp. 21—23. 

Pyralis glaucinalis. 

o, 3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, larvae in various stages of 
growth ; in accumulations of old twigs and rubbish 
collected at knots of birch, 19th, 21st, 22nd April, 
imagos appearing 6th and 11th July, 1869 ; also in 
heaps of decayed oak-leaves, 13th February, imagos 
appearing 19th June to 4th July, 1872. 

See pp. 23—26. 

Aglossa pinguinalis. 

4, 4 a, 4 b. larvse in various stages of growth ; 
4 c, pupa ; 4 and 4 a from eggs reared on barn 
sweepings; 4, figured 15th November, 1882, from 
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher; 4 a figured 5th June, 
1883; 4 c, pupa figured 16th June, 1883; 4 b 
found in a dusty corn-store, 25th April, imago 
emerging 18th July, 1860. 

See pp. 26—35. 

PLATE CXIAX— continued. 

Aglossa cuprealis. 

5, 5 a, 5 b, 5 c, 5 d, larvse in various stages of 
growth; 5 e, case, with line below showing length 
of the larva, 23 mm. ; all reared from eggs sent by 
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher; o figured 17th November, 
1882, 5 a and 5 b figured 19th May, 5 c figured 
23rd June, 5 d figured 17th July, 5 e figured 28th 
June, 1883. 

See pp. 35 — 41. 

Clkdeobia angustalis. 

6, larva after final moult ; in a silken web under 
moss on sea-beach ; figured 30th May and 1st June, 
imago emerging 3rd August, 1871. 

See pp. 41 — 43. 

Plate CL. 



W. BUCKLER del. 


Pyrausta punioealis. 

1, la, lb, larvse after final moult; on Nepeta 
cataria, September 29th to October 6th, 1873; 
imago emerged June 1st, 1874. 

See pp. 43 — 45. 


2, 2 a, larvae in various stages of growth ; 2 b, 
enlargement of two segments; reared from eggs by 
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, on Plantago lanceolata, and 
figured July 7th and 17th, 1883. 

See pp. 45 — 47. 

Ennychia anguinalis. 

3, 3 a, larvse after final moult ; 3 /;, enlargement 
of two segments ; from eggs on Origanum vulgare ; 
figured September 22nd and 24th, 1881 ; from Mr. 
W. R. Jeffrey, of Ashford. 

See pp. 47 — 51. 

Bnnyohia octomaculata. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, larvse after final moult ; 4 c, enlarge- 
ment of two segments ; 4, under a lowermost leaf 
of Solidago vivgaurea, Mr. W. R. Jeffrey, figured 
October 3rd, 1877; 4 a figured 1879; 4 b, 4 c, 
under lower leaves of golden-rod, Mr. W. R. Jeffrey, 
figured August 27th and September 16th, 1880. 

See pp. 51 — 54. 

PLATE CL— continued. 

Agrotera nemoralis. 

5, larva after final moult; on hornbeam, July 17th, 
1875, and in 1876 ; moth bred in 1876, and on 
February 24th, 1877. 

See pp. 54 — 57. 

Endotricha flammealis. 

6, 6 a, 6 b, larvae in various stages of growth ; 6 c, 
larva highly magnified, figured September 21st, 
1881 ; from eggs ; on Lotus major, sallow, hazel, 
oak, etc., figured September 19th, 20th, 21st, and 
27th, 1881; from Mr. W. R. Jeffrey, of Ashford. 

See pp. 57 — 65. 

Stenia punctalis. 

7, larva after third moult, slightly magnified, 
with line to show actual length; from eggs; on 
Lotus, Plantago, Centaur ea, etc., figured October 
6th, 1883. 

See pp. 70—74. 

Plate CLI. 




Cataclysta lemnata. 

1. 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, larva3 in various stages of growth, 
1 d, larva in natural state in its case, amongst duck- 
weed, 1 e ; lives in case of leaves of Lemna minor 
spun together; 1 figured November 16th, 1874; 1 a 
and 1 b figured May 10th, 1875 ; 1 c figured March 
25th, 1862 ; ? imago appeared June 5th, 1875. 

See pp. 74—79. 

Paraponyx stratiotata. 

2, larva after final moult ; 2 a, cocoon on Ana- 
charis alsinastrum ; 2 b, 2 c, dorsal and ventral 
aspects of pupa ; three or four larvae on June 18th, 
1872; a dozen more on July 21st; one moth out 
September 10th, 1874; 2 b, 2 c, pupa taken out of 
its cocoon, and figured October 5th, 1874. 

See pp. 79 — 85. 


3, 3 6, 3 e, 3 h, 3 I, larvae in various stages of 
growth ; 3 a, 3 c, 3 d, 3/, 3 g, 3 i, 3j, 3 h, 3 m, 3 n, 
3 o, cases with larvas in various stages of growth 
on floating water-plants ; larvas on Potamogeton 
nutans figured July 5th, moths out August 7th, 
1875 ; also figured June 11th and 21st, and July 27th, 
1876 ; 3 o, case made of Alisma plantago spun up 
beneath a leaf of Potamogeton natans, figured June 
25th, imago appearing July 13th, 1876 ; cases made 
of Sparganium simplex figured July 7th to 25th, 
1876 ; cases made of Myosotis palustris figured June 
11th, 1876. 

See pp. 85—101. 

Plate CLE. 


A J Wandtol hth 

PWMTrap imp 



Hydrocampa stagnata. 

1, egg mass ; 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, 1 d, 1 e 9 If, larvse in 
various stages of growth ; 1 g, 1 h, cocoons ; 1 i, 
larva highly magnified ; mining Sparganium simplex 
and S. ramosum under water ; 1 a, about to hiber- 
nate, figured September 11th, 1876; 1 b, 1 c, 
figured April 27th and May 24th, became pupa 
June 16th, moth bred June 29th, 1877; Id, in 8. 
ramosum at Lumley, figured June 6th, 1877 ; 1 i, 
magnified figure of larva from Sparganium, ramosum, 
Ashford, May 3rd, 1877; other drawings, not here 
reproduced, of larvae found in Sparganium simplex, 
September 11th, 1876, figured after hibernation 
April 27th and May 24th, 1877, others found on 
8. ramosum at Lumley, May 26th, and figured 
June 5th, 1877, and others found below the water 
at Lumley, June 16th, 1877. 

See pp. 101—110. 


2, larva after fiual moult ; 2 a, same, highly 
magnified ; found by Mr. W. R. Jeffrey on Hydro- 
char is morsus-ranse, August 17th ; S moths bred 
8th to 16th September, 1881. 

See pp. 110—112. 

Plate CLIE. 


3%£ 8 b. 

4 8 a. 

A J.Wendel lith. 

W. BUCKLER del. 

fcap imp. 



1,1a, lb, lc, larvae in various stages, 1 d, rolled- 
up leaf of food-plant; 1 reared from eggs and fed 
on Teucrium scorodonia, full-grown and nearly full- 
fed, August 17th, 1880,, sent by Mr. W. H. B. 
Fletcher ; 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, 1 d, reared from eggs sent 
by Mr. William R. Jeffrey in 1879, figured August 
8th, 14th, and 18th, reared on Origanum vidgare, 
Clinojpodium vulgare, and Solidago virgaurea. 

See pp. 112—120. 


2, larva after final moult, 2 a, two hibernacula on 
part of a beech leaf, 2 b, hibernaculum with top leaf 
removed, November 8th; reared from eggs sent 
by Mr. Wm. R. Jeffrey, and fed on Centaur ea 

See pp. 120—124. 


3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae in various stages of growth; on 
stinging-nettle, June 19th, 1860, and July 2nd, 
1875; imago bred July 9th, 1876; 3 6, on nettle, 
July 10th, 1873, was ichneumoned. 

See pp. 124—125. 


4, 4 a, 4 6, larvae after final moult ; in webs spun 
amongst leaves of Eupatorium cannabinum, figured 
August 15th and 19th, and September 8th, 1874; 
imagos emerged May 29th and June 7th, 1875. 

See pp. 125—129. 

PLATE CLIII— continued. 


5, larva after final moult ; on flowers and seed- 
vessels of Melampyrum pratense, July 26th, 1878 ; 
moths bred July 8th to 20th, 1879. 

See pp. 129—131. 


6, 6 a, larva3 in various stages of growth; on 
flowers of golden-rod, in a slight web, September 
14th, 1872. 

See pp. 131—133. 


7, 7 a, larva? after final moult ; on Bubia pere- 
grina, August 3rd, 1865 ; imago emerged September 
1st, 1865. 

See pp. 133—136. 


8, 8 a, 8 b, larvse in various stages of growth ; 8, 
several in folded leaves of Stachys sylvatica, 
September 15th, 1876, moths bred June 28th to 
30th, 1877 ; 8 a, on stinging-nettle, several spun 
up, hibernating in tough silk cocoons under bark 
of ash, April 22nd, imago emerging July 17th, 
1860 ; 8 b, variety, on stinging-nettle, figured 
September 21st, 1872. 

See pp. 136—138. 

Plate CLIV. 

A. J. We:'': 

"ray Lmp. 

W. BUCKLER del. 


Ebulea crocealis. 

1, larva after final moult ; in a white web between 
united leaves of Inula dysenterica, figured 1st 
June, 1871 ; moths out 5th to 11th July, 1871. 

See pp. 138—140. 

Ebulea verbascalis. 

2, larva after final moult; on Teucrium scoro- 
donia; figured 29th September, 1876. 

See pp. 141 — 144. 

Ebulea stachydalis. 

3, 3 a, 3/>, larvae in various stages of growth; in 
white web under leaves of Stachys sylvatica; figured 
11th and 18th September, 1876. 

See pp. 144 — 148. 

Ebulea sambuoalis. 

4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvaB in various stages of growth ; 
on elder, 4th September, 1863, imago emerging 
18th June, 1864; on Convolvulus major, figured 7th 
and 14th September, 1867, imago emerging 2nd to 
8th July, 1868 ; under leaves of young elder 
bushes, 19th September, 1876, imagos emerging 
2nd and 11th July, 1877. 

See pp. 145 — 148. 

PLATE GLIV— continued. 


5, 5 a 9 5 b, larvae after final moult; on cabbage, 
6th December, 1861, on horse-radish, 30th July, 
1862, and on turnip, 27th September, 1864 ; imagos 
emerged 10th to 15th June, 1865. 

See pp. 151—152. 


6, larva after final moult ; on seeds of Sinapis 
alba and 8. arvensis, 26th August, 1864. 


7, 7 a, 7 b, larvse after final moult ; on Barbarea 
vulgaris, from eggs obtained by Mr. Wm. R. 
Jeffrey ; figured 31st August, and 1st and 7th 
September, 1881. 

See pp. 152—157. 

Spilodes sticticalis. 

8, 8 a, larvae after final moult; on mugwort, 
10th July, imago emerging 1st August, 1866. 

See pp. 157—158. 

Spilodes palealis. 

9, 9 a, 9 b, larvae in various stages of growth ; in 
seed-heads of Daucus carota, figured 4th September, 
1875 ; one moth forced out 20th September, 1877. 

See pp. 159—162. 

Plate CLV. 

2 a 

*^«W$ r 

3 li 

... •'..■Yf ' 



8 a. 


PVKTrap imp. 




1, larva after final moult ; on bramble, sent by 
Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher, 28th June ; three imagos 
bred 18th to 21st July, 1881. 

See pp. 162—164. 


2, 2 a, 2 5, larvae in various stages of growth ; in 
curled-up leaf of stinging-nettle, 10th May, imago 
emerging 12th June, 1871 ; young in a slight web 
under turned-down leaves of Stachys sylvatica, 11th 
October, 1876; 2 a, on Mercurialis per ennis, 15th 
April, moth bred 6th June, 1878. 

See pp. 165—168. 


3,3 a, 3 b, 3 c, 3 d, larvae in various stages of 
growth; one figured 11th June, 1860; on bramble, 
30th May, imago emerging 10th July, 1864; on 
ivy, 1876 ; young ones figured 14th to 16th October, 
1876; 3 d, on honeysuckle, figured 4th June, imago 
emerging 9th July, 1871 ; 3 a, on dog's-mercury, 
figured 4th May, imago emerging 18th June, 1878. 

See pp. 168—172. 


4, 4 a, 4 b, 4 c, larvae after final moult ; between 
leaves of Eupatorium cannabinum, figured 5th 
October, 1876 ; imago emerged 24th August, 1877 ; 
4, one of a brood reared from eggs, figured 24th 
October, 1877; 4 c figured 5th October, 1867. 

See pp. 172—177. 

PLATE CLV— continued. 


5, 5 a, larvae after final moult ; in wall-moss, 
figured 26th May, imagos appearing 23rd June and 
5th July, 1870. ' 


6, 6 a, 6 b, 6 c, 6 d, larvae in various stages of 
growth ; 6 e, enlarged figure of two segments of 6 ; 
in wall-moss, figured 25th May, imagos emerging 
29th June and 3rd July, 1870 ; in moss on roof of 
tiles, figured 9th April, moth emerging 5th July, 
1877 ; 6, 6 e, three larvse on moss from sea-cliff, 
Mr. C. G. Barrett, figured 24th April, moth out 
7th July, 1878 ; 6 a, two or three larvas on moss 
on oak and ash, Mr. C. G. Barrett, figured 25th 
April, moths out 27th June and 1st July, 1875 ; 
6 d, in moss on oak and ash. 

See pp. 190—191. 


7, larva after final moult ; 7 a, enlarged figure of 
two segments ; on lichens, Mr. J. H. Threlfall, 
figured 27th June ; moth bred 13th July, 1881. 

See pp. 195—196. 


8, larva after final moult ; 8 a, enlarged figure of 
two segments ; on short moss on ruins of West 
Gate, Pembroke ; figured 9th August ; moths bred 
from 26th August to 4th September, 1878. 

See pp. 196—198. 

Plate CLVI. 



5 a. 



8. * 



PW 11 Trap imo. 

W. BUCKLER <&/. 


Gam.eiua mellonella. 

1, 1 a, larvae after final moult; 1 on hive wax, 
figured June 14th, 1875 ; 1 a, several with a mass 
of cocoons amongst hive wax, figured July 26th, 
imagos appearing July 28th, and August 8th to 21st, 

See pp. 199—201. 


2, larva after final moult; in wasps' nests, feed- 
ing on the papery substance ; figured August 5th, 
1871 ; imagos emerged June 22nd to July 9th, 

See pp. 201—202. 


3, larva after final moult; on beehive wax; 
figured May 23rd, imago emerging September 3rd, 

See pp. 202—203. 

Anerastia lotella. 

4, larva after final moult ; 4 a, 4 />, 4 c, 4 d, 4 e, 
larval cases and cocoons ; at root-crowns of Ammo- 
phila arenaria; figured June 11th, imago emerging- 
June 29th, 1870. 

See pp. 203—206. 

PLATE 0LV1— continued. 

Ephestia elutella. 

5, 5 a, larvae in various stages of growth ; on dog 
biscuit, figured May 23rd, 1871 ; and on an old 
cloth coat and dog biscuit, figured December 23rd, 
1872; imagos emerged July 7th to 11th, 1873. 

See pp. 206—207. 

Ephestia passulella. 

6, larva after final moult ; on locust beans, Mr. 
Sydney Webb, figured April 8th, 1882 ; moths bred 
April 30th, May 12th, June 1st, and July 4th to 
24th, 1882. 

See pp. 209—211. 

Ephestia ficella. 

7, 7 a, larvae after final moult ; 7, on Turkey figs, 
figured January 16th, 1865; 7 a, one on Turkey 
figs, found January, figured May 11th, imago ap- 
pearing 17th August, 1871. 

See pp. 212—213. 

Ephestia (Plodia) interpunctella. 

8, larva after final moult ; 8 a, head and anterior 
segments magnified ; on malt ; figured ^December 

27th, 1872. 

See pp. 214—216. 

Myelois (Ephestia) pinguis. 

9, larva after final moult; 9a, pupa in broken 
cocoon, in bark of ash tree; larva figured July 14th, 
pupa figured July 23rd, moths bred August 2nd and 
15th, 1877. 

See pp. 240—243. 

Plate CLVH. 


4 a. 


A J Wetxdellith. 

; WJl Trap imp. 



Ephestia artemisiella (cinerosella), 

1, larva after final moult ; 1 a, larva in situ ; 1 6, 
cocoon in situ ; 1 c, pupa in situ ; 1 d, 1 e, two puparia 
of Lissonota hortorum, the destructive parasite of 
this species ; 1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, two larvae, cocoon, and 
pupa, in root-stalks of Artemisia absinthium. 

See pp. 216—219. 


2, larva after final moult ; in flower-seeded head 
of Carduus nutans ; figured September 2nd, 1869. 

See pp. 219—220. 


3, 3 a, 3 b, larvae in various stages of growth ; on 
seeds of ragwort, figured September 4th, 1869, 
imagos emerging August 4th to 14th, 1870; 3, on 
seeds of yarrow, figured August 31st, 1861. 

See pp. 220—221. 


4, 4 a, larvae after final moult; in flower-heads 
of Carduus tenuiflorus and G. lanceolatus, figured 
August 20th, 1875, moth bred in July, 1876 ; in 
heads of Gnicus lanceolatus, figured August 24th, 
1878, moth bred August 13th, 1879. 

See pp. 222—223. 


5, larva after final moult, 5 a, larva and frass- 
covered web on ragwort ; in stems of ragwort ; 
figured July 19th, moths out August 12th, 1870. 

See pp. 224—225. 

PLATE OLYII— continued. 


6, larva after final moult, 6 a, cocoon ; in root- 
stocks of Plantago lanceolata, Tenby, Pembroke- 
shire ; figured September Gth, 1878 ; moth bred 
August 14th, 1879. 

See pp. 225—229. 

Plate CLVm. 




8 a. 


AJWrndsl hth. 

10 a. 

P.WM.Trap imp. 

W. BUCKLER del. 


Acrobasis (Nephopteutx) angustella. 

1, larva after final moult ; in fruit of Euonymus 
europxus; figured September 30th, 1868; imagos 
emerged July 18th to 20th, 1869. 

See pp. 230—233. 

Cryptoblabes bisthiga. 

2, larva after final moult; skeletonising folded 
oak leaves ; figured September 23rd, 1875 ; moth 
bred June 4th, 1876. 

See pp. 233—234. 

Myelois cribrum. 

3, 3 a, larvae in various stages of growth, 3 fr, 
bored thistle stems, showing exit-hole ; figured 
May 2nd, imago appearing July 31st, 1865 ; in 
stems of Onopordium acanthium, December, 1871, to 
April 13th, 1872, imagos appearing July 12th to 
18th, 1872. 

See pp. 234—236. 

Acrobasis (Rhodoph^ea) consociella. 

4, larva after final moult; gregarious, in 
puckered leaves of oak, rather young trees, spun 
up in masses ; figured June 4th, imagos appearing 
July 1st to 5th, 1870. 

See pp. 229—230. 

Myelois (Ehodoph^a) suavella. 

5, larva after final moult, on its food-plant; in 
galleries of frass-covered web on stunted sloe 
bushes; figured June 2nd, imagos appearing July 
19th and 20th, 1874. 

See pp. 236—238. 

PLATE CLVIII— continued. 

Myelois (Rhodoph^a) marmorea. 

6, larva after final moult ; on blackthorn ; figured 
May 18th, 1871. 

See pp. 238—240. 


7, 7 a, 7 b, larvse after final moult, slightly 
magnified, 7 c, enlargement of two segments, 7 d, 
cocoon ; on Salsola kali, figured August 31st, 1871 ; 
several figures not reproduced, mining young in 
the stems and shoots of S. kali, when full-grown 
are in little webs on the steins, figured August 31st, 
1871, the moths emerging August 13th to 
September 2nd, 1872. 

See pp. 244—249. 

Nephopteryx (Phycis) ABIETELLA. 

8, 8 a, 8 b, larvae in various stages of growth, 8 c, 
hibernaculum ; in cones of spruce fir, figured 
August 27th and September 22nd, 1874; 8 b, 
figured September 14th, 1877, moth out June 14th, 
1878 ; 8 c, the hibernaculum or round winter 
cocoon, sent by Dr. Wood, figured October 23rd, 

See pp. 249—255. 

Nephopteryx (Phycis) roborella. 

9, 9 a, larvse after final moult, slightly magnified, 
actual length of 9, ten lines; 9, on oak, under web, 
sent by Rev. J. Hellins, figured May 22nd, moth 
bred August 4th, 1882 ; 9 a, several beaten from 
oak by Rev. J. Hellins, figured May 31st, moths 
bred August 4th to 7th, 1882. 

See pp. 255—258. 

Pempelia (Phycis) betul^e. 

10, 10a, larvae after final moult; in a web in 
curled leaves of birch ; figured June 9th and 14th, 
moths out July 3rd and 9th, 1877. 

See pp. 278—280. 

Plate CLIX. 


A J.Wer.iel lith 

W. BUCKLER del. 

PWM.Trap imp. 


Pempelia carnella. 

1, 1 a, 1 b, 1 c, larvae in various stages of growth, 
1 d, pupa ; on Lotus corniculatus ; 1 figured July 
3rd, 1 a figured July 11th, 1 b figured July 26th, 
1 c figured August 1st, and 1 d figured August 
25th, 1879. 

See pp. 258—265. 

Pempelia davisella. 

2, larva after final moult ; on furze ; figured July 
23rd, 1873. 

See pp. 280—282. 

Pempelia dilutella (subornatella). 

3, larva after final moult; in galleries amongst 
Thymus serjpyllum; figured June 24th, 1878; also 
found July 2nd, ? imago emerging September 5th, 

See pp. 265—270. 

Pempelia Formosa. 

4, 4 a, larvse after final moult ; on elm ; figured 
July, 1868 ; pupated in rotten wood ; imagos 
emerged July 12th, 1869. 

See pp. 273—275. 

Pempelia hostilis. 

5, larva after final moult ; between united leaves 
of aspen, sent bv Dr. Wood ; figured September 
23rd, 1879. 

See pp. 275—278. 

PLATE CL1X— continued. 

Chilo mucronellus. 

6, larva, after final moult, 6 a, stem of Garex 
containing it ; in Garex, sent by Lord Walsingham ; 
larva figured July 11th, 1881; stem figured June 
9th 5 1883. 

See pp. 319 — 320. 

Chilo phkagmitellus. 

7, 7 a, larvae after final moult, 7 b, reed containing 
one; in stems of reeds, figured February 12th and 
March 2nd, moths out June 4th and July 2nd, 1869 ; 
1 b, the hole and gnawed end is the sign of a larva 
in the stem. 

See pp. 321—323. 

Plate CLX. 


14 a. 



PVra.Trsf imp. 


Crambus cerussellus. 

1, larva after final moult; figured 5th May, 


See p. 284. 


2, larva after final moult; in sods of moss on 
tops of stone walls, sent by Dr. Wood ; figured 
11 th June, moths out 12th and 15th August, 1879. 

See pp. 285—286. 

Crambus dumetellus. 

3, larva after final moult ; reared from the egg 
on grass; figured 26th May, 1879. 

See pp. 289—290. 

Crambus culmellds. 

4, larva after final moult ; on a fine hair-like 
grass, received full-fed, 30th June, from Mr. J. 
Gardner, of Hartlepool. 

See pp. 292—295. 

Crambus inquinatellus. 

5, larva after final moult ; reared from eggs sent 
by Mr. Sydney Webb ; figured 18th November, 

See pp. 298—299, 

PLATE CLX— continued. 


G, 6 a, larvae after final moult, G b, mass of 
cocoons, G c, pupa case; on Triticum junceum 
from Yarmouth denes ; figured 11th June, imago 
emerging 19th July, 1870. 

See pp. 295—297. 

Crambus geniculeus. 

7, larva after final moult ; a brood reared from 
the egg on a grass turf; figured 2Gth April, moths 
bred 2nd to 25th August, 1878. 

See pp. 299—301. 

Crambus salinellus (contaminellus). 

8, larva after final moult ; in tubular web galleries 
on Poa maritima and P. borreri, 2Gth May ; figured 
11th June, moths bred 17th July to 7th August, 

See pp. 302—305. 

Crambus selasellus. 

9, larva after final moult ; under stones near 
roots of Sjpartina sp., Poa maritima, and Hordeum 
maritimum; figured 17th May, moth bred 13th 
July, 1878. 

See pp. 305—307. 

Crambus tristellus. 

10, larva after final moult ; on Aira flexuosa, 
reared from the egg ; figured 24th April, imago 
emerging 11th August, 1875. 

See pp. 307—309, 

PLATE CLX— continued. 


1 1 , larva after final moult ; reared from the egg 
on Eriophorum vaginatum; figured 9th May, imago 
emerging 22nd July, 1873. 

See pp. 310—312. 

Crambus latistrius. 

12, case of sand ; figured 3rd June, imago 
emerging 29th August, 1861. 

Crambus perlellus. 

13, 13 a, larvae in various stages of growth; 
reared from the egg ; figured 3rd April, 1882, and 
17th May, 1883. 

See pp. 313—315. 

Crambus warringtonellus. 

14, 14 a, larvaa after final moult ; reared from the 
egg ; 14 sent by Mr. J. Gardner, figured 8th June, 
1881 ; 14 a sent by Mr. W. H. B. Fletcher figured 
11th June, 1881. 

See pp. 316—318. 

Plate CLXI. 






4 b. 


A. J. Wend. 1 Bth. 


n -'iip 



1, 1 a, larvae after final moult, 1 b, cocoon ; on 
oak; larvae figured October 19th, I860, and Sep- 
tember 21st, 1867 ; cocoon figured October 4th, 

Chloephora quercana. 

2, larva after final moult, 2 a, cocoon, 2 6, 
pupa; on oak; figured May 16th, 1862; imagos 
emerged July 8th, 1862, and June 25th, 1872. 


3, larva after final moult, 3 a, cocoon ; in shoots 
of osier ; larva figured July 9th, spinning up July 
11th and 12th, 1875 ; pupa and cocoon figured 
April 7th, 1876; imagos emerged June 11th and 
13th, 1876. 

See pp. 323—325. 

Sarrothripa revayana. 

4, larva after final moult, 4 a, cocoon, 4 6, pupa; on 
oak; figured June 23rd, moth bred July 14th, 1881. 

See p. 326. 


5, larva after final moult ; on ivy ; figured May 
31st, imago emerging July 3rd, 1876. 

See pp. 326—327. 


6, larva after final moult ; on snowberry ; figured 
June 3rd, 1864. 

PLATE CLXI— continued. 


7, larva after final moult ; in dry oak leaves 
folded together longitudinally; figured October 17th, 

See p. 328. 

Caepooapsa P0M0NELLA. 

8, larva after final moult, 8 a 9 8 &, cocoons spun 
under bark of pear tree ; figured March 27th, moth 
appearing July 9th, 1869. 

Cnephasia SUBJBCTANA. 

9, larva after final moult ; in flowers of yellow- 
rattle ; figured May 24th, imago appearing June 
27th, 1869. 


10, pupa case and cocoon ; on oak ; pupa spun up 
in rather a fiddle-shaped cocoon ; figured June 1st, 
1869 ; imago appeared February 23rd, 1870. 

Plate CLXTI. 

1 a 


^9 s. 





PWN.Trsp imp 



1, larva in case, 1 a, case ; figured March 29th, 
1860 ; larva dirty white, darkening towards the 
head, which is black ; collar dark, intensely brown 
and highly polished, and the next two segments also 
plated, anal segment rusty colour, and a hump on 
the tenth segment. 

Hyponomeuta viginti punctatus. 

• 2, larva alter final moult ; on Sedum telephium, in 
a web; figured June 23rd, imagos emerging partly 
from July 14th to 17th, 1865, the rest out in May, 

Hyponomeuta padellus. 

3, larva after final moult ; on hawthorn ; figured 
June 2nd, imago appearing July 7th, 1864. 

Hyponomeuta evonymellus. 

4, larva after final moult ; on spindle ; figured 
June 12th, 1862. 

Plutella porrectella. 

5, larva after final moult ; in twisted shoots and 
leaves of Hesj^eris matronalis ; figured April, 1864 ; 
imago emerged June, 1864. 


6, larva after final moult, slightly magnified ; 
inside stems of bur-reed; figured July 10th, imagos 
appearing July 30th to August 4th, 1866. 

Depressaria costosa. 

7, 7 a, larvae after final moult ; on broom ; figured 
June 2nd, imagos emerged July 31st, 1864. 

PLATE CLXII— continued. 

Depressaria nervosa. 

8, larva after final moult; on water-dropwort ; 
figured July 1st, imago emerging July 27th, 1864. 

Deprussaria badiella. 

9, 9 a, 9 b, larvae in various stages of growth ; 
feeding on the under side of leaves of a stunted 
variety of Hypochceris radicata, sent by Mr. W. H. 
B. Fletcher; figured June 16th and July 12th, 

1882, and July 4th and 5th, 1883. 

See pp. 329—333. 

Depressaria hebacliana. 

10, larva after final moult; in stems of cow- 
parsnip; figured July 31st, imago emerging August 
22ud, 1865. 

Gelechia domestica. 

11, larva after final moult, magnified; in short 
wall-moss from Pembroke ; figured May 4th, 1878. 

See pp. 333—334. 

Endrosis fenestrella. 

12, larva after final moult; found under a dusty 
board and fed on old bran ; figured April 14th, 
moth bred May 18th, 1882. 

See pp. 334—335. 


13, 13 a, 13 b, larvae in various stages of growth; 
on barn sweepings; 13 a found in pot 38, March 31st, 

1883, 13, April 19th ; 13 a bred June 26th, 13 
bred July 25th, 1883 ; 13 b on dog biscuit, figured 
December 17th, 1872, imago emerging July 7th, 


14, 14 a, larvae in various stages of growth, 14 b 9 
mine in leaf; figured October 15th, 1859. 

Plate CLXni. 

3 a. 

3b.M 3 c. 




2 a. 

2 c. 

, r 

*1 4, "•■• ;;;: ^ 



9 a. 



W. BUCKLER del. 


Adaotyla bennetii. 

1, larva after final moult, 1 <x, pupa ; on Statice 
limonium ; larva figured April 29th, pupa May 10th, 

See pp. 335—336. 

Pterophorus rhododactylus. 

2, 2 a, 2 b, larvae in various stages of growth, 2 c, 
pupa; on flower-buds of Rosa canina ; figured June 
22nd, moths bred July 7th and 16th, 1877. 

See pp. 337—338. 

Pterophorus ochrodactylus (dichrodaotylus). 

3, 3 a, larvae after final moult, 3 b, 3 c, pupae ; on 
tansy; larvae figured June 8th, pupae figured June 
17th, moths out June 28th to July 5th, 1875. 

See pp. 338—340. 

Pterophorus isodactylus. 

4, 4 a, larvae in various stages of growth, 4 b, 
pupa, 4 c, enlarged view of segment; in seed-heads, 
shoots, and stems of Senecio aquaticus; figured 
August 16th, imagos emerging August 20th and 
September 2nd, 1871 ; also figured May 10th, 
imagos emerging June 6th to 17th, 1872. 

See pp. 343—347. 

Pterophorus aoanthodaotylus. 

5, larva after final moult; on flowers of rest- 
harrow ; figured July 31st, imago emerging August 
31st, 1862. 

See pp. 350—352. 

PLATE CLXIII— continued. 

Pterophorus punctidacttlus (cosmodactylus). 

6, 6 a, larvae after final moult ; on seeding flower- 
spikes of S tacky s sylvatica ; figured September 1st, 
moths out September 15th, 1877. 

See pp. 352—354. 

Pterophorus hieracii (teucrii), 

7, larva after final moult, on young shoots and 
leaves of wood-sage (Teucrium scorodonia), feeding 
openly and exposed; figured May 16th, 1867. 

See pp. 354 — 357. 

Pterophorus ph^odaotylus. 

8, larva after final moult ; on rest-harrow ; 
figured May 31st, imagos emerging June 21st to 
24th, 1870. 

See pp. 357—358. 

Pterophorus plagiodactylus. 

9, 9 a, 9 b 9 9 c, larvse in various stages of growth, 
9 d, attacked food-plant, 9 e, pupa; 9 6, 9 d, mining 
in shoots of Scabiosa columbaria ; 9 a figured May 
21st, 1871, 9 figured May 10th, imago appearing 
June 17th, 1872; 9 c figured May 10th, imago 
appearing June 9th, 1872. 

See pp. 359—362. 

Plate CLXIV. 

i '■ laV# It 




6. 6a. 


:W 5C 

71 7, 


9 b //, 


10 a. 


Prop imp. 


Pterophorus lithodaotylus. 

1, la, lft, larvae after final moult; on fleabane, 
figured June 10th, 1861, and on foxglove, figured 
June 12th, 1862. 

See pp. 364—365. 

Pterophorus lienigianus. 

2, larva after final moult, 2 a, affected leaves of 
food-plant ; on mugwort, rolling up the wool 
beneath the leaves ; figured May 29th, imagos 
appearing July 7th, 1871. 

See pp. 366—368. 

Pterophorus tephradactylus. 

3, larva after final moult; on early leaves of 
golden-rod ; figured April 30th, imagos appearing 
May 30th to June 5th, 1870. 

See pp. 368—369. 

Pterophorus osteodactylus. 

4, 4 a, larvae after final moult ; on flowers and 
seeds of golden-rod ; figured October 18th, 1860, 
and September 26th, 1867. 

See pp. 369—370. 

Pterophorus miorodactylus. 

5, larva after final moult, 5 a, pupa, 5 b, affected 
shoot of food-plant, 5 c, enlarged figure of two seg- 
ments ; in flower-stems of Eupatorium cannabinum ; 
larva figured July 26th, pupa August 2nd, moths 
out August 8th to 19th, 1875. 

See pp. 370—372. 

PLATE CLXIY— continued. 

Pterophorus galactodactylus. 

6, 6 a, larvae after final moult ; on undersides of 
burdock leaves ; figured May 22nd, imago emerging 
June 14th, 1862. 

See pp. 373—375. 

Pterophorus spilodaotylus. 

7, larva after final moult, 7 <x, pupa ; on Marru- 
bium vulgare; figured September 3rd, moths bred 
September 29th to October 5th, 1878 ; a second 

See pp. 375—377. 

Pterophorus baliodactylus. 

8, larva after final moult, 8 a, pupa ; on Origanum 
vulgare; larva figured June 2nd, pupa figured June 
19th, moths bred July 15th to 18th, 1879. 

See pp. 378—379. 

Pterophorus pentadactylus. 

9, 9 a, larvae in various stages of growth, 9 b 9 
pupa; on Convolvulus sepium; figured June 12th 
and 26th, 1869, and May 22nd and 27th, 1872 ; 
imago appeared June 14th, 1872. 

See pp. 380—381. 

Aluoita polydaotyla. 

10, larva after final moult, 10 a, pupa ; feeding 
on flowers of honeysuckle ; larva figured July 7th, 
pupa figured July 24th, 1882 ; sent by Mr. W. H. 
B. Fletcher. 

See pp. 382—383. 











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Gardner, J., Esq., F.E.S., 6, Friar terrace, Hartlepool. 

Gascoigne, Major French, Lotherton Hall, Aberford, Leeds. 

Gatty, C. H., Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.E., F.L.S., Felbridge place, 

East Grinstead, Sussex. 
Geological Society, London, W. 
Gibson, Miss, Hill House, Saffron Walden, Essex. 
Glasgow Natural History Society, 20/, Bath street, Glasgow. 
Glasgow, Philosophical Society of, 207, Bath street, Glasgow. 
Glasgow, University of, Glasgow. 
Godman, F. Du Cane, Esq., F.R.S., 7, Carlos place, W., and South 

Lodge, Horsham. 
Gottingen, University of, Germany. 
Green, E. Ernest, Esq., F.E.S., Royal Botanic Gardens, Paradeniya, 

Green, J. F., Esq., West Lodge, Blackheath, S.E. 
Green, R. Y., Esq., 11, Lovaine crescent, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Greene, Rev. J., M.A., F.E.S., Rostrevor, Clifton, Bristol. 

Haileybury College, near Hertford. 

Halifax Public Library, Halifax. 

Harley, Dr. J., F.L.S., 9, Stratford place, W. 

Harmer, Sidney F., Esq., D.Sc, King's College, Cambridge. 

Harrison, A., Esq., F.C.S., F.R.M.S., F.E.S., 72, Windsor road, 

Forest Gate, E. 
Harrison, F., Esq., Junior United Service Club, Charles street, S.W. 
Harvard College, Cambridge, U.S.A. 


Hawkshaw, J. C, Esq., M.A., M.Inst.C.E., 3,3, Great George street, 

Westminster, S.W. 
Hertfordshire Natural History Society and Field Club, Watford. 
Hicks, A. Braxton, Esq., 20, Lupus street, S.W. 
Hilton, James, Esq., 60, Montagu square, W. 

Hinchliff, Miss Katharine M., Worlington House, Instow, North Devon. 
Hood, Donald W. C, Esq., M.D. (Cantab.), 43, Green street, Park 

lane, W. 
Hooker, Sir J. D., C.B., M.D., F.R.S., Sunningdale, Berks. 
Hope, G. P., Esq., Upminster Hall, near Romford. 
Hopkinson, John, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S., Assoc.Inst.C.E., Treasurer, 

Weetwood, Watford ; and 84, New Bond street, W. 
Horley, W. L., Esq., Stanboroughs, Hoddesdon. 
Huddersfield Naturalists' Society, A. W. Whiteley, Esq., Hon. Sec, 

42, Westgate, Huddersfield. 
Hull Public Libraries, Hull. 

Hull Subscription Library, Royal Institution, Hull. 
Hutchinson, Miss E., Grantsfield, Leominster. 

Jones, Albert H., Esq., F.E.S., Shrublands, Eltham. 
Justen, F. W., Esq., 37, Soho square, W. 

Kane, W. F. de V., Esq., M.R.I.A , F.E.S., Drumreaske House, 

Monaghan, Ireland. 
Keays, F. Lovell, Esq., F.L.S., 26, Charles street, St. James's, S.W. 
Kenrick, G. H., Esq., F.E.S., Whetstone, Somerset road, Edgbaston, 

Kilmarnock Public Library, Kilmarnock. 
King, Messrs. Henry S. & Co., 65, Cornhill, E.C. 

Laver, H., Esq., F.L.S., 43, Head street, Colchester. 

Lea, Eev. T. S., St. Ambrose Vicarage, Widnes. 

Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, Leeds. 

Leeds Public Library, Leeds. 

Leeds, The Yorkshire College, Leeds. 

Leicester Free Library, Wellington street, Leicester. 

Leipzig, University of, Germany. 

Lemann, F.C., Esq., F.E.S., Black Friars House, Plymouth. 


Lewis, A., Esq., Sparrowwick, St. Albans, Herts. 

Lille University Library, France. 

Linnean Society, Burlington House, Piccadilly, W. 

Lister, Arthur, Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., Sycamore House, Leytonstone, 

Liverpool Athenaeum, Liverpool. 
Liverpool Free Library, Liverpool. 
Liverpool Microscopical Society, Liverpool. 
Liverpool, Royal Institution of, Liverpool. 
Lloyd, A., Esq., F.E.S., The Dome, Bognor, Sussex. 
London Institution, Finsbury circus, E.C. 
London Library, 12, St. James's square, S.W. 
Longstaff, G. 13., Esq., M.D., L.C.C., Highlands, Putney Heath, 

Loven, Professor, Stockholm. 
Loring, Mrs. F. W., Antonie House, Devonport. 
Lupton, H., Esq., F.E.S., Lyndhurst, North Grange road, Headingley. 

McGill, H. J., Esq., Aldenham Grammar School, Elstree, Herts. 

Mcintosh, Prof. W. C, M.D., F.R.S., 2, Abbotsford crescent, St. 
Andrews, N.B. 

McLachlan, R., Esq., F.R.S., F.L.S., West View, 23, Clarendon road, 
Lewisham, S.E. 

McMillan, W. S., Esq., F.L.S., Ardenholm, Maghull, Lancashire. 

Madras Government Museum, Madras. 

Majendie, Rev. W. R. S., M.A., St. Neot Vicarage, Liskeard, Corn- 

Major, L. B., Esq., Cromwell House, Croydon. 

Manchester Free Public Library, Manchester. 

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester. 

Mansel-Pleydell, J. C, Esq., F.L.S., F.G.S., Whatcombe, Blandford. 

Marlborough College Natural History Society, Marlborough. 

Mason, P. B., Esq., F.L,S., Burton-on-Trent. 

Mathew, G. F., Esq., R.N., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Lee House, Dovercourt, 
Harwich, Essex. 

Meiklejohn, Dr. J. W. S., F.L.S., 105, Holland road, Kensington, W. 

Melbourne Public Library, Australia. 

Mennell, H. T., Esq., F.L.S., 10, St. Dunstan's buildings, Idol lane, 

Michael, A. D., Esq., F.L.S., Cadogan Mansions, Sloane square, S.W. 


Microscopical Society, Royal, 20, Hanover square, W. 
Mitchell Library, 21, Miller street, Glasgow. 
Moore, Mrs. E. T., Holmfield, Oakholme road, Sheffield. 
Moss, Rev. A. M., A.M., 12, Greenside, Kendal. 
Munich Royal Library, Munich. 

Neave, B. W., Esq., 95, Queens road, Brownswood Park, N. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne Literary and Philosophical Society, Newcastle-on- 

Newcastle-on-Tyne Public Library, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Newstead, R., Esq., Grosvenor Museum, Chester. 

Noble, Sir Andrew, K.C.B., F.R.S., Jesmond Dene House, Newcastle- 

Norfolk and Norwich Library, Norwich. 

Norman, Rev. A. Merle, M.A , D.C.L., LL.D., F.L.S., The Red 
House, Berkhamsted, Herts. 

Nottingham Free Library, Nottingham. 

Nottingham Naturalists' Society, per J. H. Herbert, Esq., Hon. Sec, 
Hazlemont, The Boulevard, Nottingham. 

Oldfield, G. W., Esq., F.L.S., 21, Longridge road, Earl's Court, S.W. 
Owens College, Manchester. 
Oxford, Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Paisley Philosophical Institution, Paisley. 
Paris National Library, Paris. 
Peel Park Library, Salford, Lancashire. 

Perthshire Society of Natural Science, Museum, Tay street, Perth. 
Phene, J. S., Esq., LL.D., F.S.A., 5, Carlton terrace, Oakley street, S.W. 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, U.S.A. 
Pierce, F. Nelson, Esq., F.E.S., I, The Elms, Dingle, Liverpool. 
Plowman, T., Esq., Nystnen Lodge, Bycullah Park, Enfield, N. 
Plymouth Institution, Athenaeum, Plymouth. 
Pole-Carew, Miss C. L., Antony, Torpoint, Devonport. 
Porritt, G. T., Esq., F.L.S., Crosland Hall, near Huddersfield. 
Poulton, Prof. E. B., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., Wykeham House, Oxford. 
Power, H., Esq., M.B.(Lond.), F.L.S., 37a, Great Cumberland place, 
Hyde Park, W. 


Preston Free Public Library, Preston. 

Pye-Smitb, Dr. P. H., F.R.S., 48, Brook street, Cavendish square, W. 

Quekett Microscopical Club, 20, Hanover square, W. 

Radcliffe Library, Oxford. 

Raslileigh, J., Esq., Menabilly, Par Station, Cornwall. 

Reader, Thomas, Esq., Beaufort House, 125, Peckham Rye, S.E. 

Richardson, N. M., Esq., Monte Video, near Weymouth. 

Ripon, Marquis of, F.R.S., F.L.S., 9, Chelsea Embankment, S.W. 

Robertson, G., & Co., 17, Warwick square, Paternoster row, E.C. 

Robinson, Rev. F., The Rectory, Castle Eden, Co. Durham. 

Royal Academy of Sciences, Amsterdam. 

Royal Institution, Albemarle street, W. 

Royal Society, Burlington House, London, W. 

Samson and Wallin, Messrs., Stockholm. 

Sanders, Alfred, Esq., F.L.S., The Hawthorns, Caterham Valley, 

Schaff, Dr. E., Tudor House, Dundrum, co. Dublin. 
Science and Art Department, South Kensington, S.W. 
Sclater, P. L., Esq., M. A.,Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., 3, Hanover square, W. 
Seaborne, C. E., Esq., Watcombe Hall, Torquay. 
Sharpus, F. W., Esq., 30, Compton road, Islington, N. 
Sheffield Literary and Philosophical Society, Leopold street, Sheffield. 
Sheldon, W. G., Esq., Heimath, Friends road, Croydon. 
Shillitoe, B., Esq., F.L.S., 2, Frederick place, Old Jewry, E.C. 
Sion College Library, Victoria Embankment, W.C. 
Sladen, Rev. C. A., Burton Vicarage, Neston, Chester. 
Smith, Basil Woodd, Esq., F.S.A., F.R.A.S., Branch hill, Hampstead, 

Smith, F. W., Esq., Hollywood, Lewisham hill, S.E. 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Taunton. 
Sotheran & Co., Messrs., 136, Strand, W.C. 
South London Entomological Society, Hibernia Chambers, London 

Bridge, S.E. 
Southport Free Library, Southport. 
Spicer Brothers, Messrs., 19, New Bridge street, Blackfriars, E.C. 


Sprague, T. B., Esq., 29, Buckingham terrace, Edinburgh. 
St. Albans Public Library, St. Albans, Herts. 
St. Andrews University Court, St. Andrews, N.B. 
Stearns, A. E., Esq., F.E.S., New Mills Cottage, Henley-on-Thames. 
Stevens, B. F., and Brown, Messrs., 4, Trafalgar square, W.C. 
Stewart, Prof. C, F.K.S., F.L.S., Royal College of Surgeons, Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, W.C. 
Stockholm Royal Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. 
Stockholm Royal Library, Stockholm. 
Straker, J. H., Esq., Howden Dene, Corbridge-on-Tyne. 
Strasbourg University Library, Strasbourg, Germany. 
Stubbins, J., Esq., F.G.S., Woodlands, Pool, near Leeds. 
Sunderland Library and Literary Society, Fawcett street, Sunderland. 

Terry, C, Esq., 6, Gay street, Bath. 

Thompson, I. C, Esq., F.L.S., F.R.M.S., 53, Croxteth road, Liver- 

Thornewill, Rev. C. F., F.E.S., Calverhall Vicarage, Whitchurch, 

Toronto, University of, Canada. 

Torquay Natural History Society, Museum, Babbacombe road, Torquay. 

Townsend, F., Esq.,M.A., M.P., F.L.S., Honington Hall, Shipston-on- 

Trimble, Mrs. James, Newstead, Shakespeare road, Bedford. 

Trondhjem, Royal Library of, Norway. 

Tunbridge Wells Natural History Society, Tunbridge Wells. 

Turner, Professor Sir William, F.R.S.E., University of Edinburgh. 

University College, London, W.C. 
Upsala, University of, Sweden. 

Vicary, William, Esq., F.G.S., The Priory, Colleton crescent, Exeter. 

Waldegrave, Earl, 20, Bryanston square, W. 

Walker, Alfred 0., Esq., F.L.S., Nant-y-Glyn, Colwyn Bay, Denbigh- 

Walker, Rev. Dr., F.L.S., Dun Mallard, Cricklewood, N.W. 


Walsingham, Thomas de Grey, Lord, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., Merton 

Hall, Thetford, Norfolk. * 
Warburg, J. C, Esq., 21, Pembridge gardens, W. 
Warrington Museum and Library, Warrington. 
Washington Library of Congress, U.S.A. 
Webb, S., Esq., Maidstone House, Dover. 
Wellington College, Berks. 
Welter, Mons. II., 39, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 
Wesley, E. F., Esq., A.K.C., 28, Essex street, Strand, W.C. 
West Kent Natural History Society, Herbert Jones, Esq., F.L.S., Hon. 

Treas., 15, Montpelier Row, Blackheath, S.E. 
Whittle, F. G., Esq., 3, Marine Avenue, Southend, Essex. 
Wickes, W. D., Esq., F.L.S., 3, Cumberland road, Acton, W. 
Wiltshire, Rev. Professor T., M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., Secretary, 25, 

Granville park, Lewisham, London, S.E. 
Wood, J. H., Esq., M.B., Tarrington, Ledbury. 
Wright, Professor E. P., M.D., F.L.S., Trinity College, Dublin. 

Yale University, New Haven, U.S. 
York Philosophical Society, York. 

Zoological Society, 3, Hanover square, W. 




JANUARY, 1901. 



For the First Year, 1844. 

I. Reports on the Progress of Zoology and Botany. Trans- 

lated by H. E. Strickland, Jan., M.A, F.R.S., E. Lan- 
kester, M.D., F.R.S., and W. B. Macdonald, B.A. 8vo. 

II. Memorials of John Bay: consisting of the Life of John 

Ray, by Derham ; the Biographical Notice of Ray, by 
Baron Cuvier and M. Dupetit Thouars, in the ' Biographic 
Universelle; ' Life of Ray, by Sir J. E. Smith : the Itine- 
raries of Ray, with Notes, by C. C. Babington and 
W. Yarrell. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. 8vo. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By J. Alder and A. Hancock. Part I. Ten Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Second Year, 1845. 

I. Steenstrnp on the Alternation of Generations. Translated 

from the German by George Busk, F.R.S. Three Plates. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By J. Alder and A. Hancock. Part II. Thirteen 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 


III. Reports and Papers on Botany, consisting of Translations 
from the German. Translated by W. B. Macdonald, B.A. ; 
G. Busk, F.R.S.; A. Henfrey, F.R.S. ; and J. Hudson, 
B.M. Seven Plates. 8vo. 

For the Third Year, 1846. 

I. Meyen's Geography of Plants. Translated from the German 

by Miss Margaret Johnston. 8vo. 

II. Burmeister on the Organization of Trilobites. Translated 

from the German, and edited by Professors T. Bell and 
E. Forbes. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 
By J. Alder and A. Hancock. Part III. Eleven 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Fourth Year, 1847. 

I. Oken's Elements of Physio-philosophy. Translated from 

the German by Alfred Tulk. 8vo. 

II. Reports on the Progress of Zoology. Translated from the 

German by G. Busk, A. H. Haliday, and A. Tulk. 8vo. 

III. A Synopsis of the British Naked-eyed Pulmograde Medusse. 
By Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S. Thirteen Plates. Imp. 

For the Fifth Year, 1848. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologize et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz 
Vol. I. 8vo. 


LI. Letters of John Ray. Edited by E. Lankester, M.D., 

F.R.S. Two Plates. 8vo. 
III. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca,, 

By J. Alder and A. Hancock. Part IV. Twelve Plates, 

Imp. 4to. 

For the Sixth Year, 1849. 

I. Reports and Papers on Vegetable Physiology and Botanical 

Geography. Edited by A. Henfrey, F.R.S. Three Plates. 

II. A Monograph of the British Entomostracous Crustacea. 

By W. Baird, M.D., F.R.S. Thirty-six Plates. 8vo. 

For the Seventh Year, 1850. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. II. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nadibranchiate Molluscn. 

By J. Alder and L A. Hancock. Part V. Fifteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Eighth Year, 1851. 

I. A Monograph of the British Angiocarpous Lichens. By the 

Rev. W. A. Leighton, M.A. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the Family Cirripedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. I. Ten Plates, 8vo, 


For the Ninth Year, 1852. 

I. Bibliographia Zoologise et Geologise. By Professor Agassiz. 

Vol. III. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

By J. Alder and A. Hancock. Part VI. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Tenth Year, 1853. 

I. A Monograph of the Family Cirri pedia. By C. Darwin, 

M.A., F.R.S. Vol. II. Thirty Plates. 8vo. 

II. Botanical and Physiological Memoirs, including Braun on 

Rejuvenescence in Nature. Six Plates. 8vo. 

For the Eleventh Year, 1854. 

Bibliographia Zoologiae et Geologiae. By Professor Agassiz. 
Vol. IV. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 

For the Twelfth Year, 1855. 

A Monograph of the British Nudibranchiate Mollusca. By 
J. Alder and A. Hancock. Part VII. Nine Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 

For the Thirteenth Year, 1856. 

A Monograph of the British Fresh-water Polyzoa. By Pro- 
fessor Ailman, F.R.S. Eleven Plates. Imp. 4to. 


For the Fourteenth Year, 1857. 

A Monograph of the Recent Foraminifera of Great Britain. 
By Professor Williamson, F.R.S. Seven Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Fifteenth Year, 1858. 

The Oceanic Hydrozoa. By Professor Huxley, F.R.S. Twelve 
Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Sixteenth Year, 1859. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
J. Blackwall, F.L.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. Imp. 4to 

For the Seventeenth Year, 1860. 

An Introduction to the Study of the Foraminifera. By W. B. 
Carpenter, M.D., F.R S., F.L.S. , &c, assisted by W. K. 
Parker, F.R.S., and T. Rupert Jones, F.G.S. Twenty- 
two Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Eighteenth Year, 1861. 

On the Germination, Development, and Fructification of the 
Higher Cryptogamia, and on the Fructification of the 
Coniferse. By Dr. Wilhelm Hofmeister. Translated by 
F. Currey, M.A., F.R.S., Sec. L.S. Sixty-five Plates. 


For the Nineteenth Year, 1862. 

A History of the Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland. By 
J. Blackwall, F.L.S. Part II. Seventeen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. (Completing the work.) 

For the Twentieth Year, 1863. 

The Reptiles of British India. By Albert C. L. G. GUnther, 
M.D., F.R.S. Twenty-six Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Twenty-first Year. 1864. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.I)., F.R.S. Vol. I. Thirty-seven Plates. 8vo. 

For the Twenty-second Year, 1865. 

I. The British Hemiptera Heteroptera. By J. W. Douglas 

and J. Scott. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By J. S. Bower- 

bank, LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 

For the Twenty-third Year, 1866. 

I. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 
D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. I, containing Geographico-botanical, 
and Structural and Phvsiological Memoirs. Edited bv 
J. J. Bennett, F.R.S. 8vo, 


I. Recent Memoirs on the Cetacea. By Professors Eschricht, 
Reinhardt, and Lilljeborg. Edited by W. H. Flower, 
F.R.S. Six Plates. Imp. 4to. 
III. Nitzch's Pterylography, translated from the German. 
Edited by P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Twenty-fourth Year, 1867. 

I. A. Monograph on the Structure and Development of the 

Shoulder-girdle. By W. K. Parker, F.R.S. Thirty Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 

D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. II. 8vo. 

For the Twenty-fifth Year, 1868. 
I. Vegetable Teratology. By M. T. Masters, M.D., F.L S. 


II. The Miscellaneous Botanical Works of Robert Brown, 
D.C.L., F.R.S. Vol. III. Thirty-eight Plates. Imp. 4to. 
(Completing the work.) 

For the Twenty-sixth Year, 1869. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part I. Twelve Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Twenty-seventh Year, 1870. 

A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids. 
By J. Allman, M.D., F.R.S. Part II. Eleven Plates. 
Imp. 4to, (Completing the work.) 


For the Twenty-eighth Year, 1871. 

A Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura. By Sir J. 
Lubbock, Bart., M.P., F.R.S. Seventy-eight Plates. 8vo. 

For the Twenty-ninth Year, 1872. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. Ten Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Thirtieth Year, 1873. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. By W. C. Mcintosh, 
M.D., F.R.S.E. Part I. continued. Thirteen Plates. 
Imp. 4to. 

For the Thirty-first Year, 1874. 

A Monograph of the British Spongiada?. By J. S. Bowerbank, 
LL.D., F.R.S. Vol. III. Ninety-two Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-second Year, 1875. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R S. Vol. I. Fortv-two Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty- third Year, 1876. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol. I. Thirtv-six Plates. 8vo. 


For the Thirty-fourth Year, 1877. 

A. Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. II. Fiftv Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-fifth Year, 1878. 

A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 
M.D., F.L.S. Vol.11. Forty- nine Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-sixth Year, 1879. 

I. A Monograph of the British Copepoda. By G. S. Brady, 

M.D., F.L.S. Vol. III. Eleven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the work.) 

II. A Monograph of the British Spongiadse. By the late 

J. S. Bowerbank, LL.D., F.R.S. Edited, with additions, 
by Rev. A. M. Norman, M.A., F.L.S. Vol. IV. Seven- 
teen Plates. 8vo. (Completing the work.) 

For the Thirty-seventh Year, 1880. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Bnckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. III. Twenty-eight Plates. 8vo. 

For the Thirty-eighth Year, 1881. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. 
By P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol.1. Twenty-one Plates. 8vo. 


For the Thirty-ninth Year, 1882. 

A Monograph of the British Aphides. By G. B. Buckton, 
F.R.S. Vol. IV. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. (Com- 
pleting the Work.) 

For the Fortieth Year, 1883. 

British Oribatiche. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. I. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-first Year, 1884. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol. II. Twenty-seven Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-second Year, 1885. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. I. 
The Butterflies. Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-third Year, 1886. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. II. 
The Hawk-Moths and part of the Bombyces. Eighteen 
Plates, 8vo, 


For the Forty-fourth Year, 1887. 

British Oribatidae. By A. D. Michael, F.L.S. Vol. II. 
Thirty-one Plates. 8vo. (Completing the Work.) 

For the Forty-fifth Year, 1888. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. III. 
The concluding portion of the Bombyces. Eighteen 
Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-sixth Y"ear, 1889. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol. III. Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty- seventh Year, 1890. 

The LarvEe of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by H. T. Stainton, F.R.S. Vol. IV. 
The first portion of the Noctuse. Sixteen Plates. 8vo. 

For the Forty-eighth Year, 1891. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited (in part) by the late H. T. Stainton, 
F.R.S. Vol. V. The second portion of the Noctuse. 
Seventeen Plates. 8vo. 


For the Forty-ninth Year, 1892. 

A Monograph of the British Phytophagous Hymenoptera. By 
P. Cameron, F.E.S. Vol. IV. Nineteen Plates. 8vo. 
(Completing the work.) 

For the Fiftieth Year, 1893. 

The Larvse of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by G. T. Porritt, F.L.S. Vol. VI. The 
third portion of the Noctua?. Nineteen Plates. 8vo. 

For the Fifty-first Year, 1894. 

The Larvse of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by G. T. Porritt, F.L.S. Vol. VII. 
The first portion of the Geometrse. Twenty-two Plates. 

For the Fifty-second Year, 1895. 

The Larvse of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the late 
W. Buckler, edited by G. T. Porritt, F.L.S. Vol. VIII. 
The second and concluding portion of the Geometrse. 
Twenty Plates. 8vo. 

For the Fifty-third Year, 1896. 

The Tailless Batrachians of Europe. Part I. By G. A. 
Boulenger, F.R.S. Ten Plates. 8vo. 


For the Fifty-fourth Year, 1897. 
rhe Tailless Batraclnaus of Europe. Part II. By G. A. 
Boulenger, F.R.S. Fourteen Plates. 8vo. (Completing 
the work.) 

For the Fifty-fifth Year, 1898. 

A Monograph of the British Annelids. Part II. By W. C. 
Mcintosh, M.D., F.R.S. Twenty Plates. Imp. 4to. 

For the Fifty-sixth Year, 1899. 

The Larvae of the British Butterflies and Moths. By the 
late W. Buckler, edited by G. T. Porritt, F.L.S. Vol. 
IX. The Deltoides, Py rales, Cram bites, Tortrices, Tiuese, 
and Pterophori, etc. Seventeen Plates. (Completing 
the work). 8vo.